nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
thirteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Research, knowledge transfer and innovation: the effect of Italian universities’ efficiency on the local economic development 2006-2012 By Tommaso Agasisti; Cristian Barra; Roberto Zotti
  2. Why growth rates differ? Path of innovation in Italian provinces. By Michele Capriati; Marialuisa Divella
  3. The Relationship between Female Representation at Strategic Level and Firm's Competitiveness: Evidences from Cargo Logistic Firms of Pakistan and Canada By Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Cockrill, Antje
  5. R&D Policy Instruments: A Critical Review of What We Do & Don't Know By Ben R. Martin
  6. R&D Policy regimes in France: New Evidence from a spatio-temporal Analysis By Benjamin Montmartin; Marcos Herrera; Nadine Massard
  7. Does the Type of Neighbor Matter? Heterogeneous Export Spillovers on Domestic Companies in Mexico By Cardoso-Vargas, Carlos-Enrique
  9. The Locus of Knowledge Externalities and the Cost of Knowledge. By Antonelli, Cristiano; Colombelli, Alessandra
  10. Productivity and trade spillovers: Horizontal crowding-out versus vertical synergies in Europe as a response to the Foreign Direct Investment By Hanousek, Jan; Kocenda, Evzen; Vozarova, Pavla
  12. Development of SME Competitiveness Using IoT in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Japanese) By IWAMOTO Koichi; HATANO Aya
  13. Responsibility, inequality, efficiency, and equity in four sustainability paradigms: policies for a shared sea from a multi-country analytical model By F. Zagonari

  1. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Management); Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Roberto Zotti (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test whether there is a link between the performance of universities and the local economic development of the territory where they operate. The performance of academic institutions is measured through an efficiency concept, estimated by means of an innovative Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), and considering indicators of teaching, research and ‘third mission’ as outputs. A system generalized method-of-moments (Sys- GMM) dynamic panel estimator, instrumented with time lags and differences is estimated over the period from 2006 to 2012 to solve the potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables. Our findings reveal that the presence of efficient universities fosters local economic development, and that knowledge spillovers occur between areas through the geographical proximity to the efficient universities.
    Keywords: Higher education; knowledge spillovers; local economic development; efficiency of universities
    JEL: I21 E01
  2. By: Michele Capriati (Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro); Marialuisa Divella (Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the way in which innovation and absorptive capacity affect the productivity of Italian provinces. It builds on the Neo-Schumpeterian literature which investigates how technology gaps explain development disparities between countries and regions. The study is carried out at the provincial level, which allows a more fine-tuned analysis of the resource endowment linked to knowledge generation and economic performance. Moreover, it distinguishes between two very different types of innovation: those directly dependent on R&D and new knowledge generation which are generally measured by the number of patents; and those relying on the adaptation of processes, products and materials and thus mostly based on the exploitation of already existing knowledge, which are here measured by a new index based on registered utility models and industrial designs. Main results indicate a case of divergence in productivity levels instead of one of catching up among the Italian provinces; moreover, they suggest that the main effort to get productivity gains in this country has been carried out through a reduction of employment and of its related costs instead of via increasing R&D and human capital.
    Keywords: innovation, patents, utility models, industrial designs, provinces, proximity
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Cockrill, Antje
    Abstract: The comparative study investigates the impact of various attributes such as feminine leadership style, gender diversity, and autonomy linked with the female representation at strategic level on the performance and competitiveness of the Cargo Logistic Firms in the contrasting economies; Pakistan and Canada. Previous studies offered limited insight due to unidimensional while this study takes multivariate approach, considering; variable of interest examined in terms of economies and gender. Cross-sectional research design following semi-structured questionnaire circulated among targeted audience by combining of stratified (probability) and convenience, purposive, and snowball (non-probability) sampling technique at layers of management. The combined sample size is 631 employees. The results showed that females prefer more flexible leadership style in comparison to males. Organisations having high gender diversity and female representation at strategic level are more progressive and innovative. Interestingly, in developing economies, rapid career growth chances are higher for females. Females are more people oriented while male are more task-oriented. Males have high desire for autonomy at workplace.
    Keywords: leadership style, gender diversity, autonomy, corporate hierarchy, female representation, comparative analysis
    JEL: C0 C12 D22 D23 M1 M14 M15 M19
    Date: 2017–02–17
  4. By: Darshana S. Rohit
    Abstract: The banking sector has been an instrument for the economic development of any nation and its role in a developing country like ours is of vital importance. The banking activities worldwide are undergoing rapid diversification. Technological changes have become the very essence of the banking sector and the Indian banking sector is also prone to these changes. In order to maintain their status in the competitive environment, banks have to concentrate in developing their human resources. In any organization, the quality and amount of productivity mainly depends on the skill and interest of its employees. Therefore, every business organization should take the lead for upgrading the skills and knowledge of its employees for the mutual benefit and progress. In this direction “Human Resource Development (HRD)” is an essential process for every organization in order, to optimally utilize its human resource and in turn to attain its designed objectives. Like any other industrial organization, banking sector is also highly dependent on the quality of HRD practices for the motivation of its employees. An effective implementation of HRD activities would result in excellent organizational climate for the people to be competent and productive. Nevertheless, it is not only the implementation of HRD practices but also their review from time to time helps the banking institutions maintain their status in the competitive environment. Key Words: HRD, Policy, Practice, Banking Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  5. By: Ben R. Martin
    Abstract: In recent years, the term 'policy instrument' has been used more frequently with regard to R&D policy and innovation policy. What does this term mean? Where did it come from? What do we know about it, both with regard to the general field of policy studies but also in the specific context of R&D policy? This article examines the development of the notion of policy instruments as part of a body of research known as 'policy design'. Over the last 50 years, there has been substantial progress in setting policy design on a more systematic basis, with the development of established concepts and analytical frameworks, including various taxonomies of policy instruments. However, with just a few exceptions, this body of research seems to have had little impact in the world of R&D policy. The paper reviews the literature on R&D policy instruments. It identifies a number of challenges for R&D policy instruments in the light of four transitions – the shift from linear to systemic thinking about R&D and innovation, the shift from national governments to multi-level governance, the shift from individual actors to collaborations and networks, and the shift from individual policies to policy mixes. It sets out a research agenda for the study of R&D policy instruments, before ending with a number of conclusions.
    Keywords: Policy instruments; R&D policy; policy design; policy mix
    JEL: O38 I28 H11 D78 E61
    Date: 2015–12
  6. By: Benjamin Montmartin (UniversitŽ C™te dÕAzur, France; GREDEG CNRS); Marcos Herrera (CONICET - IELDE; National University of Salta, Argentina); Nadine Massard (GAEL UMR 1215; UniversitŽ Grenoble Alpes, France)
    Abstract: Using a unique database containing information on the amount of R&D tax credits and regional, national and European subsidies received by firms in French NUTS3 regions over the period 2001-2011, we provide new evidence on the efficiency of R&D policies taking into account spatial dependency across regions. By estimating a spatial Durbin model with regimes and fixed effects, we show that in a context of yardstick competition between regions, national subsidies are the only instrument that displays total leverage effect. For other instruments internal and external effects balance each other resulting in insignificant total effects. Structural breaks corresponding to tax credit reforms are also revealed.
    Keywords: Additionality, French policy mix, R&D investment, Spatial panel, Structural break
    JEL: H25 O31 O38
    Date: 2017–06
  7. By: Cardoso-Vargas, Carlos-Enrique
    Abstract: This document examines whether the probability of entering new external markets or the increase in export products on the part of Mexican firms are related to the proximity of diverse multinational firms exporting under different trade regimes. The evaluation was made using a panel based on data from Mexican Customs and from a sampling of national firms from 2003-2010. The results show that export spillovers are far from homogeneous in their effects on Mexican firms, since their existence is related to the export activity of neighboring foreign firms. Moreover, such spillovers are more likely to appear in places where neighboring national and foreign firms have not only common trade regimes, but also common technological level of production.
    Keywords: international trade; spillovers; agglomerated economic activity
    JEL: D22 F14 R12
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Akanksha Ritesh; Rajesh Mehrotra
    Abstract: This study investigated a common phenomena of present day burning issues of various organization related with the question that Why do Indian Software professionals leave their organizations? Due to cut throat competition the retention of employees has emerged as a vital issue for software industries. Due to turnover tendency of employees companies are suffering with not only to lose their employees financially infact in day to day future and in house confidentiality of projects along with customer and image building dents are also become a security threat to them in order to sustain their smooth functioning and growth. In this paper researcher has tried to analysis the concept and other associated factors in the light of various dimensions which play an important role to affect the same. Researcher has also thrown light on the concept of Innovative attributes of employee Relationship Management through which the bond of both employees and employers can be strengthened to act as a bridge between the both. Key Words: Innovative Practices, Employee Relationship Management, Dimensions of ERM, Packages of ERM etc. Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; Colombelli, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper provides an extended CDM approach to analyse jointly the simultaneous effects of knowledge spillovers in the knowledge generation function and in the technology production function. It introduces the distinction between imitation and knowledge externalities and articulates the hypothesis that spillovers yield their effects via three well distinct mechanisms: i) knowledge externalities that exert positive and direct effects on the knowledge production function, and ii) indirect effects on the technology production function via their effects on the cost of knowledge; iii) imitation externalities exert direct and positive effects on productivity in the technology production function. We test our hypotheses on a large panel of Italian companies distributed in the NUTS2 regions for the period 2005 – 2009. The econometric analysis consists in a model comprising a system of equations that test the simultaneous role of spillovers in the knowledge generation function and the technology production function with the inclusion of endogenous knowledge costs. The results confirm that the access to external knowledge – as an input in the knowledge generation function – plays a key role in increasing the knowledge output and – as an input in the technology production function – has positive indirect and direct effects on the productivity of firms.
    Date: 2017–06
  10. By: Hanousek, Jan; Kocenda, Evzen; Vozarova, Pavla
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs), via their foreign direct investment (FDI), on domestic firms in 30 European host economies, from 2001 to 2013. We incorporate international industrial and trade linkages into a standard theoretical framework and test them empirically on a unique dataset compiled from the Amadeus, Eurostat, UN Comtrade and BACI data sources. While controlling for horizontal, vertical, and export channels at the upstream and downstream levels, we show that the presence of MNEs significantly affects domestic firms, in terms of both changing the market structure and improving productivity. The impact is not always positive, as domestic firms are often crowded-out. However, those firms that withstand such double competition receive additional benefits stemming from trade (export) spillovers. In our complex model, we did not find significant (positive) interactions of domestic firms with horizontal MNEs which would suggest desirable productivity spillovers.
    Keywords: European firms; foreign direct investment (FDI); International Trade; multinational enterprise (MNE); Spillovers
    JEL: C33 F15 F21 F23 O24
    Date: 2017–06
  11. By: Shikha Agrawal
    Abstract: Globalization and technology improvements have exposed companies to a situation with tough competition. In this new era, companies are focusing on managing customer relationships in order to efficiently maximize revenues. Today marketing is not just developing, delivering and selling, it is moving towards developing and maintaining long term relationships with customers. Relationship marketing is becoming important in financial services. CRM is an opportunity that banks can avail to rise above minor advantages by developing actual relationships with their customers. Key Words: impact, customer relationship, CRM, customer relationship management, Indian banking Policy
    Date: 2017–06
  12. By: IWAMOTO Koichi; HATANO Aya
    Abstract: This paper describes the results of a study group which I held to look at the development of small and medium enterprises (SME) competitiveness using the Internet of Things (IoT) in 2016 and of related research. In Japan, it is rare to find complete IoT systems introduced in the production process of SMEs. The simple reason is that SME managers do not understand IoT, which can have two interpretations. The first one is the managers do not understand the complex technology. The second one is they do not understand the merits of the technology for their own companies. The study group adopted four SMEs as model cases, and fully conducted a trial and error process from the beginning of discussions to the introduction of IoT, which aims to have all SME managers consider this issue as their own matter. The discussions of the study group focused on the SMEs'production process.
    Date: 2017–06
  13. By: F. Zagonari
    Abstract: This paper develops a theoretical framework for four sustainability paradigms (weak sustainability, a-growth, de-growth, strong sustainability) within cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios, and includes changes in four values (a sense of responsibility to nature and future generations; aversion to inequality for current and future generations). The model assesses the feasibility of sustainability solutions for a shared environment as a function of specific value changes in each country by interpreting these value changes as support for environmental policies. The solutions are defined in terms of consumption, use of the environment, and welfare of representative individuals in each country; they are characterised by efficiency and equality at both intra- and inter-generational levels; they are checked for internal consistency and consistency with alternative approaches such as utilitarianism, egalitarianism (i.e., Arneson, Dworkin, Sen), and contractarianism. Theoretical insights are obtained by comparing contextual stability and relative effectiveness of the environment’s use among countries in alternative scenarios. A case study of the Baltic Sea operationally suggests that the currently adopted strong sustainability (i.e., an ecosystem approach) in a non-cooperative scenario (i.e., countries attempt to maximize their own rather than overall welfare) is internally consistent, relatively efficient, and consistent with Dworkin egalitarianism. A-growth was never feasible, but de-growth in which Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Sweden increase environmental protection would increase intra-generational equality; de-growth or weak sustainability in which Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia increase environmental R&D would increase intra- and inter-generational equality; weak sustainability and de-growth consistent with Arneson and Dworkin egalitarianism would improve the environmental status.
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2017–06

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