nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒04‒02
twelve papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Współpraca badawczo-rozwojowa przedsiębiorstw: przegląd prac empirycznych By Karbowski, Adam
  2. R&D cooperation within Italian technological districts: A microeconometric analysis By Otello Ardovino; Maria Rosaria Carillo; Luca Pennacchio
  3. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems By F.C. Stam; Ben Spigel
  4. PUBLIC R&D SUPPORT IN ITALY. EVIDENCE FROM A NEW FIRM-LEVEL PATENT DATA SET By Francesco Aiello; Giuseppe Albanese; Paolo Piselli
  5. Agglomeration economies in Vietnam : a firm-level analysis By Gokan, Toshitaka; Kuroiwa, Ikuo; Nakajima, Kentaro
  6. The Effect of Hiring Top Workers on Productivity: What is the Role of Absorptive Capacity? By Lodefalk, Magnus; Tang, Aili
  7. Monitoring the knowledge transfer performance of universities: An international comparison of models and indicators By Matthew Ainurul Rosli; Federica Rossi
  8. A Typology of European Universities. Differentiation and resource distribution. By Benedetto, Lepori; Geuna, Aldo; Veglio, Valerio
  9. Identifying Productivity Spillovers Using the Structure of Production Networks By Bazzi, Samuel; Chari, Amalavoyal V.; Nataraj, Shanthi; Rothenberg, Alexander D.
  10. Technology modelling and technology innovetion. How a technology model may be useful in studying the innovation process By Bonomi Angelo; Marchisio Mario Andrea
  11. Power Outages and the Productivity of Small and Medium Enterprises: the role of Formality By Lassana Cissokho
  12. Does high-involvement management improve productivity? By Böckerman, Petri; Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

  1. By: Karbowski, Adam
    Abstract: In this work empirical studies (published in the time period 2001-2015) on R&D cooperation of firms are reviewed. In the empirical literature on R&D cooperation of firms the following research strands can be distinguished: (1) research on impact of R&D cooperation of firms on enterprise innovation, (2) research on characteristics of firms and markets conducive to formation of R&D cooperation in industry, (3) research on impact of knowledge spillovers on R&D cooperation of firms, and (4) research on impact of R&D cooperation on enterprise profitability. Empirical studies revealed a positive relationship between R&D cooperation and enterprise innovation, though the existence and strength of the indicated relationship depend heavily on the enterprise innovation measure selected by the authors of the research. The impact of (i) firm’s size, (ii) degree of market concentration, (iii) R&D intensity, and (iv) type of research performed by the enterprise on the probability of forming R&D cooperation is ambiguous. The analysis of relevant empirical studies indicates that knowledge spillovers incentivize firms to form R&D cooperation in the industry. The empirical literature further suggests that firms cooperating in R&D attain on average lower profit margins than firms competing in R&D.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation of firms, empirical studies
    JEL: O3 O31 O32
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: Otello Ardovino; Maria Rosaria Carillo; Luca Pennacchio (-)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of inter-firm R&D collaborations in a particular type of innovation network, the technological districts created in Italy under a specific public policy to foster innovation and economic development at the local level. Using an original database containing information on the collaborative research projects activated by the districts, we find that the structural characteristics of the individual districts play an important role upon firms’ collaboration choices: the probability of cooperating is higher in districts in which universities have a major weight and in districts with governance more oriented towards market logic. As regards the governance, the estimates also reveal a strong moderating effect on other important determinants of R&D cooperation, such as geographical proximity and absorptive capacity.
    Keywords: : R&D cooperation, innovation networks, firm behaviour, dyadic regession model
    JEL: L14 O31 O32
    Date: 2016–09–05
  3. By: F.C. Stam; Ben Spigel
    Abstract: This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate the emerging literature on entrepreneurial ecosystems. Current work on ecosystems is underdeveloped, focusing more on superficial generalizations based on successful case studies such as Silicon Valley or Boulder, Colorado rather than on rigorous social science research. The paper provides a review of the multiple definitions of ecosystems found within the literature, and discusses the relationships between ecosystems and allied concepts such as industrial districts, clusters, and innovation systems. The paper concludes by discussing an integrative model that connects the functional attributes of entrepreneurial ecosystems (including framework conditions and systemic conditions) with entrepreneurial outputs and welfare outcomes. The framework conditions consist of the social (informal and formal institutions) and physical conditions enabling or constraining human interaction. Systemic conditions are the heart of the ecosystem and include networks of entrepreneurs, leadership, finance, talent, knowledge, and support services.
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: Francesco Aiello; Giuseppe Albanese; Paolo Piselli (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of R&D public support on the innovation activities of a sample of Italian SMEs. Unlike most of the literature, the analysis focuses more deeply on the innovation output than on the innovation input. The innovation output is measured through patent data. By using a new data set obtained by combining information from EPO records and the Capitalia data set on Italian corporations, we find that publicly supported firms have similar patenting activity to other R&D performers, regardless of the type of policy tool used to foster innovation. However, as far as patenting is concerned, supported SMEs face higher R&D spending than others.
    Keywords: Patents, R&D policy support, SMEs
    JEL: O31 O38 L1 C21
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Gokan, Toshitaka; Kuroiwa, Ikuo; Nakajima, Kentaro
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of agglomeration economies on firm†level productivity in Vietnam. By using Vietnamese firm†level data and the cluster detection method proposed by Mori and Smith (2013), we estimate the agglomeration economies for firm†level productivity. Specifically, we consider the different effects of agglomeration economies for localization and urbanization, as well as across types of firms; state†owned, private, and foreign†owned firms. Furthermore, we decompose the agglomeration economies into the three sources of the effect; inter†industry transaction relationships, knowledge spillovers, and labor pooling. We find the following results. First, localization economies actually improve firm†level productivity in Vietnam, with firms in the clustered areas having higher productivities. However, the localization economies do not improve the productivity of the state†owned firms. Second, urbanization economies improve productivity only for foreign†owned firms. State†owned and private firms do not benefit from urbanization economies. From the decomposition of agglomeration economies, we find that agglomeration economies formed through transactions work only for private firms. On the other hand, agglomeration economies formed through knowledge spillovers and labor pooling work for foreign†owned firms.
    Keywords: Local economy, Economic conditions, Economic geography, Productivity, Agglomeration Economies, Economic Geography
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Lodefalk, Magnus (Örebro University School of Business); Tang, Aili (Örebro University School of Business)
    Abstract: We examine heterogeneous productivity effects of hiring top workers on small and medium-sized enterprises, using longitudinal employer-employee data. We find the productivity effect to be stronger for firms with higher absorptive capacity in terms of having a well-educated workforce, being in a knowledge-intensive industry or performing R&D. Technological laggards within an industry benefit more strongly from hiring top workers if their workforce is more well-educated.
    Keywords: recruitment; knowledge spillover; firm growth; productivity; SME; absorptive capacity
    JEL: D22 D24 D83 J24 J62
    Date: 2017–03–24
  7. By: Matthew Ainurul Rosli (University of Wolverhampton); Federica Rossi (Birkbeck, University of London)
    Date: 2015–07
  8. By: Benedetto, Lepori; Geuna, Aldo; Veglio, Valerio (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to develop a theory-based typology of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) based on three dimensions of differentiation, i.e. their activity profile (education vs. research), the subject scope (generalist vs. specialist) and regulatory characteristics which constrain the previous two. We examine the financial environment of HEIs as a possible selection mechanism. Particular attention is devoted to the identification of European Research Universities. By testing this typology on a large sample of European HEIs, we show systematic differences between types in their activity profile and in the level of funding, therefore providing evidence that types are associated with different market positioning. We identify a small group of research universities, characterized by a high level of research volume and intensity and by a volume of funding far higher than all other HEIs in the sample, suggesting that their emergence is critically linked to the concentration of resources.
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: Bazzi, Samuel; Chari, Amalavoyal V.; Nataraj, Shanthi; Rothenberg, Alexander D.
    Abstract: Despite the importance of agglomeration externalities in theoretical work, evidence for their nature, scale, and scope remains elusive, particularly in developing countries. Identification of productivity spillovers between firms is a challenging task, and estimation typically requires, at a minimum, panel data, which are often not available in developing country contexts. In this paper, we develop a novel identification strategy that uses information on the network structure of producer relationships to provide estimates of the size of productivity spillovers. Our strategy builds on that proposed by Bramoulle et al. (2009) for estimating peer effects, and is one of the first applications of this idea to the estimation of productivity spillovers. We improve upon the network structure identification strategy by using panel data and validate it with exchange-rate induced trade shocks that provide additional identifying variation. We apply this strategy to a long panel dataset of manufacturers in Indonesia to provide new estimates of the scale and size of productivity spillovers. Our results suggest positive productivity spillovers between manufacturers in Indonesia, but estimates of TFP spillovers are considerably smaller than similar estimates based on firm-level data from the U.S. and Europe, and they are only observed in a few industries.
    Date: 2017–02
  10. By: Bonomi Angelo (CNR-IRCrES, National Research Council of Italy, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Real Collegio 30, Moncalieri (TO)); Marchisio Mario Andrea (Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People’s Republic of China)
    Abstract: This work concerns an extension of a mathematical model of technology developed at the Santa Fe Institute in the late nineties. It is based on analogies existing between technological and biological evolution and not on economic principles. This extension has the purpose to make the model useful in the studies of the innovation process. The model considers technology activity, independently of possible economic purposes, and having its own properties, structure, processes as well as an evolution independently by economic factors but more similar to biologic evolution. Considered purpose of technology is reaching of a technical result and not necessarily an economic result. The model considers technology as a structured set of technological operations that may be represented by a graph or matrix. That opens a description of a technology in term of technological spaces and landscapes, as well as in term of spaces of technologies, in which it is possible to represent search of optimal and evolutive paths of technologies, changes in their efficiency and measure of their radical degree linked to their technological competitiveness. The model is presented in a descriptive way and its mathematical development is presented in annex. The main applications of the model concern the use of the defined radical degree of a technology linked to its technological competitiveness. In this way it is explained the existence of Red Queen Regimes, characterized by continuous technical but not economical developments, among firms producing the same product. Such regimes are disrupted only by the entering of a technology with a high radical degree. Changes in operational structure of technologies may suggest the existence of three types of technology innovations, the first concerning learning by doing and consisting in minor changes giving incremental innovations, the second and the third, both able to obtain radical innovations through R&D activity, but the second exploiting scientific results and the third based only on a combinatory process of pre-existing technologies. This last way of innovation may explain the innovative potential, existing for example in Italian industrial districts, without resorting to any scientific research.
    Keywords: Technology model, technology innovation, research & development, learning by doing
    JEL: C60 D20 D21 O30
    Date: 2016–10
  11. By: Lassana Cissokho
    Abstract: The objective of this studypaper is to quantify and analyze the adverse effects of power outages on the productivity of SMEs in Senegal, and to analyse how different this effect is across formal and informal sectors. To measure productivity, two indices of efficiency are considered: the technical and the scale efficiency scores. We analyzed how the measures of power outages affect firms’ productivity, and whether various alternatives to power generation are effective in reducing the potential productivity losses associated with power outages. Our empirical approach is twofold. The first part deals with the estimation of firms’ productivity. To do so, we use a non-parametric approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is very popular in evaluating firms’ performance (Cooper et al., 2007). The second part uses alternatively each measure of efficiency (technical and allocative) and tries to understand what might drive differences in firms’ performance, in a regression analysis using the generalized linear model. This paper assesses the impact of electricity outages on firms’ productivity in Senegal. Productivity is measured using technical and scale efficiency scores. Results from a generalized linear model, based on survey data from 528 businesses, indicate that power outages have a negative effect on technical and scale efficiency. Further, it apperas that small SMEs are more successful in dealing with scale efficiency. Finding a solution to the power outage issue, and access to loans and/or credit lines affected scale efficiencies. Now it is very likely that sectoral rection differs, as well as the that of formal and informal entities. Formal SMEs, more likely to access to formal banking resources, should suffer less compared to the informal ones. The sectoral effects are likely to be different also.
    Keywords: Senegal, Sectoral issues, Agent-based modeling
    Date: 2015–07–01
  12. By: Böckerman, Petri; Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti
    Abstract: There is a positive correlation between the use of high-involvement management practices and firm productivity. However, this correlation does not mean that adoption of such practices would improve productivity. The positive correlation is mostly due to more productive firms adopting high-involvement management practices.
    Date: 2017–03–27

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