nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2018‒06‒11
eleven papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Geographic Proximity and Science Parks By Link, Albert; Scott, John
  2. The Impact of Exports on Innovation: Theory and Evidence By Philippe Aghion; Antonin Bergeaud; Matthieu Lequien; Marc J. Melitz
  3. R&D financing and growth By Luca, Spinesi; Mario, Tirelli
  4. The 4th Industrial Revolution Strategy and Cooperation in China, India and Singapore By Cho, Choongjae; Song, Youngchu
  5. Analysing intermediary organisations and their influence on upgrading in emerging agricultural clusters By Ramirez, Matias; Clarke, Ian; Klerkx, Laurens
  6. Innovation and business performance for Spanish SMEs: new evidence from a multi-dimensional approach. By Alfonso Expósito; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  7. Tracing policy influence of diffuse interests: The post-crisis consumer finance protection politics in the US By Lisa Kastner
  8. The Impact of Formal Networking on the Performance of SMEs By Davide Vannoni
  9. New ventures in Cleantech: opportunities, capabilities and innovation outcomes By Lööf, Hans; Andreas, Andreas; Wulandari, Febi
  10. Do personal data related innovation boost firm value? By Koski, Heli
  11. Structural Change and Global Trade By Logan T. Lewis; Ryan Monarch; Michael J. Sposi; Jing Zhang

  1. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John (Dartmouth College)
    Abstract: Science parks, also called research parks, technology parks, or technopolis infrastructures, have increased rapidly in numbers as many countries adopted the approach of bringing together in a park research-based organizations. A science park’s cluster of research and technology-based organizations is often located on or near a university campus. The juxtaposition of ongoing research of both the university and of the park tenants creates a two-way flow of knowledge; knowledge is transferred between the university and firms, and all parties develop knowledge more effectively because of their symbiotic relationship. Theory and evidence support the belief that the geographic proximity that a science park provides for the participating organizations creates a dynamic cluster that accelerates economic growth and international competitiveness through the innovation-enabling exchanges of knowledge and the transfer of technologies. The process of creating innovations is more efficient because of the agglomeration of research and technology-based firms on or near a university campus. The proximity of a park to multiple sources of knowledge provides greater opportunities for the creation and acquisition of knowledge, especially tacit knowledge, and the geographic proximity therefore reduces the search and acquisition costs for that knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms by which the innovative performance of research and technology-based organizations is increased by their geographic proximity in a science park is important for formulating public and private sector policies toward park formations because successful national innovation systems require the two-way knowledge flow, among firms in a park and between firms and universities, that is fostered by the science park infrastructure.
    Keywords: science park; research park; technology park; geographic proximity; technology transfer; clusters; location; innovation; knowledge spillovers; patents; regional growth and development;
    JEL: O31 O32 O34 R11 R12
    Date: 2018–05–31
  2. By: Philippe Aghion; Antonin Bergeaud; Matthieu Lequien; Marc J. Melitz
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of export shocks on innovation. On the one hand a positive shock increases market size and therefore innovation incentives for all firms. On the other hand it increases competition as more firms enter the export market. This in turn reduces profits and therefore innovation incentives particularly for firms with low productivity. Overall the positive impact of the export shock on innovation is magnified for high productivity firms, whereas it may negatively affect innovation in low productivity firms. We test this prediction with patent, customs and production data covering all French manufacturing firms. To address potential endogeneity issues, we construct firm-level export proxies which respond to aggregate conditions in a firm's export destinations but are exogenous to firm-level decisions. We show that patenting robustly increases more with export demand for initially more productive firms. This effect is reversed for the least productive firms as the negative competition effect dominates.
    JEL: D12 F13 F14 F41 O30 O47
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Luca, Spinesi; Mario, Tirelli
    Abstract: R&D investment are an important engine of growth and development. Yet economists have often claimed underinvestment, also due to the asymmetric information between inside investors and outside investors and financiers, and the consequent capital and financial market imperfections. Some recent empirical evidence robustly supports these claims. Motivated by this evidence, we study the effects of asymmetric information and financial frictions on R&D investment within a dynamic GE economy of Shumpeterian tradition. The model and equilibrium concept we propose is rich enough to represent investment and innovation decisions, financial decisions and decisions regarding technology adoption/diffusion through patent licensing. Qualitative predictions indicate that the financial policy of the firm matters in explaining both entrepreneurial production and innovation decisions. Young R&D-intensive firms might rely more heavily on internal sources and equity than on debt financing, relatively to what would otherwise be observed in absence of frictions. These findings contribute to explain the type of financial hierarchy recently highlighted in the empirical studies.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, Shumpeterian growth, firm financial structure, asymmetric information, financial markets, general equilibrium.
    JEL: D5 D53 D92 O31 O33 O34 O4
    Date: 2018–04–30
  4. By: Cho, Choongjae (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Song, Youngchu (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This study focuses on analyzing China, India and Singapore's driving capability for the 4th IR, related national policies, plans, or strategies, etc. In addition, this study suggests implications and directions for the development of policies related to the 4th IR by the Korean government and the strengthening of cooperation with each of these three countries. In conclusion, we presents the following cooperation directions and policy tasks in respect to the three countries above. First, we need to enhance selective and strategic cooperation with China in the aspects of competition and response via the following strategies: 1) strengthening R&D projects for original technologies in new technology and industry areas, thus focusing on early commercialization and standardization; 2) developing strategies to actively utilize digitalized consumers in China and protecting domestic digital consumers and cross-border personal information; 3) advancing into the areas of 5G, smart manufacturing and robot-related fields in China; 4) enhancing collaboration in terms of internationalization of innovative entrepreneurial ecosystems; 5) pursuing agreements to address the issues of technology deception and technical protection. Second, we need to enhance all-round convergence and win-win cooperation with India through the following channels: 1) early enhancement of core SW technologies such as artificial intelligence, embedded and cloud computing via using India's excellent SW, IT service capability; 2) taking advantage of India's Big Data resources, including Aadhaar, the world's largest digital personal authentication system; 3) participating in smart manufacturing, digital infrastructure development with new technologies and products related to smart city initiatives, cooperation between start-ups in both countries; 4) to do this, we will need to consider utilizing the Vision Group of Korea-India Future Strategy; and 5) creating a Korea-India Innovation Venture Fund. Lastly, with Singapore, we need to strengthen innovation cooperation in policies and systems, education, R&D, and entrepreneurial ecosystems that underpin the 4th IR.
    Keywords: 4th industrial revolution strategy; China; India; Singapore
    Date: 2018–04–03
  5. By: Ramirez, Matias; Clarke, Ian; Klerkx, Laurens
    Abstract: This paper analyses intermediary organisations in developing economy agricultural clusters. The paper critically engages with a growing narrative in studies of intermediaries that have stressed the ownership structure of intermediaries as a key driver for enabling knowledge transfer, inter-firm learning and upgrading of small producers in clusters. Two case studies of Latin American clusters are presented and discussed. The study suggests that in addition to ownership structure, cluster governance and the embeddedness of intermediaries in clusters are critical factors that need to be taken into account in understanding the influence of intermediaries in the upgrading of small producers in clusters.
    Keywords: Intermediary; cluster; development; agriculture; inclusive development
    Date: 2017–11–14
  6. By: Alfonso Expósito (Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, University of Seville, Calle San Fernando 4, 41004 Sevilla (Spain).); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (Department of Economic Structure, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain).)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of product, process, and organisational innovations on two alternative dimensions of business performance: finance and operations. Two indicators capture financial performance: sales increase and production cost reduction. Operational firm performance is captured by two alternative indicators: productive capacity augmentation and quality improvement of product/service provided by the firm. Using a wide-ranging sample of Spanish SMEs, our findings highlight the existence of significant impacts of innovation on both these dimensions of business performance, although these impacts differ regarding the type of innovation and the performance indicator considered. Furthermore, our results indicate that the relationship between innovation choices in SMEs and business performance should be analysed from a multidimensional approach. These findings reveal significant implications for innovation policies and innovation strategies for SMEs.
    Keywords: innovation, business performance, multi-dimensional analysis, SME, Spain
    JEL: O32 L25 C25
    Date: 2018–05
  7. By: Lisa Kastner (Centre d'études européennes et de politique comparée)
    Abstract: Dodd–Frank, the financial reform law passed in the United States in response to the 2008 financial crisis, established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, a new federal regulator with the sole responsibility of protecting consumers from unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices. This decision marked the end of a highly politicized reform debate in the US Congress, in which proponents of the new bureau would normally have been considered to be much weaker than its opponents. Paradoxically, an emerging civil society coalition successfully lobbied decision-makers and countered industry attempts to prevent industry capture. What explains the fact that rather weak and peripheral actors prevailed over more resourceful and dominant actors? The goal of this study is to examine and challenge questions of regulatory capture by concentrated industry interests in the reform debates in response to the credit crisis which originated in the US in 2007. The analysis suggests that for weak actors to prevail in policy conflicts over established, resource-rich opponents, they must undertake broad coalition building among themselves and with influential elite allies outside and inside of Congress who share the same policy goals.
    Keywords: Financial crisis; Financial regulation; Consumer protection; Interest groups; Lobbying
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Davide Vannoni (Department of Economics and Statistics)
    Abstract: Using a large sample of Italian small and medium enterprises (SMEs), we investigate the effect of membership in a formal business network (?contratto di rete?) on firms? economic performance. We find that network participation has a positive effect on value added and exports, but not on profitability. The advantages of networking are stronger in the case of: smaller SMEs, firms operating in traditional and in more turbulent markets, firms located in less developed areas and firms not already exploiting the weaker ties offered by industrial districts. Network characteristics, such as size, geographical dispersion and diversity, are also found to influence performance.
    Keywords: formal business network, small and medium firms, economic performance
    JEL: D22 L25 M21
    Date: 2018–04
  9. By: Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Andreas, Andreas (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Wulandari, Febi (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS))
    Abstract: Facing the challenge of climate change, innovations that imply environmental benefits create business opportunities for entrepreneurs. This paper analyzes innovation capabilities of startups in Cleantech and how the innovation outcomes of those startups develop over time. Based on the Mannheim Foundation Panel and applying propensity score matching, a cohort of 566 Cleantech startups is analyzed and compared with a control group of non-Cleantech startups. We find that startups in Cleantech have, on average, higher innovation capabilities compared with all startups. However, Cleantech startups are a heterogeneous group including ventures using common technology and those developing new technology. Our econometric evidence shows that, ceteris paribus, Cleantech startups are more likely to combine existing technology in a novel way. Finally, we find that Cleantech startups do, on average, develop more market novelties in later years compared to theirs peers.
    Keywords: Innovative startups; green innovations; Cleantech; capabilities; policies
    JEL: M13 O13 O25 O31
    Date: 2018–06–01
  10. By: Koski, Heli
    Abstract: Personal data is increasingly used in business value creation. Data from the years 2007–2014 suggest that firms’ personal data related innovations and knowledge stocks in technology domains of location-based services and artificial intelligence contributed substantially to firm value. The premiums gained from personal data related innovation were particularly significant for data giants holding knowledge stocks in the location-based service domain. Empirical findings indicate that a strong positive relationship between personal data related knowledge stocks of the location-based services domain and firm value relates primarily to investor attention intensified during periods of media hype. The data provide new insights into the market valuation of intangible assets: investors seem to overweight more salient right tails of firms’ knowledge stocks of emerging technologies while neglecting salient left tails.
    Keywords: Firm value, data economy, personal data, innovation, investor attention, technology salience
    JEL: D22 L2 O3
    Date: 2018–05–25
  11. By: Logan T. Lewis; Ryan Monarch; Michael J. Sposi; Jing Zhang
    Abstract: Services, which are less traded than goods, rose from 50 percent of world expenditure in 1970 to 80 percent in 2015. Such structural change restrained "openness"—the ratio of world trade to world GDP—over this period. We quantify this with a general equilibrium trade model featuring non-homothetic preferences and input-output linkages. Openness would have been 70 percent in 2015, 23 percentage points higher than the data, if expenditure patterns were unchanged from 1970. Structural change is critical for estimating the dynamics of trade barriers and welfare gains from trade. Ongoing structural change implies declining openness, even absent rising protectionism.
    Keywords: Globalization ; Structural change ; International trade
    JEL: F41 L16 O41
    Date: 2018–04–10

This nep-cse issue is ©2018 by João José de Matos Ferreira. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.