nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒06‒04
seventeen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Police Human Resource Policy in the Lodz region as a determinant of knowledge and organization’s effective operation By Joanna Luczak
  2. Enterprise innovation in China: Does ownership or size matter? By Huang, Yanghua; Salike, Nimesh; Yin, Zhifeng; Zeng, Douglas Zhihua
  3. University-Industry R&D Collaboration as an Engine of Firm Growth? An empirical evaluation of knowledge cluster policies in Japan (Japanese) By OKAMURO Hiroyuki; IKEUCHI Kenta
  4. SMEs Innovativeness and Institutional Support System: The Local Experiences in Qualitative Perspective By Anna Lewandowska; Mateusz Stopa
  5. International activity of the innovative enterprises – experience and recommendations By Zofia Grodek-Szostak; Janusz Nesterak; Malgorzata Luc
  6. Regional effectiveness of innovation – leaders and followers of the EU NUTS 0 and NUTS 2 regions By Agata Zoltaszek; Alicja Olejnik
  7. Entrepreneurship and Industrial Clusters: Evidence from China Industrial Census By Zhu, Xiwei; Liu, Ye; He, Ming; Luo, Deming; Wu, Yiyun
  8. The Degree of Import Price Rigidity with Respect to Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Importing Firm Characteristics in Russian Economy By Pleskachev, Yury; Ponomarev, Yury
  9. Uncertainty over Production Forecasts: An empirical analysis using monthly firm survey data By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  10. A Framework for Better Evaluations of Supply Chain Collaborations: Evidence from the Dutch Fast Moving Consumer Goods Industry By Jung, Verena; Peeters - Rutten, Marianne; Vredeveld, Tjark
  11. Overseas Production Expansion and Domestic Transaction Networks By HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki
  12. Trade, Education, Governance and Distance: Impact on Technology Diffusion and Productivity Growth in Asia and LAC By Schiff, Maurice; Wang, Yanling
  13. Enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities in comparison to the other Moderate Innovators countries By Aleksandra Zygmunt
  14. Modern Approaches to the Taxation of Representative Offices and Branches of Foreign Companies (BEPS, FATCA) By Kornienko, Natalia; Velikova, Elena; Gulyaeva, Svetlana; Pushkareva, Nataliya; Mitrofanova, Ekaterina
  15. Fostering innovative business investment in Spain By David Haugh; Muge Adalet McGowan; Dan Andrews; Aida Caldera Sánchez; Gabor Fulop; Pilar Garcia Perea
  16. Local Discoveries and Technological Relatedness: the Role of Foreign Firms By Alessia Lo Turco Author-X-Name-First: Alessia; Daniela Maggioni Author-X-Name-First: Daniela
  17. Multidimensional Comparative Analysis of the Competitiveness of the European Union Countries’ Economies By Katarzyna Cheba; Katarzyna Szopik-Depczynska

  1. By: Joanna Luczak (University of Social Sciences in Lodz)
    Abstract: Human capital is the driving force of an organization that has a significant impact on its development and effective operation. The success of the organization depends to a great extent on its social potential. Successful recruitment ensures that the best employees ensure high quality work, which respectively translates into organizational development and competitiveness (Oleksyn 2010, pp. 34-36). The development of the organization is based on knowledge acquisition, skills and raising qualifications by its members. The aim of the paper is to analyze the conditionings related to the management of the police organizational units, which influence the appropriate recruitment of police officers for particular positions. The publication also attempts to investigate the importance of appropriate recruitment for the effectiveness of actions taken by police officers. The article presents issues exemplifying the analysis of human resource management in the field of human resource policy playing an important role in Police. The empirical part of the article was based on an analysis of the subject literature and police internal materials, but also on the basis of participant observation and expert interview. The paper presents an analysis of the recruitment process of police officers for vacant posts in Police units of the Lodz Region, introduced by the Human Resource Policy Concept. Although the Police was established to protect citizens’ security and public order, its development and effective functioning are needed to further serve society. In order to do this, it is indispensable to recruit and employ proper and competent workers. Therefore, the recruitment and selection process is so significant.
    Keywords: public management; human resource management; police, recruitment; selection
    JEL: D73 D78
    Date: 2017–05
  2. By: Huang, Yanghua (Institute of Industrial Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences); Salike, Nimesh (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Yin, Zhifeng (School of Economics, Central University of Finance and Economics); Zeng, Douglas Zhihua (World Bank)
    Abstract: In contrast to previous papers, where in these two important aspects of innovation were delved separately, this paper analyses the effects in unison by using the most comprehensive data on Chinese enterprises- World Bank China Enterprise Survey (2012). Our dependent variables are innovation performance measured in various dimensions: the probabilities of R&D expenditure, staff training, product innovation, process innovation and management innovation. Our key variables of interest are ownership based on largest share (SOE, private and foreign) and firm size based on the number of employees. The analysis is based on panel data approach with different dimensions added (city, industry fixed) and the interaction of ownership and size variables. Major findings suggest that SOEs and domestic private enterprises are much alike in innovation participation, but different in innovation diversification that leads to ownership specific innovative advantage. Foreign enterprises are innovative in most of the innovation measurements. Size if positively correlated to innovation. We also find that as the size of enterprise increases, ownership specific innovative advantage is subject to changeable. That implies ownership and size should be examined jointly rather than separately. The result also shows the effects of ownership and size on innovations are uneven geographically and industrially.
    Date: 2017–05–24
  3. By: OKAMURO Hiroyuki; IKEUCHI Kenta
    Abstract: University-industry research and development (R&D) collaboration has been attracting much attention as an effective means to promote innovation. Also in Japan, public support has been provided to such local R&D collaboration through cluster policies. However, no empirical evaluation has been made using micro data regarding the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)'s knowledge cluster policies, which are comparable to those in Europe. Thus, using micro data from public statistics and fixed effect panel estimation, this paper empirically examines the direct effects of these cluster policies on R&D expenditures of cluster universities and firms, on the business performance (including sales growth and productivity) of participating firms, as well as their spillover effects on all manufacturing plants in cluster regions. Estimation results show that after cluster participation, 1) universities and research institutes significantly increased internal and external research expenditures and research funding from private firms, 2) participating firms' business performance did not significantly improve, and 3) manufacturing plants in cluster areas did not significantly increase labor productivity except for smaller ones with less than 50 employees, compared to their counterparts that did not participate in these clusters. These results suggest that MEXT's cluster policies promoted university-industry R&D collaboration, which, however, did not induce overall growth of participating firms' and local manufacturers' productivity.
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Anna Lewandowska (University of Information Technology and Management, 35–225 Rzeszow, ul. Sucharskiego 2, Poland); Mateusz Stopa (University of Information Technology and Management, 35–225 Rzeszow, ul. Sucharskiego 2, Poland)
    Abstract: Innovations are considered to be one of the most progressive determinants of socio-economic growth, also in the regional and local perspective (compare Petrariu, et al., 2013; Priede & Pereira 2013; Sternberg & Arndt, 2001). The high level of innovation has a positive impact on productivity at the firm level (business performance, see, e.g. Bhaskaran, 2006) and consequently also on the economic results at regional or national level (economic performance, see, e.g. DiPietro & Anoruo, 2006). The aim of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of the research on institutional support system for SMEs innovativeness in the Podkarpackie region. In analyzing this case, we raise the following two questions: (1) what are the types of innovation strategies of SMEs in Podkarpackie?; (2) what are the factors affecting innovation and potential barriers to further use of institutional support system aimed at the implementation of innovation in enterprises. The study was qualitative interviews (in-depth interviews - IDI) with key individuals in SME’s, R&D units, business environment institutions, regional and local authorities. Based on the opinion of entrepreneurs and others, evaluated programs and projects dedicated to innovation and identified barriers encountered by entrepreneurs limiting the implementation of innovation. Made in this way to assess the effectiveness of institutional support system. The results of our research show that institutional support system mitigate negative consequences of peripheral localization of the enterprises, where specific innovation strategy has no influence on SMEs assessment of innovation effectiveness. The innovation is too costly and SMEs are too weak in peripheral region, therefore there is great need for reasonable and flexible institutional support system. However, peripheral situation influences this institutional system itself, strengthening the mechanisms of self-cenzorship.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation strategies; SMEs; institutional support system
    JEL: L25 O12 O33
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Zofia Grodek-Szostak (Cracow University of Economics); Janusz Nesterak (Cracow University of Economics); Malgorzata Luc (Jagiellonian University in Cracow)
    Abstract: Research background:.In the international literature we can find great examples of research in the field of innovation and technological cooperation boosting between companies. Confrontation of theory and empirical research shows that meaning of cooperation and geographical closeness for innovative activity as well as the quality and effectiveness of public support are still ambiguous. Public support of technological cooperation is connected with different components of innovative network, that shows the need of horizontal cooperation, what is legitimate in developed countries. Great example of that kind of international network is Enterprise Europe Network (EEN). Innovative cooperation and technology transfer infiltration always have been a subject of research, but still there are issues to investigate. Because of that reason, there was a research hypothesis created: international technology transfer performed among companies and other economic entities accelerates innovative processes and gives profits for both players. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to show different aspects among cooperation and technology transfer and trial to evaluate its synergical impact on international innovative activity of companies. Methodology/methods: This paper illustrates theoretical and empirical research in the scope of many aspects of innovative cooperation and technology transfer. The empirical analysis focused on data from the Enterprise Europe Network in 2009-2015 and interviews with offices supporting companies in starting and performing of international technological cooperation. The presentation of spatial connections of technological cooperation was illustrated by the Gastner Newman’s amorphous (eumorphous) choropleth, created in the ArcMap 10.4.1 programme with the use of the quantile method. Findings: The article discusses the role of cooperation among network in the international technology transfer. A special analytical emphasis was put on the public networks supporting such cooperation. Specific knowledge and technology is very often out of reach for companies (especially SMEs) because of costs or limited access, and cooperation provides the opportunity to create new relations which can integrate ideas and knowledge, and in effect, lead to new ground-breaking innovations. There is also the significant element like public support for companies in the whole technology transfer process.
    Keywords: technology, support, cooperation, innovation, management
    JEL: O14 O11
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Agata Zoltaszek (Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz); Alicja Olejnik (Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz)
    Abstract: Innovation constitutes an important factor for growth in all EU countries. Regions of the EU play a principle role in shaping new innovation trajectories and in bringing out the hidden potential for national growth. However, it is not only the level of innovation that diversifies regions, but also the innovative potential and the level of its realization. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the realization of innovative potential, defined as effectiveness, in EU NUTS 0 and, if possible, NUTS 2 regions. To accomplish this goal a relative effectiveness method in used. The DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) makes it possible to analyse the relative technical effectiveness based on regional inputs and outputs, without incorporating the legal and technological specifications of innovations, thus treating it like a production process. The inputs of the process are employment in technology and knowledge-intensive sectors and R&D expenditure, while the outputs include the number of patents and GDP. All variables are standardized by the size of the economically active population. DEA results divide regions in to two groups – effective, being the leaders; and ineffective, or followers. The DEA approach was combined and extended by ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis) in order to pinpoint spatial patterns of innovation efficiency across NUTS 2 regions. Defining the best practices and implementing the learning-from-the-best policy is important in the process of regional development and specialization
    Keywords: regional innovation, effectiveness, DEA (data envelopment analysis), regional development, spatial autocorrelation, ESDA (exploratory spatial data analysis)
    JEL: C44 C46 C38 O31 O11
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: Zhu, Xiwei (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); Liu, Ye (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); He, Ming (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Luo, Deming (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); Wu, Yiyun (School of Economics, Zhejiang University)
    Abstract: This article studies the synergy effect of entrepreneurship on China’s industrial clusters. We propose an extension to Duranton and Overman’s (2005) method which enables us to delimit industrial clusters in space. The empirical model is identified with historical measures of local entrepreneur potential in the spirit of Chinitz (1961). We find that measures of entrepreneurship contribute significantly to cluster formation, cluster size, and cluster strength. Access to sea ports stimulates industrial concentration but agricultural legacy has the opposite effect. Light industries have more clusters which are also larger and stronger. Clusters also benefit from historical measures of market potential, localization/urbanization economies, and urban population density. Most of the results are robust to alternative instrumental strategies. Finally, we find evidence that the synergy effect is stronger where the local conditions are favorable to clusters.
    Date: 2017–05–24
  8. By: Pleskachev, Yury (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Ponomarev, Yury (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The main purpose of the research study is assessment of the degree of import price rigidity with respect to exchange rate fluctuations and importing firm characteristics in Russian economy. Exchange rate pass-through in economy starts with the import prices. Empirical results show significant difference in import price rigidity depending on firms and goods characteristics. Using micro data on import to Russia from 2002 to 2015 allowed obtaining estimates that were not reported in the previous literature. This paper documents dependence of import price rigidity with respect to the exchange rate fluctuations form the degree of processing and firm characteristics. Import price rigidity is higher for manufactured products elaborately transformed, for goods, denominated in home currency, for goods with lower frequency of price changes and for the firms with higher market share. Empirical estimates based on micro data also allowed to document the dependence of import price rigidity from the economic sector and compare results with international literature.
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: This study, using monthly micro data of firms' forecasted and realized production quantities, presents new findings on uncertainty over production forecasts. This is the first empirical study employing monthly-frequency quantitative forecast data at the firm level. According to the analysis, forecast errors are quite heterogeneous among individual manufacturers. For example, some firms underpredict their production, even when aggregate level production is overpredicted. In terms of firm characteristics, firms operating in the information and communications technology (ICT)-related industries, firms producing investment goods, and smaller firms exhibit higher forecast uncertainty. The forecast uncertainty is greater in contractionary phases of the business cycle. The uncertainty measures calculated from micro data have a predictive power over macroeconomic fluctuations, which cannot be detected from the measures derived from publicly available aggregated data, suggesting the value of firm-level micro data. Finally, forecast uncertainty of Japanese manufacturing firms is associated with overseas policy uncertainty, in addition to Japan's own economic policy uncertainty.
    Date: 2017–05
  10. By: Jung, Verena (QE / Operations research); Peeters - Rutten, Marianne (QE / Operations research); Vredeveld, Tjark (QE / Operations research)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to better evaluate potential supply chain collaborations (SCCs). Design/methodology/approach – Prior research is used to develop a conceptual framework of all relevant factors, both drivers and resistors, which is, next, empirically tested in the Dutch fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry. Findings –The study provides a complete overview of all potential factors that should be evaluated before starting SSCs, categorized in “benefits”, “forces”, “enablers/barriers” and “risks”. Research limitations/implications – The sample of the study only consists of parties from one Dutch industry. Further research in other geographical areas and/or industries may result in stronger support. Furthermore, the importance of each driver and resistor has not been quantified for the specific party and collaboration. Quantifying the factors for each party might be beneficial and should also be considered in further research. Practical implications – The study provides a checklist containing all potential factors for all parties involved. Originality/value –This paper enriches the supply chain management (SCM) literature with an extensive specification of all potential drivers and resistors for starting SCCs structured in a framework.
    Keywords: Operations research and management science
    Date: 2017–05–22
  11. By: HAYAKAWA Kazunobu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki
    Abstract: In this study, we empirically examine the effects of customers' foreign direct investment (FDI) on their domestic transaction ties and the performance of their suppliers. In particular, we examine the difference in such effects between the first- (direct) and second-tier (indirect) suppliers. To this end, we utilize a unique firm-level survey in Japan that contains information on inter-firm transaction networks matched with FDI data. Our findings can be summarized as follows. There is no evidence that customers' FDI is more likely to suspend their domestic transactions. Rather, direct suppliers' transaction ties with multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more persistent than those with other firms. Although such an effect becomes weak for transactions between direct and indirect suppliers, we did not find a negative effect. Furthermore, customers' FDI has a significantly positive impact on employment growth for both their direct and indirect suppliers.
    Date: 2017–05
  12. By: Schiff, Maurice; Wang, Yanling
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of North-South trade, education, governance and North-South distance, on technology diffusion and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the South, focusing on LAC and East Asia over the 32 years before the Great Recession (1976-2007). Findings are: i) TFP rises with education, trade, governance (ETG) and imports’ R&D content, and falls with distance to the North; ii) an increase of LAC’s ETG to East Asia’s levels raises TFP by 165%, fully accounting for its TFP gap with East Asia; iii) the impact of the education gap equals the sum of the governance and openness gaps; and iv) South America’s loss of TFP relative to Mexico associated with its greater distance to US-Canada (both Europe and Japan) is 9.3 (0) percent.
    Keywords: Trade,Governance,Education,Distance,Technology Diffusion,Productivity growth
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Aleksandra Zygmunt (Opole University of Technology, Poland)
    Abstract: Faced with circumstances of rapid changes, the crucial is stimulation of actions aimed at enhancing competitiveness. In this regard, the European Union strategy Europe 2020 should be mentioned. Concerning the role of firms’ innovation activities in economic growth of regions and countries, it is important to explore how enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities differ between the EU countries with a similar to Poland level of innovation. Thus, the particular emphasis was put on the Moderate Innovators countries.The aim of this paper is to investigate enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities against those from the other Moderate Innovators countries.The study was based on data from the European Innovation Scoreboard 2016 related to firm activities dimensions: firm investments, linkage & entrepreneurship and intellectual assets. The time period was 2008–2015 and was limited by data availability. To study multivariate analysis and the zero unitarization methods were applied. These methods allowed to multivariate analysis of enhancing firms’ innovation activities in Poland and those from the other EU countries with similar to Poland level of innovation.This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing new insight on understanding the issues related to firms’ innovation activities. The results reveal, among others, that although Polish firms’ innovation activities have improved against those from the other Moderate Innovators counties, it requires further enhancing. The findings have practical and policy implications. It is assumed that the obtained results may be useful for firms, regions and country in enhancing competitiveness.
    Keywords: innovation activities; firm; the European Union; Moderate Innovators countries
    JEL: O30 O52 R11
    Date: 2017–05
  14. By: Kornienko, Natalia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Velikova, Elena (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Gulyaeva, Svetlana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Pushkareva, Nataliya (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Mitrofanova, Ekaterina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The establishment of representatives of foreign companies and corporations in Russia is a form of direct investment into the Russian economy. The OECD recommends that various countries tax permanent representatives as if they were independent entities. The existing tax law of the Russian Federation does not adequately cover and regulate these tax issues. The notorious Bloomberg, McKenna, Amazon, Google, IKEA, Starbucks and other cases are glaring examples of tax evasion. Practices of other world nations and countries seriously address the issue of developing measures against dilution and transfer of the tax base through the use of permanent representatives specifically in the BEPS plan. Foreign companies have the opportunity to do business in other countries without an obligation to pay taxes on the income from such business transactions. However, in order to fulfill OECD recommendations, a concept of taxation of representatives and affiliated branches of international organizations in the Russian Federation must be developed, taking into account national interests and the practices of other world nations and countries. For example, there should be an opportunity to use the term "independent entity" to fulfill the purpose of the Russian taxation system to adequately tax representatives and affiliated branches of foreign organizations in the Russian Federation and to fulfill the country's obligations stipulated in international treaties between the Russian Federation and other countries aimed at avoiding double taxation.
    Date: 2017–03
  15. By: David Haugh (OECD); Muge Adalet McGowan (OECD); Dan Andrews (OECD); Aida Caldera Sánchez (OECD); Gabor Fulop (OECD); Pilar Garcia Perea (OECD)
    Abstract: Spain has chronically low productivity growth, which undermines its ability to generate higher living standards. Important contributors to low productivity growth are the misallocation of capital to low productivity firms and under-investment in knowledge-based capital. To foster a better allocation of capital a first priority is to better tune bank, capital market and government financing to the needs of new innovative firms. This could be done through better small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bond and loan securitisation tools, reallocating public financing to early stage finance and making it easier for firms to access public innovation funding by shifting some funding from loans to grants for research and development (R&D) projects. Attracting more foreign capital and improving the regulatory framework to increase the return on investment would also help. This could be done by reducing regulatory barriers that hold back competition, improving the neutrality of the tax system, improving pricing signals and reforming insolvency laws.
    JEL: E22 G24 G28 O16 O38 O44 O47 O5
    Date: 2017–05–30
  16. By: Alessia Lo Turco Author-X-Name-First: Alessia; Daniela Maggioni Author-X-Name-First: Daniela
    Abstract: We explore the role of local intra and extra-regional product-specific capabilities in foster ing the introduction of new products by firms active in the Turkish manufacturing sector. We model firmsÕ product additions to their product basket as dependent on extra and intra-regional knowledge. We find that regional "discoveries", that is newly introduced products never produced before in the region, are positively and significantly affected by external related knowledge spurring from foreign firms active in the same location as well as by firm internal capabilities. Technologically related intra-regional knowledge spillovers and extra-regional knowledge spilling from imported inputs do not play a relevant role. The former, however, matter when we extend the analysis to all new products introduced by firms, regardless of their previous presence in the regional production basket. We interpret this evidence as foreign affiliates bringing new and exclusive capabilities which are missing in the region where they locate, thus providing a stimulus for regional production diversification and upgrading. This hypothesis is validated by exploring the heterogeneous role of the different intra and extra-regional knowledge sources according to productsÕ complexity. Length:
    JEL: F11 F14 D22 D80 N30
    Date: 2017–06
  17. By: Katarzyna Cheba (West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland); Katarzyna Szopik-Depczynska (University of Szczecin, Poland)
    Abstract: The basic question we ask is, whether it is possible to talk in today’s globalizing world about the uniform of the competitiveness of the economies. Posing such questions is particularly important in the case of such political and economic structures such as the European Union. The strategic developmental objectives of the EU include the aspiration to harmonious development of all of its members but it is very difficult task. The competitiveness of the economies is now one of the most frequently discussed topics. It is very difficult to precisely define the notion of competitiveness unambiguously, particularly in terms of international competitiveness of economies. The competitiveness of economies can be discussed both in the context of : a) international competitive capacity, b) international current competitiveness or c) international competitive standing of national economy. In this work, due to the context of the conducted research (international comparisons of the EU countries’ economies) the competitiveness of international economies will be considered in terms of international competitive capacity with regard to investment attractiveness of a country. In addition to the problems associated with defining this concept they are also important dilemmas associated with the measurement of the competitiveness. In the performed comparative analyses of European economies the research results presented within reports of „Global Competitiveness Index” will be used. The aim of the work is multidimensional comparative analysis of the competitiveness of the European Union countries’ economies. In the work to study the spatial differentiation of the EU countries’ economies in the context of their competitiveness, the taxonomic measure of development based on median vector Weber has been used. As a result the classification and the typological groups of the EU countries obtained by means of the taxonomic measure of development calculated on the basis of the characteristics of their competitiveness arises.
    Keywords: competitiveness of the economies, multidimensional comparative analysis, the European Union
    JEL: C38 O11 P36
    Date: 2017–05

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