nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒04‒16
ten papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. The relevance of personal characteristics and gender diversity for (eco) - innovation activities at the firm-level : Results from a linked employer-employee database in Germany By Horbach, Jens; Jacob, Jojo
  3. Human capital shortages in the Vietnamese industry. A firm-level analysis. By Antonio Angelino
  4. What Drives Differences in Management? By Nicholas Bloom; Erik Brynjolfsson; Lucia Foster; Ron Jarmin; Megha Patnaik; Itay Saporta-Eksten
  5. Exports and FDI Entry Decision: Evidence from Japanese foreign-affiliated firms By Ivan DESEATNICOV; Konstantin KUCHERYAVYY
  6. Post-Privatization Ownership and Firm Performance: A Large Meta-Analysis of the Transition Literature By Iwasaki, Ichiro; Mizobata, Satoshi
  7. R&D Effects on Firm Productivity, Exports, and OFDI: Korean Firm-Level Analysis By Lee, Seungrae; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyuk-Hwang; Lee, Joun Won
  8. The Impact of the Opening of High-Speed Rail on Innovation By INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
  9. The effects of Chinese import penetration on firm innovation: Evidence from the Vietnamese manufacturing sector By Duc Anh Dang
  10. Differentials in market constraints and value addition among micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam By Christine Ngoc Ngo; Miao Chi

  1. By: Akanksha Srivastava
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship refers to an individual’s ability to turn ideas into action. Entrepreneurship is a combination of mindsets, knowledge and skills. At higher education level, the primary purpose of entrepreneurship education should be to develop entrepreneurial capacities and mindsets. Crossing boundaries between disciplines, and multidisciplinary collaboration, are essential elements in building enterprising abilities. In terms of entrepreneurship, this socially formed world favors the masculine ideal over the feminine, and while the impact is powerful, most people are not aware of its creation, refreshment, and/or use. Social construction is not a deterministic process; it is perpetuated by institutions and institutional forces but what is socially constructed can change There is a need for greater flexibility in course design. Work placements, alternation between full- and part-time study, organization of intensive courses, and accreditation of informal and non-formal learning all have a role to play. Key Words: Women Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Education, Teaching Methods Policy
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Horbach, Jens; Jacob, Jojo
    Abstract: "Up to now, the growing literature on the determinants of eco-innovation has not considered the influence of personal characteristics of the employees of a firm. The existing econometric analyses show much 'noise' explaining the driving forces of eco-innovation. The paper tries to open the 'black box' of unexplained heterogeneity. In fact, latent variables such as the greenness of a firm may be explained by the personal characteristics (gender, family status, geographical origin, education etc.) of the staff and the decision makers in a firm. The linked employer-employee database of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) in Germany allows such an analysis based on data for 2010 and 2012. The results of an econometric analysis show that a high share of high qualified women and a mixed gender composition of the management board are positively correlated to eco-innovation activities. Furthermore, the results confirm that export-oriented firms are more likely to innovate, firms characterized by an over-aging of the staff innovate less and a higher competition pressure leads to more innovations." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: C35 J16 Q55
  3. By: Antonio Angelino (Università degli Studi di Ferrara)
    Abstract: The access to human capital results to be a fundamental determinant of growth in LDCs enabling conditions for economic diversification and industrial upgrading. Skilled labour shortages generate detrimental dynamics for enterprise development preventing the spillovers arising from the productive interactions with the foreign agents and obstructing the domestic firms’ capabilities to absorb knowledge and technology. At the same time, the presence of an inadequately skilled workforce is combined to a scarce degree of firms’ responsiveness with respect to learning by exporting mechanisms and exploitation of R&D incentives. In this regards, firms are not likely to face undifferentiated human capital constraints. Indeed, the typology and the severity of the obstacles in terms of inadequately educated workforce are likely to be significantly determined by their observable and unobservable attributes. We implement binary discrete choice models on firms’ subjective assessments to evaluate whether and to what extent the attributes of the firms matter in determining the degree of severity of the human capital constraints. The main results of our study, conducted on about 1000 firms in Vietnam, show that the indirect exporters, the firms investing in R&D and the firms located in urban contexts are more likely to report human capital shortages as a major constraint relative to the rest of the firms.
    Keywords: Human capital, Emerging Markets, Industrial Policy, Vietnam, Entrepreneurship
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Nicholas Bloom; Erik Brynjolfsson; Lucia Foster; Ron Jarmin; Megha Patnaik; Itay Saporta-Eksten
    Abstract: Partnering with the Census we implement a new survey of “structured” management practices in 32,000 US manufacturing plants. We find an enormous dispersion of management practices across plants, with 40% of this variation across plants within the same firm. This management variation accounts for about a fifth of the spread of productivity, a similar fraction as that accounted for by R&D and twice as much as explained by IT. We find evidence for four “drivers” of management: competition, business environment, learning spillovers and human capital. Collectively, these drivers account for about a third of the dispersion of structured management practices. practices in 32,000 US manufacturing plants. We find an enormous dispersion of management practices across plants, with 40% of this variation across plants within the same firm. This management variation accounts for about a fifth of the spread of productivity, a similar fraction as that accounted for by R&D and twice as much as explained by IT. We find evidence for four “drivers” of management: competition, business environment, learning spillovers and human capital. Collectively, these drivers account for about a third of the dispersion of structured management practices.
    Keywords: Management, productivity, competition, learning
    JEL: L2 M2 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–01
    Abstract: Why do aggregate foreign direct investments (FDI) fall with distance? To answer this question, we examine the behavior of Japanese multinational enterprises (MNEs). We are interested in FDI entry decision given export experience in foreign markets. We postulate that one of the firms' strategies is learning the foreign market potential by exporting first, followed by establishment of foreign affiliates if expected profitability is high enough. We propose a theoretical model and test it empirically using firm-level data from two basic surveys of Japanese companies: the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities and the Basic Survey on Overseas Business Activities for the period 1995-2013. We control for export experience and productivity of Japanese MNEs, and find that the probability of FDI entry decreases in distance. We conclude that trade costs shape outward FDI activity in addition to learning by exporting and productivity channels. Our tentative explanation suggests that trade costs limit firms' ability to reveal the foreign market demand. As a result, they may exit the foreign market before realizing the potential of profitability.
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Iwasaki, Ichiro; Mizobata, Satoshi
    Abstract: This paper aims to perform a meta-analysis of the relationship between post-privatization ownership and firm performance using a large database of the transition literature. Baseline estimation of a meta-regression model that employs a total of 2894 estimates drawn from 121 previous studies indicated the superior impact of foreign ownership on firm performance in comparison with state and domestic private entities. However, it did not go as far as to comprehensively verify the series of hypotheses concerning the interrelationship between different ownership types. The estimation of an extended meta-regression model that explicitly controls for the idiosyncrasies of transition economies and privatization policies strongly suggested that differences between countries in terms of location, privatization method, and policy implementation speed are the cause of the opaqueness seen in the empirical results of the previous literature. The definite evidence of the harmfulness of the voucher privatization for ex-post firm performance is one of the most noteworthy empirical findings obtained from the meta-analysis in this paper.
    Keywords: post-privatization ownership, firm performance, transition economies, meta-analysis, publication selection bias, Central and Eastern Europe, former Soviet Union
    JEL: D22 G32 G34 L25 P21 P31
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Lee, Seungrae (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Park, Ji Hyun (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Kim, Hyuk-Hwang (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee, Joun Won (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This report empirically analyzes the effects of firm R&D on firm performance, particularly on firm productivity, exports, and outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by using Korean firm-level data. While this report lies in line with prior literatures that examined firm R&D effects on firm performance, we further explores the pathway connection between the two. That is, we not only examine firm R&D effects on particular firm performance, but also study the significance of firm productivity as a pathway that links firm R&D with firm exports and OFDI. Our estimation results indicate that firm R&D significantly heightens firm performance, particularly by showing stronger impact on firm performance over time. On the other hand, by using firm productivity as a mediator variable in a triangular structural equation to estimate direct R&D effects and indirect R&D effects through firm productivity, our results show that firm R&D has significant effects on export and OFDI increase directly and indirectly through firm productivity increase. Examining direct and indirect firm R&D effects across different industry sectors, we found that firm R&D is significantly effective on exports and OFDI among capital-intensive sectors, while it does not exhibit a significant influence among labor-intensive sectors. Our estimation results imply that while R&D promotion policies towards the private sector are effective for improving firm performance, these policies would yield more effective consequences if they are targeted at specific industry sectors. In particular, our results suggest that R&D promotion policies towards firms inside capital-intensive sectors would be more effective on exports and OFDI than policies towards firms inside labor-intensive sectors.
    Keywords: Firm R&D; Productivity; Exports; OFDI
    Date: 2015–10–08
  8. By: INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the reduction of the travel costs through improvement in transportation infrastructure lead to knowledge diffusion. Using the case of the opening of the Nagano-Hokuriku shinkansen, and applying the difference-in-differences approach, we estimate the impact of the high-speed rail on innovative activities along the line. We find that after the opening of the high-speed rail, innovative activities by establishments along the line significantly increased. Furthermore, collaborative patents across establishments along the line and citations of patents published by the establishments in Tokyo increased. These imply that the innovative activities along the line are increased through knowledge diffusion from nearby establishments and those in Tokyo.
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: Duc Anh Dang
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of Chinese import penetration on the innovation of Vietnamese manufacturing firms from 2011 to 2015, exploiting variations in import exposure by industry specialization and instrumenting for Chinese import penetration using Chinese global exports. Contrary to the existing literature, the paper finds no systematic evidence that rising imports from China make domestic firms adopt new technologies or innovations in their products.
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Christine Ngoc Ngo; Miao Chi
    Abstract: This paper analyses the differentials of productive values in Vietnamese micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and how market constraints have hindered their performance. Quantitative analyses suggest substantial differences in value addition among manufacturing MSMEs, and the crucial contribution of technology adoption to their development. We assess MSMEs’ productive value, production organization and performance using qualitative analysis. Our case studies identify market failures hindering MSMEs’ potential; explain their strengths and weaknesses; and assess how the market structure influences their production costs and business strategies. Drawing from these insights, we suggest policy options to strengthen capability and competitiveness of Vietnamese’ MSMEs.Length: 23
    Date: 2017

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