nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒03‒05
fourteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. First, Second and Third Tier Universities: Academic Excellence, Local Knowledge Spillovers and Innovation in Europe By Cristian Barra; Ornella Wanda Maietta; Roberto Zotti
  2. Efficiency, innovation, and imported inputs: determinants of export performance among Indian manufacturing firms By Marco Grazzi; Nanditha Mathew; Daniele Moschella
  3. The impact of open innovation on employee mobility and entrepreneurship By Simeth, Markus; Mohammadi, Ali
  4. Entrepreneurial Experimentation: A Key Function in Entrepreneurial Systems of Innovation By Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Åsa; Andersson, Martin; Carlsson, Bo
  5. Development and Utilization of Energy-related Technologies, Economic Performance and the Role of Policy Instruments By Spyros Arvanitis; Michael Peneder; Christian Rammer; Tobias Stucki; Martin Wörter
  6. Knowledge Spillovers and their Impact on Innovation Success - A New Approach Using Patent Backward Citations By Spyros Arvanitis; Florian Seliger; Martin Wörter
  7. Innovation and Firm Growth over the Business Cycle By Andrin Spescha; Martin Wörter
  8. Technological innovations in museums as a source of competitive advantage By Pop, Izabela Luiza; Borza, Anca
  9. Do Technology Transfer and IPR Spur Domestic Innovation?: An International Panel Data Analysis By Demir, Caner
  10. What Do We Really Know about Offshoring? Industries and Countries in Global Production Sharing By Gordon H. Hanson
  11. Does Energy Policy Hurt International Competitiveness of Firms? A Comparative Study for Germany, Switzerland and Austria By Spyros Arvanitis; Sandra Gottschalk; Michael Peneder; Christian Rammer; Tobias Stucki; Martin Wörter
  12. The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data By Andersson, Fredrik; Johansson, Dan; Karlsson, Johan; Lodefalk, Magnus; Poldahl, Andreas
  13. Competition, Patent Protection, and Innovation in an Endogenous Market Structure By Suzuki, Keishun
  14. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions By Danson, Michael; Todeva, Emanuela

  1. By: Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Ornella Wanda Maietta (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Roberto Zotti (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the drivers of innovation and of university-industry collaboration in the European manufacturing sector, specifically focusing on the extent to which academic excellence may enhance the capacity of firms to develop new products and processes. It shows that academic research has an important direct impact on the firm’s propensity to develop innovation, apart from the indirect effect of academic excellence on partner choice in university-industry R&D collaboration. The results also suggest that the research at lower tier universities has an impact on business innovation and that there is a strong case in favour of public funding also to less prestigious academic institutions.
    Keywords: University–industry interaction; R&D collaboration; Product and process innovation; Academic research quality; University education
    JEL: O3 I23 D22 R1
    Date: 2017–02–25
  2. By: Marco Grazzi; Nanditha Mathew; Daniele Moschella
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of export behavior among Indian manufacturing firms, focusing in particular on the role of technology, cost and imported intermediate inputs. Our evidence suggests that innovation, in particular R&D, positively affects both firmsù probability to export and firmsù export volumes. We also find that imported intermediate inputs, incorporating foreign technology, play an important role in expanding export activities of firms. On the other hand, we find that higher productivity or lower unit labour costs are not systematically associated with the probability to enter export market, but they do positively affect export volumes.
    Keywords: Export behavior, Innovation, Imported Inputs, Trade policy, India
    Date: 2017–02–28
  3. By: Simeth, Markus (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M)); Mohammadi, Ali (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) & Swedish House of finance)
    Abstract: Prior research shows that firms can increase their innovation performance by leveraging external sources of knowledge. However, insights related to potential drawbacks of open collaborative approaches for innovation remain scarce. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between R&D collaboration and the departure of skilled employees. Highly qualified scientists and engineers who interact with external partners in the context of R&D collaborations may increase their outside options, resulting in higher rates of employee mobility to other firms and employee entrepreneurship. We analyze our research question using data from the Swedish edition of the Community Innovation (CIS) survey combined with employer-employee register data. Our econometric analysis suggests that a stronger use of research collaborations by firms leads to an increasing number of employee departures. Moreover, we detect heterogeneity for this relationship with respect to the types of employee exits and different collaboration partners.
    Keywords: R&D employees; Open Innovation; R&D Collaboration; Employee mobility; Employee Entrepreneurship
    JEL: J62 O32
    Date: 2017–03–01
  4. By: Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Åsa (CIRCLE); Andersson, Martin (Department of Industrial Economics); Carlsson, Bo (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: There is a need for a conceptual approach that, with reference to explicit micro-level mechanisms and processes of industrial dynamics, articulates the role and function of entrepreneurial experimentation in innovation systems. This paper develops the concept of ‘entrepreneurial systems of innovation’ to address this gap in the literature. We argue that entrepreneurial experimentation comprises both ‘technical’ and ‘market’ experimentation, and that entrepreneurship must be conceptualized in terms of its function in innovation systems rather than as an outcome. At the systems level, the central function of entrepreneurial experimentation is to foster creation, selection and scaling-up of innovations. Spinoffs and acquisitions are proposed as examples of micro-mechanisms that give rise to system-wide entrepreneurial experimentation. Interaction between established organizations and new innovative entrants, through spinoffs and acquisitions, is an important characteristic of vibrant entrepreneurial systems of innovation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Experimentation; Innovation systems; New technology-based firms; Entrepreneurial systems of innovation; Scaling up; Growth
    JEL: L22 L26 O31 O33
    Date: 2017–02–23
  5. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Michael Peneder (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Christian Rammer (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The present study investigates the effects of energy-related technologies on economic performance at firm level. We distinguish clearly between adoption and use of energy-related technologies (process innovation in the broad sense) and product innovation in energy-related fields. We take into consideration four energy-related policy instruments (and expected demand for energy-related new products and services). We investigate the possibility of indirect effects of policy on performance via adoption or innovation by interacting adoption and innovation variables with policy instrument dummies. We test our hypotheses not only for the pooled data but also separately for the three countries (Austria, Germany, Switzerland) that are taken into consideration in this study. We find a positive direct effect of investment expenditures for energy-related technologies on labour productivity and a positive indirect effect of energy taxes via investment in energy-related technologies. We find neither direct nor indirect effects of product innovation in energy-related products on labour productivity. No differences among the three countries could be detected.
    Keywords: Use of energy-related technologies, Energy-related innovation, Policy instruments, Productivity
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Florian Seliger (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: We propose a new patent-based measure of knowledge spillovers that calculates technological proximity based on firms that were identified via patent backward citations links. We argue that this measure has a couple of advantages as compared to the 'standard' measure proposed by Jaffe: First, it reflects spillovers from both domestic and foreign technologically 'relevant' firms, second, it is more precise because it only takes into account knowledge relations with technologically 'relevant' firms. Our empirical results indeed show that the measure performs better than the standard measure in an innovation model. We find - for a representative sample of Swiss firms - that knowledge spillovers measured in this way have a positive and significant impact on innovation success. However, the knowledge spillovers appear to be localized: Spillovers from geographically distant areas such as the USA and Japan matter less than spillovers from near destinations such as Europe and particularly Switzerland itself. Moreover, the spillover effect on innovation performance decreases with increasing number of competitors on the main product market so that this effect would appear only in niche markets or oligopolistic market structures. However, an additional effect of competition can only be detected for more radical innovation success.
    Keywords: Knowledge Spillovers, Innovation Success, Knowledge Capital, Patent Citations, Competition
    Date: 2016–10
  7. By: Andrin Spescha (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the macroeconomic business cycle impacts the empirical relation between firms’ innovations and their sales growth rates. Based on firm-level panel data over the time period 1995-2014, the paper finds no visible sales growth differentials between firms in booming economic environments. In the economically difficult times of recessions, by contrast, innovative firms show significantly higher sales growth rates than non-innovative firms. This finding is in line with Schumpeter’s (1939) business cycle theory, where recessions play an important role in the adaptation of the economy towards innovative products and processes. Moreover, the paper shows that small innovative firms, profiting from their higher organizational flexibility and stronger entrepreneurial commitment, are the main beneficiaries in this adaption process.
    Keywords: Innovation, Firm growth, Business cycle, Firm size
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Pop, Izabela Luiza; Borza, Anca
    Abstract: In an economic environment characterised by permanent and rapid technological evolution, successful organisations are the ones that are able to adapt their processes and activities to change. This article starts from the assumption that museums can use various modern technologies in order to raise their market competitiveness. Technological innovation allows museums to become more attractive and fulfil their functions better while also using their resources more efficiently. The first part of this paper presents a series of technological innovations specific to museums and the way in which these innovations can lead to an increased museum performance. The study case in the second part of the paper presents the results of an analysis of the technologies used by the museums in Baia Mare in comparison with other Romanian museums. The improvement solutions proposed based on this analysis can prove useful not just for the museums studied, but also for other museums in similar situations. Another, indirect, purpose of this research is to help raise the tourist attractiveness of Baia Mare by bettering the competitiveness of its museums.
    Keywords: innovation; technology; museums; competitive advantage; strategy; development
    JEL: M00 O32
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Demir, Caner
    Abstract: The study investigates whether raising technology transfer and strengthening the intellectual property rights (IPR) regime trigger domestic innovation by employing a panel data analysis for 58 developed and developing countries in the 1960-2010 period. Since theoretical and empirical literature has proved that innovation and technology were the prominent drivers of development process, analyzing the determinants of these factors have become crucial. Due to the globalization process, knowledge spreads faster than any other social and economic indicators; which makes the interactions between the types of knowledge more important. Thus, the study analyzes the impacts of foreign patents (as a proxy for technology transfer) and IPR on domestic innovation. According to the empirical analysis, it is found that technology transfer triggers domestic innovation both in developed and developing world. Contrary, it is also found that intellectual property protection is a detrimental factor for domestic innovation in mid income group while it bears fruit in high income group.
    Keywords: Innovation, technology transfer, intellectual property rights, patents.
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2016–12–15
  10. By: Gordon H. Hanson (UC San Diego and NBER)
    Abstract: Theories of offshoring model how firms divide production stages across borders. Empirical work on the phenomenon has long been hampered by a paucity of cross-country data on special- ization within industries. In standard trade sources, we observe ows of goods between countries at the product level, but not the specific tasks that countries perform in manufacturing these products. The literature has consequently developed an inventive arsenal of indirect measures of industry fragmentation. In this paper, I turn to data on trade in assembly services a labor- intensive task that typically occurs at the end of the production chain to document which industries and countries are engaged in this common form of global production sharing. Trade in assembly services is prominent in just a handful of sectors, including apparel, electronics, footwear, furniture, toys, and transportation equipment. Data for the United States prior to the post-1980 growth in trade with developing countries reveal that most oshoring industries are relatively intensive in the employment of very low-wage labor, exhibit relatively wide variation in the wages paid to their employees, and use capital relatively unintensively. These industries tend to be less likely to hire workers in occupations that are intensive in routine tasks. Offshoring thus appears to be most prominent in sectors for which firms have a strong incentive to divide production between high-wage and low-wage countries and in which the automation of routinized jobs oer few opportunities to reduce labor intensity. Countries that specialize in manufacturing tend to cycle through offshoring industries as they accumulate capital, starting out in apparel, footwear, and toys and later moving into electronics and electrical machinery. These industry dynamics are most pronounced in labor-abundant East Asia. They are not present in the resource-abundant countries that specialize in primary commodities.
    Date: 2017–02–21
  11. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Sandra Gottschalk (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Michael Peneder (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Christian Rammer (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of energy policies on the export performance of firms. There has been a long policy debate on potentially negative impacts of cost-increasing energy policies on international competitiveness. We use firm-level data from three countries with similar industry structure but different energy policies: Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. We rely on firm manager assessments on the relevance of energy policy (in terms of taxes, regulations, standards, subsidies and demand stimulation) for their firm operation and link data on the adoption and development of new energy technologies. Regression analyses and matching approaches both show very few impacts of energy policy on export performance, suggesting that either policy impacts on firms’ cost are negligible in the period of study (2012 to 2014) or likely negative impacts are balanced by the adoption of new technology.
    Keywords: Energy policy, Technology adoption, Competitiveness, Export, Matching approach
    Date: 2016–11
  12. By: Andersson, Fredrik (Statistics Sweden); Johansson, Dan (Örebro University School of Business); Karlsson, Johan (Örebro University School of Business); Lodefalk, Magnus (Örebro University School of Business); Poldahl, Andreas (Statistics Sweden)
    Abstract: Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.
    Keywords: entrepreneur; family firms; employment; GDP; register data
    JEL: D22 G32 J21
    Date: 2017–02–21
  13. By: Suzuki, Keishun
    Abstract: This study revisits the relationship between competition and innovation by incorporating an endogenous market structure (EMS) in a dynamic general equilibrium model. We consider that both innovative and non-innovative followers engage in Cournot competition with free entry. A competition-enhancing policy, which reduces entry cost, can stimulate the entry of innovative followers when the entry cost is high. However, when the entry cost is sufficiently low, the entry of non-innovative followers crowd-out innovative followers from the market. As a result, there is a non-monotonic relationship (inverted-V shape) between competition and innovation. Furthermore, we show that, while strengthening patent protection positively affects innovation when competition is sufficiently intense, the effect may be negative under milder competition. This suggests that a competition policy could complement a patent policy.
    Keywords: Competition, Patent Protection, Innovation, Endogenous Market Structure
    JEL: O30 O40
    Date: 2017–02–25
  14. By: Danson, Michael; Todeva, Emanuela
    Abstract: This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion on the role of regional government and regional triple helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. We investigate the impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional triple helix constellations and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional development at regional level. We put emphasis on the fact that the position of regional authorities in the structure of government and policy boundaries are best implemented at a regional level (the principles of regionalism and subsidiarity), and that localised policy practices represent a more precise view on the government-industry-university interactions (the principle of governmentality). We look at the regional triple helix context as a prerequisite for stakeholder engagement, enhancing innovation capabilities and entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper identifies the drivers behind regional competitiveness and economic development, and investigates the positive externalities from strong triple helix constellations, as well as the impact of government support and institutionalised cooperation on value creation and value capture at the level of the locale. The paper offers a stylized model (Fig. 1) of the conditions for value creation and value capture and offers a critical overview of the debates around the rationale for regional governments. Examples are drawn from Scotland, England and some comparable parts of Europe.
    Keywords: regional development agencies; triple helix; regional governance; public policy; regional economic development
    JEL: H7 L0
    Date: 2016

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