nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒12‒18
fourteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. Is the Fuel Cell Vehicle’s Technological Innovation System built at a global or national scale? An analysis of carmakers\' co-patents’ portfolios By Vincent FRIGANT; Stéphane MIOLLAN; Maëlise PRESSE; David VIRAPIN
  3. Potential Impact of Financial Innovation on Financial Services and Monetary Policy By Marek Dabrowski
  4. Does manufacturing stir up innovation? By Alex Coad; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Technologietransfer und Spillovereffekte ausländischer Tochterunternehmen in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern By Christoph Schmierer
  6. How Stress Affects Performance and Competitiveness across Gender By Jana Cahlikova; Lubomir Cingl; Ian Levely
  7. The Roles of Knowledge Management for the Development of Organizations By Mohajan, Haradhan
  8. The potential and impact of ICT-enabled Social Innovation to promote social investment in the EU By Gianluca Misuraca; Giulio Pasi; Maria Cesira Urzi Brancati
  9. Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations By Mohajan, Haradhan
  10. Knowledge is an Essential Element at Present World By Mohajan, Haradhan
  11. Knowledge Sharing Enhances Knowledge Management Environment and Efficiency By Mohajan, Haradhan; Islam, Shahidul; Shome, Falguni
  12. Innovation Trends and Industrial Renewal in Finland and Sweden 1970-2013 By Kander, Astrid; Taalbi, Josef; Oksanen, Juha; Sjöö, Karolin; Rilla, Nina
  13. Smart Specialisation at work: The entrepreneurial discovery as a continuous process By Elisabetta Marinelli; Inmaculada Perianez Forte
  14. Gender and Labor Markets in Tunisia’s Lagging Regions By Lucia Hanmer; Edinaldo Tebaldi; Dorte Verner

  1. By: Baum, Christopher F (Department of Economics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA and Department of Macroe- conomics, DIW Berlin); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Nabavi, Pardis (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper studies firms' capability to recombine internal and local knowledge. It measures the outcome in terms of total productivity growth.Using Swedish data on commuting time for face-to-face contacts across all 290 municipalities, we employ a time sensitive approach for calculating localized knowledge within a municipality and and its close neighbors. Internal knowledge is captured by register data on firms' innovation intensity. The two sources of knowledge are modeled in a production function setting by discrete composite variables with different combinations of input factors. Applying the model on Swedish firm level panel data, we find strong evidence of differences in the capacity to benefit from external knowledge among persistent innovators, temporary innovators and non-innovators. The results are consistent regardless of whether innovation efforts are measured in terms of the frequency of patent applications or the level of R&D investment.
    Keywords: Innovation strategies; localized knowledge; patents; TFP growth; panel data
    JEL: C23 O31 O32
    Date: 2017–12–12
  2. By: Vincent FRIGANT; Stéphane MIOLLAN; Maëlise PRESSE; David VIRAPIN
    Abstract: This paper wishes to contribute to the Technological Innovation System (TIS) literature. More precisely, we study the geographic delineation issue of a focal TIS. In a first part, we discuss the geographic delineation debate in TIS framework, and we explain why co-patents are a good tool for mapping a TIS. Then considering the Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) as a focal TIS, we analyse 10 carmakers’ co-patent networks in FCV technologies between 2000 and 2013. Our database includes 3,250 co-patents. First, we build the networks corresponding to the three periods 2000-2004, 2000-2009, and 2000-2013. Second, we measure the nationalization index of their networks. Third, we study with whom they have established formal collaborations. The results show: 1) the internationalization increased slowly during the time span. We observe an extension of the network until 2009 and then, a consolidation trend; 2) the nationalization index is rather strong for 5 carmakers, and very weak for 3 others; 3) carmakers call upon different kinds of partners, located, moreover, in different places. The final section learns the lessons from the empirical study.
    Keywords: Technological Innovation System, TIS, Fuel Cell Vehicle, Geography of innovation, Co-patent, Automobile.
    JEL: O31 O33 L62
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Marek Dabrowski
    Abstract: The recent wave of financial innovation, particularly innovation related to the application of information and communication technologies, poses a serious challenge to the financial industry’s business model in both its banking and non-banking components. It has already revolutionised financial services and, most likely, will continue to do so in the future. If not responded to adequately and timely by regulators, it may create new risks to financial stability, as occurred before the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. However, financial innovation will not seriously affect the process of monetary policymaking and is unlikely to undermine the ability of central banks to perform their price stability mission. The recent wave of financial innovation, particularly innovation related to the application of information and communication technologies, poses a serious challenge to the financial industry’s business model in both its banking and non-banking components. It has already revolutionised financial services and, most likely, will continue to do so in the future. If not responded to adequately and timely by regulators, it may create new risks to financial stability, as occurred before the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. However, financial innovation will not seriously affect the process of monetary policymaking and is unlikely to undermine the ability of central banks to perform their price stability mission.
    Keywords: monetary policy, financial innovation, electronic money
    JEL: E41 E44 E51 E52 E58 G21
    Date: 2017–07
  4. By: Alex Coad (CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Because of its positive contribution to employment and economic growth, the EU has set a manufacturing target of 20%. This could also boost R&D, productivity and exporting. Our analyses do not find empirical evidence that a large manufacturing sector has a direct influence on exporting activity or productivity growth. We find a positive association between manufacturing and R&D investment. The EU manufacturing strategy could help reaching the 3% R&D intensity target. However, the link between manufacturing and R&D depends on the industrial structure of a country. Support to new high-tech sectors should be coupled with actions to encourage technological upgrade in existing ones.
    Keywords: Manufacturing, R&D, exporting, productivity, industrial policy, industrial renaissance
    Date: 2017–11
  5. By: Christoph Schmierer
    Abstract: Foreign direct investments (FDI) can have a very important function to accelerate the industrialization process of developing countries and transition economies. On the one hand they can cause an increase of industrial output and on the other, can transfer technology knowledge through FDI. Thus, host countries can profit from new technical knowledge through spillover effects and technology transfers from foreign affiliates. This thesis can give answers to the following questions: What are the mechanisms that trigger spillover effects and technology transfers? How can developing countries and transition economies use this knowledge to accelerate their industrialization process? To answer these questions, a conceptual guideline for the promotion of spillover effects has been developed. Furthermore a theoretical model has been created, which analyses the technology transfer from foreign export platform depending on the fraction of intermediate products sourced in the host country. The case studies of Ireland and Malaysia are used to illustrate the results of the theoretical model and conceptual guidelines.
    Keywords: export platform, foreign direct investment, spillover effects, technology transfer
    Date: 2017–10
  6. By: Jana Cahlikova; Lubomir Cingl; Ian Levely
    Abstract: Since many key career events, such as exams and interviews, involve competition and stress, gender differences in response to these factors could help to explain the labor-market gender gaps. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulate psychosocial stress using the Trier Social Stress Test, and conï¬ rm that this is effective by measuring salivary cortisol. Subjects perform a realeffort task under both tournament and piece-rate incentives and we elicit willingness to compete. We ï¬ nd that women under heightened stress do worse than women in the control group when compensated with tournament incentives, while there is no treatment difference for performance under piece-rate incentives. For males, stress does not affect output under competition. We also ï¬ nd that stress decreases willingness to compete overall, and for women, this is related to performance. These results help to explain previous ï¬ ndings on gender differences in performance under competition both in and out of the lab.
    Keywords: competitiveness, performance in tournaments, psychosocial stress, gender gap
    JEL: C91 D03 J16 J33
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: Knowledge is the most important factor of production, next to labor, land and capital. It is about managing and sharing knowledge for the development of an organization. In the competitive business world, knowledge management (KM) has become more essential for the sustainable development of organizations. In the 21st century knowledge and KM become the most professional element in many fields of knowledge, such as, education, cognitive science, health, sociology, management science, information science, computer science, information and technology, economics, philosophy, psychology, knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence and all branches of business. Through the application of successful KM, organizations can improve their effectiveness and can gain competitive advantage. KM helps in the decision making process for the benefit of a company. It leads to higher efficiency in terms of less duplication of work, followed by notably better performance, enhancing new staffs’ capabilities and better quality decisions. The paper discusses the fundamentals and the importance of KM for professionals, users and technology experts. This article also examines the concepts of knowledge and KM in organizations. The major challenges and barriers for implementation of KM in organizations are discussed in some details. Additionally, the paper discusses the proficiencies, responsibilities, profiles and the roles of a knowledge manager. An attempt has been taken here to enhance knowledge related efficiencies in any organization.
    Keywords: Explicit and tacit knowledge, Knowledge management, Organizations, Education, Knowledge sharing, KM Benefits
    JEL: O2 O20 O21
    Date: 2017–01–14
  8. By: Gianluca Misuraca (European Commission - JRC); Giulio Pasi (European Commission - JRC); Maria Cesira Urzi Brancati (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report presents the results of the JRC-led research on ‘ICT-enabled Social Innovation to support the implementation of the Social Investment Package’ (IESI) conducted in partnership with the Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. The IESI research is set out to help policymakers and practitioners use ICT-enabled social innovation to modernise welfare systems, provide better and more efficient social services, and ultimately increase the wellbeing and quality of life of citizens. The original research design, its theoretical framework and empirical findings contribute to the growing scientific interest on ICT-enabled social innovation in the field of social policy reforms, within the scope of the implementation of the social investment approach. Based on the analysis of evidence gathered through a documented collection of initiatives across the EU, the research also advances a proposal for developing a methodological framework to assess the social and economic impact of ICT enabled social innovation. The approach proposed is expected to support policymakers and relevant stakeholders in designing, monitoring and evaluating ICT-enabled social innovation initiatives, which could be transferred, scaled-up and replicated across Europe. Insights from the research contribute to the policy debate on the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights and the future of the Welfare State in the EU.
    Keywords: ICT-enabled social innovation, social investment, social policy innovation
    JEL: O38 O52
    Date: 2017–11
  9. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacit knowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacit knowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacit knowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacit knowledge in some detailed.
    Keywords: Explicit and tacit knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer.
    JEL: I2 O1
    Date: 2017–01–02
  10. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: At present knowledge is an essential element of production, next to labor, land and capital. Knowledge is considered as a collection of experience, appropriate information and skilled insight which offers a structure for estimating and integrating new experiences and information. Due to the recent development of science and technology, knowledge becomes an essential part in every organization. In organizations, knowledge is considered as a storehouse of intelligent for the development of the organizations. Achievement of new knowledge is one of the greatest challenges in the building of intelligent systems in every organization. Employees in institutions must be sincere for the creation and sharing of knowledge to increase their effectiveness in the workplace. A knowledge map is the pictorial illustration of the achieved information from a huge collection of data. It helps an organization to realize how the loss of staff influences intellectual capital, to assist with the selection of terms, and to match technology to knowledge needs and processes. This paper highlights knowledge map which contributes a fundamental role for better knowledge management and learning. Knowledge sharing and transfer are good techniques to exchange knowledge among the organizations which help organizations to explain their level of knowledge internally and externally. An attempt has been made here to analyze in brief the significance of transfer of knowledge.
    Keywords: Explicit knowledge, Knowledge mapping, SECI model, Sharing and transferring knowledge, Tacit Knowledge.
    JEL: I2 I25
    Date: 2016–04–18
  11. By: Mohajan, Haradhan; Islam, Shahidul; Shome, Falguni
    Abstract: At present the organizations of the world are moving towards an efficient knowledge based development environment. Knowledge sharing is an important tool that turns individual knowledge into group organizational knowledge. Knowledge sharing among employees is a procedure which passes skills and qualifications from one person to another to solve problems, develop new ideas, or implement policies or procedures. Future success of an organization depends on effective knowledge sharing. In this study a survey is conducted among 163 employees in different organizations on knowledge sharing. Data are collected on questionnaire survey on ‘Likert five point scale’ to measure the observed variables. Factor analysis and structure equation model are developed from collected data by SPSS 20 and AMOS 21. Research shows that knowledge sharing increases the knowledge management practice environment and efficiency of the organization. An attempt has been taken here to show that knowledge sharing increases knowledge management practice.
    Keywords: Knowledge sharing, knowledge management, organization
    JEL: I25 I31
    Date: 2017–05–10
  12. By: Kander, Astrid (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Taalbi, Josef (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Oksanen, Juha; Sjöö, Karolin; Rilla, Nina
    Abstract: We examine trends in innovation output for two highly ranked innovative countries: Finland and Sweden (1970-2013). Our novel dataset, collected using the LBIO (literature-based innovation output) method, suggests that the innovation trends are positive for both countries, despite an extended downturn in the 1980s. The findings cast some doubt on the proposition that the current stagnation of many developed countries is due to a lack of innovation and investment opportunities. Our data show that Finland catches up to, and passes, Sweden in innovation output in the 1990s. In per capita terms, Finland stays ahead throughout the period. We find that the strong Finnish performance is largely driven by innovation increase in just a handfull of industries. Both countries saw a rise in innovation during the dot-com era and the structural changes that followed. Since 2000 however, Sweden has outperformed Finland in terms of total innovations, especially in machinery and ICT, while the Finnish rate of innovation has stabilized. We suggest that these patterns may be explained by different paths of industrial renewal.
    Keywords: innovation; literature-based innovation output; industrial renewal; structural decomposition; structural change
    JEL: N14 O30 O47
    Date: 2017–12–06
  13. By: Elisabetta Marinelli (European Commission - JRC); Inmaculada Perianez Forte (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The term Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (or EDP) originally referred to the identification of areas for investment in research and innovation (i.e. priority-areas), through an inclusive and evidence-based process grounded in stakeholders’ engagement. The experience of the S3 Platform has highlighted, on the one hand, that the concept itself has evolved from being a process limited to the identification of investment-priorities in the design-phase of a Smart Specialisation Strategy, into a continuous activity, which keeps going throughout the strategy’s implementation; on the other, that there was a significant gap in understanding how different actors engaged in the EDP. Such continuous EDP implies that stakeholders are kept engaged in the refinement of priority-areas, the identification of instruments that would implement them, as well as the RIS3 governance and monitoring mechanisms that would allow the expected competitive advantages to emerge. With this report, we address both issues. Firstly, we submit the concept of continuous EDP to an empirical test. Secondly, we look in depth at the role of different stakeholders in the EDP (especially in the design phase of RIS3). To do so, we present the results of a survey run in the S3 Platform, aimed at monitoring current practices in the EDP. The survey provides information on how the 4-ple helix has taken part in the EDP and provides insights on the relationship between the different actors and the public body responsible for the EDP. The results confirm that once investment priorities have been identified with the involvement of stakeholders, various mechanisms that keep them engaged in following the development of such priorities are often put in place. Finally, the results indicate that the EDP, as a continuous process, is proving positive and satisfactory.
    Keywords: RIS3, S3, Smart Specialisation, Entrepreneurial Discovery Process, EDP, Stakeholders’ engagement, 4-ple Helix, Triple Helix
    Date: 2017–11
  14. By: Lucia Hanmer (The World Bank); Edinaldo Tebaldi; Dorte Verner
    Abstract: There are significant differences between men and women’s labor market outcomes Tunisia. The size of these gender gaps shows substantial variation across regions, notably between the richer coastal and eastern regions and the poorer southern and western regions. This Paper uses the 2014 Tunisia Labor Market Panel Survey (TLMPS) to examine the characteristics of male and female labor market participants in the lagging southern, western, and central regions, and in the leading regions. It also discusses the factors that influence monthly wages and the probability of employment for men and women respectively. Our results show that gender plays a huge role in labor market outcomes: women are less likely to participate in the labor force and are more likely to be unemployed and to receive lower wages. Young people and educated women in lagging regions are particularly disadvantaged as they are less likely to find a job and may not have the option to move to places where the prospect of employment is better. Moreover, our results suggest that wage discrimination against women is prevalent outside the leading region in Tunisia.
    Date: 2017–06–12

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