nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒10‒15
ten papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Localized Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from the Spatial Clustering of R&D Labs and Patent Citations By Buzard, Kristy; Carlino, Gerald A.; Hunt, Robert M.; Carr, Jake; Smith, Tony E.
  2. Do Investment and Innovation Boost Export? An Analysis on European Firms By OA Carboni; G. Medda
  3. Implementing smart specialisation - thematic platform on industrial modernisation By Fatime Barbara Hegyi; Ruslan Rakhmatullin
  4. World Top R&D Investors: Industrial Property Strategies in the Digital Economy By Taro Daiko; Hélène Dernis; Mafini Dosso; Petros Gkotsis; Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Alexander Tuebke; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Mobile Phone Innovation and Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
  6. Measuring productivity and absorptive capacity evolution By Steff De Visscher; Markus Eberhardt; Gerdie Everaert
  7. The need to customise innovation indicators in developing countries By Iizuka, Michiko; Hollanders, Hugo
  8. Location Choices of Graduate Entrepreneurs By Larsson, Johan P; Wennberg, Karl; Wiklund, Johan; Wright, Mike
  9. R&D and wholesale trade are critical to the economy: Identifying dominant sectors from economic networks By Dungey, Mardi; Volkov, Vladimir
  10. Policy Paper on potential new framings, identifying needs for changing the current IPR regime relevant for ICT industries (preliminary) By Martínez Ros, Ester; Fosfuri, Andrea; Florez Ramos, Esmeralda; Blind, Knut; López-Carrasco, Antonio; Fullea, Eduardo

  1. By: Buzard, Kristy (Syracuse University); Carlino, Gerald A. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Hunt, Robert M. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Carr, Jake (The Ohio State University); Smith, Tony E. (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Patent citations are a commonly used indicator of knowledge spillovers among inventors, while clusters of research and development labs are locations in which knowledge spillovers are particularly likely to occur. In this paper, we assign patents and citations to newly defined clusters of American R&D labs to capture the geographic extent of knowledge spillovers. Our tests show that the localization of knowledge spillovers, as measured via patent citations, is strongest at small spatial scales and diminishes rapidly with distance. On average, patents within a cluster are about three to six times more likely to cite an inventor in the same cluster than one in a control group. At the same time, the strength of knowledge spillovers varies widely between clusters. The results are robust to the specification of patent technological categories, the method of citation matching and alternate cluster definitions.
    Keywords: spatial clustering; geographic concentration; R&D labs; localized knowledge spillovers; patent citations
    JEL: O31 R12
    Date: 2017–10–03
  2. By: OA Carboni; G. Medda
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that innovative firms have an advantage in terms of competitiveness which allow them to successfully operate in global markets. Coincidently, entering and surviving in global markets require additional tangible assets aimed at the expansion of production capacity. This work investigates innovation activities and tangible investments as factors enhancing exporting propensities and performances by the firms. Particularly emphasis is given to product innovation, as it is directly related to the penetration of foreign markets. More in detail, we empirically study a) the relationship between product innovation and export intensity, and b) between tangible investment and export in a large sample of European firms. The analysis controls for internal and external structural characteristics, taking into account that innovative activities, resources devoted to the accumulation of tangible assets, and export intensity are simultaneously determined. The results suggest that both product innovation and tangible investment have a positive and significant impact on the export intensity of firms.
    Keywords: r&d;innovation;tangible investment;export;simultaneous equations
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission - JRC); Ruslan Rakhmatullin (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This paper offers an overview of policy and economic reasons behind the launch of the new Smart Specialisation Platform for Industrial Modernisation. It is argued that modernisation of the European Industry depends upon multiple innovations across many industrial areas linked to emerging value chains. Some European regions have access to leading R&D and upstream innovation facilities; others have industrial skills needed in downstream testing and industrial upscaling. This paper looks at how the new Industrial Modernisation Platform can help European regions to create and/or join transnational networks of knowledge and expertise, and drive the development of transnational and macro-regional value chains. Cooperation and outward-looking disposition promote an understanding of the competitive position of the country/region with regard to others, and with respect to global value chains. The paper summarises the progress made since the formal launch of the new platform in June 2016 and offers an overview of the existing partnerships that are currently supported by the platform.
    Keywords: Regional innovation policy, smart specialisation, industrial policy, trans-regional cooperation, Thematic Smart Specialisation Platform on Industrial Modernisation
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Taro Daiko (OECD); Hélène Dernis (OECD); Mafini Dosso (European Commission - JRC); Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD); Alexander Tuebke (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The speed, scale and scope of the digital transformation and the widespread use of digital technologies in most aspects of our daily lives are changing the way we work, innovate, produce, interact and live. Knowledge flows almost instantaneously and digitalised information can be infinitely replicated, making the exploitation of knowledge a key factor for competitiveness. At the same time, changes at the local level may have global implications and innovation ecosystems become more and more global. These dynamics challenge policy making, and call for understanding the drivers of change, detecting trends in a timely fashion, and acting in a coordinated manner. The internet of things, digital manufacturing and 3D printing, industry 4.0 and big data are all components and drivers of the digital transformation, but the ways in which this new technological revolution will transform industries, countries and societies remain difficult to fully anticipate. As we become increasingly aware of the opportunities and the challenges of the digital economy, we also need to better understand how these technologies are forged and to identify the key players in such changes. The original data and statistics on the innovation output of the world's top corporate R&D investors presented in this report and its focus on digital technologies represent an important step towards this direction. It results from a long-term collaboration between the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and their joint efforts to provide up-to-date comparable data and state-of-the-art indicators and analysis. This report is directed at a number of stakeholders, including policy makers, industry representatives, practitioners and the scientific community. By exploiting information on patents, trademarks and designs, this work sheds light on the top R&D investors worldwide in the digital economy, their innovative and creative activities and their branding strategies. It is accompanied by a publicly available database that can be used for further analysis in support of evidence-based policy making.
    Keywords: Patent, Trademark, Design, Digital, IP bundle, Scoreboard, Top corporate R&D investors, Industrial
    Date: 2017–09
  5. By: Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
    Abstract: This study investigates how the mobile phone can complement knowledge diffusion in order to influence CO2 emissions in 44 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments. Three knowledge diffusion variables representing three of the four pillars of the World Bank’s Knowledge Economy Index are employed: educational quality, information and communication technology (ICT) and scientific output. Six CO2 emission variables are used, namely: CO2 per capita, CO2 from electricity and heat, CO2 from liquid fuel, CO2 from manufacturing and construction, CO2 from transport and CO2 intensity. In the assessments, a decreasing tendency in these variables translates into positive conditions for environmental sustainability. Based on net effect from complementarities, the following findings are established. First, the mobile phone complements education to have a net negative effect on CO2 emissions per capita and CO2 emissions from the consumption of liquid fuel. Second, where some positive net effects of knowledge diffusion are apparent, corresponding marginal effects are negative. Corresponding mobile phone penetration thresholds at which the positive net effects on CO2 emissions can be dampened and reversed are largely within policy range. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Steff De Visscher; Markus Eberhardt; Gerdie Everaert
    Abstract: We develop a new way to estimate cross-country production functions which allows us to parametrize unobserved non-factor inputs (total factor productivity) as a global technology process combined with country-specific time-varying absorptive capacity. The advantage of our approach is that we do not need to adopt proxies for absorptive capacity such as investments in research and development (R&D) or human capital, or specify explicit channels through which global technology can transfer to individual countries, such as trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) or migration: we provide an endogenously-created index for relative absorptive capacity which is easy to interpret and encompasses potential proxies and channels. Our implementation adopts an unobserved component model and uses a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to obtain posterior estimates for all model parameters. This contribution to empirical methodology allows researchers to employ widely-available data for factor inputs (capital, labor) and GDP or value-added in order to arrive at policy-relevant insights for industrial and innovation policy. Applying our methodology to a panel of 31 advanced economies we chart the dynamic evolution of global TFP and country-specific absorptive capacity and then demonstrate the lose relationship between our estimates and salient indicators of growth-enhancing economic policy.
    Keywords: total factor productivity, absorptive capacity, common factor model, time-varying parameters, unobserved component model, MCMC
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Iizuka, Michiko (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Hollanders, Hugo (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Innovation is becoming more and more important as a driver of economic growth. In developed countries, a diverse set of innovation indicators has been developed to monitor innovation performance and the impact of innovation policies. Developing countries have been late to jump on this bandwagon and are now faced with a set of well-established innovation indicators that might not be that well suited to measure innovation in their economies. Existing innovation indicators can be broadly classified into three different types: Science & Technology (S&T) indicators, Innovation survey indicators, and Composite innovation indicators combining different indicators, including S&T and Innovation survey data, into one indicator. All of these have their own particular strengths and weaknesses, and they score above or below average on a wide range of attributes considered to be favourable, if not downright necessary, for innovation indicators. This paper argues that, for innovation indicators, and for innovation survey indicators in particular, data collection has to be customised to the different socio-economic structures of developing countries. For this, the definition of innovation has to become more inclusive by recognising the multitude of innovation actors and processes in developing countries. Developing countries also need to build competence regarding innovation indicators, not only within their statistical systems but also among their policy makers.
    Keywords: innovation, indicators, developing countries, policy use
    JEL: O38 O32 O29 P47
    Date: 2017–08–10
  8. By: Larsson, Johan P (Jönköping International Business School); Wennberg, Karl (The Ratio Institute); Wiklund, Johan (Whitman School of Management); Wright, Mike (Imperial College London South Kensington Campus)
    Abstract: We review complementary theoretical perspectives on location choices of university graduate entrepreneurs derived from the individual-opportunity nexus and local embeddedness perspectives on entrepreneurship. Analysis of the full population of 215,388 graduates from Swedish institutions of higher education between 2002 and 2006 provides support for both location choice perspectives. Overall, 63 % of graduate entrepreneurs start businesses locally in their region of graduation while 37 % start businesses elsewhere. The likelihood of starting locally is substantially higher in metropolitan regions, if the graduate was born locally or has university peer entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial family members in the region of graduation. Implications for theory and public policy are discussed.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Location choice; Universities
    JEL: J61 M13 O18
    Date: 2017–08–07
  9. By: Dungey, Mardi (Tasmanian School of Business & Economics, University of Tasmania); Volkov, Vladimir (Tasmanian School of Business & Economics, University of Tasmania)
    Abstract: Using a network approach we empirically identify the most critical sectors for 49 different economies. Wholesale trade is dominant for over half the countries, but increasingly R&D activities are taking on an equivalent importance. Recognizing R&D as a critical sector as countries develop urges caution against disinvesting in this sector.
    Keywords: Networks, input-output tables, sectors, research and development
    JEL: C32 C51 C52 G10
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Martínez Ros, Ester; Fosfuri, Andrea; Florez Ramos, Esmeralda; Blind, Knut; López-Carrasco, Antonio; Fullea, Eduardo
    Date: 2017–10–01

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