nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2017‒02‒19
twenty-one papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. : Innovation policies for regional structural change: Combining actor-based and system-based strategies By Isaksen, Arne; Tödtling, Franz; Trippl, Michaela
  3. Is it Luring Innovations or just Profit? The Case of European Patent Boxes By Stimmelmayr, Michael; Koethenbuerger, Marko; Liberini, Federica
  4. The impact of home and host country institutions in the internationalization of an African multinational enterprise By John M. Luiz; Dustin Stringfellow; Anthea Jefthas
  5. R&D Dynamics and Its Impact on Productivity and Export Demand in Swedish Manufacturing By Vuong, Van Anh; Maican , Florin; Orth, Matilda; Roberts, Mark
  6. Pricing the quality of an innovative idea By Alvarez Iturri, Silvana Valeria
  7. Environmental regulation and sustainable competitiveness: Evaluating the role of firm-level green investments in the context of the Porter hypothesis By Weche Gelübcke, John P.; Stoever, Jana
  8. Inverted-U relationship between R&D intensity and survival: Evidence on scale and complementarity effects in UK data By Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna
  9. The Quest for Status and R&D-based Growth By Prettner, Klaus; Hof, Franz
  10. Horizontal and Vertical Firm Networks, Corporate Performance and Product Market Competition By Bischoff, Oliver; Buchwald, Achim
  11. Migration, communities-on-the-move and international innovation networks: An empirical analysis of Spanish regions By D'Ambrosio, Anna; Montresor, Sandro; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Quatraro, Francesco
  12. Human Capital Acquisition and Occupational Choice: Implications for Economic Development By Martí Mestieri; Johanna Schauer; Robert Townsend
  13. The firm as a common. The case of the accumulation and use of capital resources in co-operative enterprises By Tortia, Ermanno C.
  14. "Face the Bullet, Spare the Rod?" Evidence from the Aftermath of the Shining Path Insurgency By Prakarsh Singh; Alvaro Morales
  15. The Derived Demand for Knowledge By Antonelli, Cristiano
  16. Intellectual property rights and health: The constraints of WHO authority and the rise of global health governance as an element of contestation By Hein, Wolfgang
  17. The role of entrepreneurship as a vehicle for dynamism and change By Fei Qin
  18. A Simple Model of University-Industry Research Linkages and the Sharing Principle Under Uncertainty By James P. Gander
  19. How headquarters relocation is affected by rising wages and ownership: Evidence from China's annual survey of industrial enterprises, 1999–2008: By Wang, Qingtao; Chen, Kevin Z.; Chiang, Longwen; Xie, Xuanli
  20. Innovation output and state ownership: Empirical evidence from China's listed firms By Kou, Kou; Kroll, Henning
  21. A firm-level dataset for analyzing entry, exit, employment and R&D expenditures in the UK: 1997–2012 By Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna

  1. By: Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ana Bojica (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad de Granada); Shanthi Gopalakrishnan (School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Innovation has become the cornerstone for achieving high performance and competitive advantage and is currently one of the principal topics of debate in the management literature. In order to develop innovations, ?rms need to deal with complex knowledge that comes from its different areas or departments through cross-functional integration. Using a unique sample of Spanish wineries, this paper shows that cross-functional integration moderates innovation- firm’s performance relationship, and that this moderation is conditioned by the degree of organizational knowledge complexity. These findings add to the innovation literature, showing that cross-functional integration has a direct positive relationship with firm performance, but a negative moderating effect on the relationship between product innovation and firm performance. However, this negative effect remains consistent only when the degree of knowledge complexity the organization has to manage is low and becomes positive (although not significant) when the degree of organizational knowledge complexity is high.
    Keywords: Knowledge strategy, structuration, depth, breadth, alliance, biotechnology
    Date: 2017–01
  2. By: Isaksen, Arne; Tödtling, Franz; Trippl, Michaela
    Abstract: There seems to be a widespread consensus in academic and policy circles that the promotion of current economic strongholds and specialisations is no longer sufficient in order to ensure the long-term competitiveness of regions. New policy concepts such as smart specialisation emphasize the need to break with past practices and design and implement innovation strategies that boost regional structural change, i.e. policies that support regional economies to renew their industrial base by diversifying into new but related economic fields or creating entirely new sectors. This new strategic orientation for regional innovation policies has essentially been informed by evolutionary economic geography, which has offered novel insights into how regional economies transform over time and how new growth paths come into being. Applying a regional innovation system (RIS) perspective, recent work has enhanced our understanding of how such processes of regional economic change vary across different types of regions. RIS differ enormously in their capacity to develop new growth paths due to pronounced differences in endogenous potentials and varying abilities to attract and absorb exogenous sources for new path development. The policy implications following from these recent findings on the uneven geography of new path development have hardly been thoroughly discussed so far. General claims such as the need to avoid "one size fits all" strategies and develop place-based policies for regional industrial change remain vague and provide little guidance in this regard. The aim of this paper is to identify opportunities and limitations of regional innovation policies to promote new path development in different types of RIS. We distinguish between (1) organisationally thick and diversified RIS, (2) organisationally thick and specialized RIS and (3) thin RIS. Regarding path development, a distinction is drawn between the extenstion, modernization, importation, branching and creation of industrial paths, reflecting various degrees of radicalness of change in regional economies. The paper offers a conceptual analysis of conditions and influences that enable and constrain new path development in each RIS type and outlines the contours of policy strategies that are suitable for promoting new path development in those different types of RIS. Our point of departure is the well-known distinction between system-based and actor-based policy approaches. The former aims to improve the functioning of the RIS by targeting system failures, promoting local and non-local knowledge flows and adapting the organisational and institutional set-up of the RIS. Actor-based strategies, in contrast, support entrepreneurs and innovation projects by firms and other stakeholders. We argue that both strategies will have only a limited impact on regional economic change when applied alone. However, if they are combined, they are well suited to promote new path development. The paper discusses which specific combinations of system-based and actor-based policy strategies matter for different types of RIS. (authors' abstract)
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Stimmelmayr, Michael; Koethenbuerger, Marko; Liberini, Federica
    Abstract: The effectiveness of European patent boxes in triggering R\&D and fostering new patentable innovations is the subject of a growing debate. These regimes are considered liable of tax-favouring already successful ideas, without imposing a nexus between the final location of the intellectual property (IP) and its related innovation. This paper brings the debate forward onto the assessment of the quantitative impact of patent box regimes on profit shifting by multinational firms. Our empirical strategy builds on a difference-in-difference model comparing the pre-tax profit of European subsidiaries affiliated to firm conglomerates that owned patents long before the introduction of IP boxes, to that of European subsidiaries affiliated to firm conglomerates with no historical record of patent ownership. We find that European subsidiaries affiliated to foreign IP owners report, after the introduction of a local patent box, on average 2.5 to 3.9 percent higher profit compared to European subsidiaries affiliated to non-IP-owning conglomerates. For countries where the patent box regime incorporates a nexus clause, i.e. grants the IP related tax benefit only to newly created IP, we find no significant difference in the profits of the two groups.
    JEL: H26 F23 C23
    Date: 2016
  4. By: John M. Luiz; Dustin Stringfellow; Anthea Jefthas
    Abstract: We demonstrate that firms can exploit their knowledge of ‘weak’ institutional settings and turn it into a source of advantage as they internationalize into locations with similar institutional ‘weaknesses.’ Using the case of one Africa’s most successful multinational enterprises we illustrate the value gained from initially capitalizing upon institutional complementarity (utilizing the comparative advantage linked to institutional know-how) by exploiting the experience of the home country’s environment into similar settings. Over time and through learning-by-doing, pressure arose to diversify the risk linked with over-exposure to institutional uncertainty and country risk, and this was associated with the process of institutional substitution into more advanced countries. We see an emerging multinational learning and building its capabilities by leveraging off its understanding of its home country institutional environment.
    Keywords: Emerging multinational enterprises, institutional voids, African multinational, firm and country specific advantages, institutional leverage capability
    JEL: F23 M16 L66
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Vuong, Van Anh; Maican , Florin; Orth, Matilda; Roberts, Mark
    Abstract: In this paper we develop a structural empirical model that allows us to estimate the impact of R&D on firm profitability through two channels. In the first channel, R&D investment by the firm can impact the firm’s production efficiency and lower its marginal cost. This productivity channel raises the firm’s sales and profits in both the domestic and export market. The second channel is specific to exporting firms where R&D acts to increase the demand for the firm’s products in foreign markets. Using micro data for Swedish manufacturing firms from 2000-2010 we estimate the impact of R&D investment on the unobserved component of the firm’s productivity and export market demand. Our empirical results show that firm R&D investment has a statistically significant, positive effect on both the future productivity and the future export demand of the firm. For high-tech industries, we find that the impact of R&D investments on the demand shocks is twice as large as its impact on productivity. On the other hand, the impact of R&D investments on productivity in the low-tech industries is higher than on demand shocks.
    JEL: D22 F10 L60
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Alvarez Iturri, Silvana Valeria
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze whether the quality of an innovative idea can spur the patent's price. From an economic perspective, we address the question of how the quality of an innovative idea increases the patent's price. We examine the problem for the case of a single innovation rather than patent´s families. Therefore, we follow the assumption that innovative ideas have patents. Nevertheless, the analysis is divided into two stages; first we estimated the quality of the innovation by quantifying information of the patent documents from the patent portfolios of firms of the ICT sector over the period 1996 to 2015. By providing new empirical evidence, we showed that the patent´s quality can be estimate with multiple observed patents' characteristics which are significant related to the utility of the patent in the market and its impact on the follow-on innovation. The analyses also estimate the patent's price in the market for technologies based on the quality index. In the same way, we used information of the patent´s transaction in the ICT sector over the period of 2012- 2015 and review the main costs of the American, European and the international patent system. Our finale results indicate the possibility to reduce the asymmetric information of the quality in the patent´s transactions by using public information.
    Keywords: SEM; quality; price; patent; cross section
    JEL: O34 O32 C55 C31
    Date: 2017–02–09
  7. By: Weche Gelübcke, John P.; Stoever, Jana
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of environmental regulation on firm performance and investment behavior. Exploiting the case of a German water withdrawal regulation that is managed on the state level, we analyze firms’ reactions to an increase in the water tax using a regression-adjusted difference-in-differences approach. We analyze the individual firm’s response to a change in environmental regulation, distinguishing between add-on and integrated environmental investments. This allows us to include intra-firm innovations into our analysis, which are likely to be of importance for increasing resource-efficiency. Our results show that the regulation in question shows no sign of affecting firms’ overall competitiveness. The results imply that the predicted negative impact of the regulation on firms’ economic performance that was brought up before the introduction of the tax, does not seem to weigh heavily in this case. Nevertheless, when placed into a sustainable competitiveness context, the regulation considered does not qualify as an appropriate policy tool for fostering green growth.
    JEL: O31 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna
    Abstract: Existing evidence on the relationship between R&D intensity and firm survival is varied and often conflicting. We argue that this may be due to overlooking R&D scale effects and complementarity between R&D intensity and market concentration. Drawing on Schumpeterian models of competition and innovation, we address these issues by developing a formal model of firm survival and using a panel dataset of 37,930 of R&D-active UK firms over 1998–2012. We report the following findings: (i) the relationship between R&D intensity and firm survival follows an inverted-U pattern that reflects diminishing scale effects; (ii) R&D intensity and market concentration are complements in that R&D-active firms have longer survival time if they are in more concentrated industries; and (iii) creative destruction as proxied by median R&D intensity in the industry and the premium on business lending have negative effects on firm survival. Other findings concerning age, size, productivity, relative growth, Pavitt technology classes and the macroeconomic environment are in line with the existing literature. The results are strongly or moderately robust to different samples, stepwise estimations, and controls for frailty and left truncation
    Keywords: R&D; Innovation; Firm dynamics; Survival analysis
    Date: 2016–05–10
  9. By: Prettner, Klaus; Hof, Franz
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of status preferences on technological progress and long-run economic growth. For this purpose, we extend the standard relative wealth approach by allowing the two components of the representative household's wealth, physical capital and shares, to differ with respect to their status relevance. Relative wealth preferences imply that the effective rate of return of saving in the form of a particular asset is the sum of its market rate of return and its status-related extra return. It is shown that the status relevance of shares is of crucial importance: First, an increase in the intensity of the quest for status raises the steady-state economic growth rate only if the status-related extra return of shares is strictly positive. Second, for any given degree of status consciousness, the long-run economic growth rate depends positively on the relative status relevance of shares. Third, while in the standard model the decentralized long-run economic growth rate is less than its socially optimal counterpart, the wealth externalities in our model counterbalance this distortion to some extent provided that shares matter for status.
    JEL: D31 O30 O10
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Bischoff, Oliver; Buchwald, Achim
    Abstract: This paper sheds new light on the assessment of firm networks via multiple directorships in terms of corporate firm performance. Using a large sample of European listed firms in the period from 2003 to 2011 and system GMM we find a significant compensation effect on corporate firm performance for the initial negative effect of horizontal multiple directorships by product market competition. In markets with effective competition, horizontal multiple directorships turn out to be an efficient mechanism to increase firm performance and thus assure competitive advantages. By contrast, linkages between up- and downstream firms have no significant influence on financial performance, irrespective of the level of competition intensity.
    Keywords: Horizontal and Vertical Firm Networks,Multiple Directorships,Corporate Governance,Product Market Competition,Dynamic Panel
    JEL: C23 G32 G34 L14 L25 L40
    Date: 2016
  11. By: D'Ambrosio, Anna; Montresor, Sandro; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Quatraro, Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of migration on innovation networks between regions and foreign countries. We posit that immigrants (emigrants) act as a transnational knowledge bridge between the host (home) regions and their origin (destination) countries, reinforcing their networking in innovation and facilitating their co-inventorship. We argue that the social capital of both the hosting and the moving communities reinforces such a bridging role, along with the already recognised effect of language commonality and migrants’ human capital. By combining patent data with national data on residents and electors abroad, we apply a gravity model to the co-inventorship between Spanish provinces (NUTS3 regions) and a number of foreign countries, in different periods of the last decade. Both immigrants and emigrants are found to affect this kind of innovation networking. The social capital of both the moving and the hosting communities actually moderate this impact in a positive way. The effect of migration is stronger for more skilled migrants and with respect to non-Spanish speaking countries, pointing to a language-bridging role of migrants. Overall, individual and community aspects combine in accounting for the impact of migration on international innovation networks.
    Date: 2017–01
  12. By: Martí Mestieri (Northwestern University); Johanna Schauer (Toulouse School of Economics); Robert Townsend (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Using household-level data from Mexico we document patterns among schooling, entrepreneurial decisions and household characteristics such as assets, talent of household members and age of the household head. Motivated by our findings, we develop a heterogeneous-agent, incomplete-markets, overlapping-generations dynasty model. Households jointly decide over their life cycle on (i) kids' human capital investments (schooling) and (ii) parents' entry, exit and investment into alternative entrepreneurial modes (subsistence and modern). With financial constraints all of these are co-determined. A calibrated version of our model can account for the broad correlation patterns uncovered in the data within and across generations, e.g., a non-monotonic relationship between educational choices and assets across occupations, growth in profits and employment for modern firms only, and dynastic persistence across generations in education and wealth. Endogenous human capital acquisition is a key driver of inequality and intergenerational persistence. Eliminating this channel would decrease the top 10% income share by 47%. Eliminating within-period borrowing constraints would increase average household expenditure by 7.1% and benefit the middle class, reducing top and bottom expenditure shares. It would also reduce by 28% the correlation between household assets and kids’ schooling levels.
    Keywords: human capital, Inequality, development, occupational choice, entrepreneurship, Mexico
    JEL: O15 O54 I24
    Date: 2017–01
  13. By: Tortia, Ermanno C.
    Abstract: Contemporary literature dealing with the governance of the exploitation of common-pool natural resources was initiated by Elinor Ostrom in 1990, and has been growing fast ever since. On the contrary, within the same research stream, the study of the presence and economic role of common resources in entrepreneurial-organizational is, to date, under-researched. This work endeavours some attempt to fill this gap by: first, spelling out a new-institutionalist framework for the analysis of the accumulation and governance of common capital resources within organizational boundaries; second, by considering co-operative enterprises as the organizational form that, on the basis of historical record, and of behavioural and institutional characteristics, demonstrated to be the most compatible with a substantial role for common and non-divided asset-ownership and with its governance thereof. The economic forces influencing the optimal level of self-financed common capital resources in co-operatives are enquired. Also their governance is brought under the spotlight, evidencing: (i) the constraints that need to be fulfilled, and the potential benefits arising out of their presence; (ii) the compatibility and mutual adaptability between democratic governance in co-operatives and the governance of non-divided assets.
    Keywords: co-operative enterprises; indivisible reserves; common resources; rivalry; non-excludability; capital accumulation; governance
    JEL: B52 J54 K11 P12 P13 P14
    Date: 2017–02–09
  14. By: Prakarsh Singh; Alvaro Morales
    Abstract: We investigate whether violence occurring outside the confines of a home can alter intrahousehold violence inter-generationally. This paper is the first to explore whether exposure to violence from an armed conflict affects the later use of physical punishment as a child discipline method. Our identification strategy relies on the spatial and temporal variation of the Peruvian civil conflict that occurred between 1980 and 2000. We find that a mother exposed to an additional one hundred violent conflict-related events in her district is 3.4-3.8 percentage points less likely to physically punish her children. This effect is equivalent in magnitude to an additional 10 years of education. We find suggestive evidence that the conflict could have increased parenting knowledge and support. Communities that experienced higher levels of conflict violence saw greater increases in social spending and had more health resources in the post-conflict period. Additionally, we find women’s conflict exposure is associated with a higher likelihood of accessing these resources.
    Keywords: Domestic Violence; Civil Conflict; Physical Child Abuse; Peru
    JEL: J13 D1 J16
    Date: 2016–07
  15. By: Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper calls attention on the effects of the economic properties of knowledge on its derived demand, an issue that has not received enough attention in the literature. The results of the analysis suggests that, because of the idiosyncratic -Arrovian- properties of knowledge, a chain of effects takes place: i) in downstream markets the price of goods that have been produced using knowledge as an intermediate good, falls, ii) consequently the derived demand in upstream knowledge markets –both within corporations and by them to knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) - has a lower position, and iii) the price of knowledge is lower than it should be were knowledge a standard good traded in competitive markets, iv) with negative consequences in terms of adverse selection of large scale high quality research projects, but v) possible compensating effects stemming from the use of knowledge spillovers to generate cheaper knowledge. Such results have important implications for economic policy discussions and decisions.
    Date: 2016–07
  16. By: Hein, Wolfgang
    Abstract: This paper links the main issues of the project "Contested World Order" (WZB, GIGA, HSFK) to the policy field of global health: the authority of the institutional setting, and the preferences and strategies of rising powers and non-state actors (NStAs) - the assumed protagonists of recent power shifts. The first part discusses the loss of WHO authority since the rise of Global Health Governance, and WHO's fight to reassert its position. The core of the paper deals with the conflict on intellectual property rights (IPRs) and access to medicines as a central issue in global health. Between 1995 and 2005, civil society organizations (CSOs) and some emerging powers fought successfully for improving access conditions under the TRIPS agreement (Doha Declaration). WHO's activities to regain the initiative led to the adoption of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (2008) (GSPoA). Chapter 4 analyses the role of NStAs and rising powers (notably BRICS) during negotiations on implementing GSPoA. While CSOs insisted on a binding R&D treaty, BRICS countries finally agreed to more modest results. They support the welfare-orientation and the intergovernmental character of WHO but without seriously challenging basic rules in the global economy. Finally, consensus within WHO was restraint to issues which did not touch the basic IPR framework.
    Keywords: WHO authority,global health governance,intellectual property rights,access to medicines,GSPoA,non-state actors,rising powers,Autorität der WHO,Global Health Governance,intellektuelle Eigentumsrechte,Zugang zu Medikamenten,GSPoA,nicht-staatliche Akteure,Rising Powers
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Fei Qin
    Abstract: The Australian Innovation System Report 2015, the sixth in the series, explores innovation through the lens of innovative entrepreneurship. Using newly obtained data, it analyses how start-ups and younger businesses often behave differently and are more likely to report increases in employment, sales, profitability, productivity, product range and product innovation.
    JEL: N0 J50 L81
    Date: 2015–11
  18. By: James P. Gander
    Abstract: This paper presents an intuitive model of university-industry (hereafter, UI) research linkages (or collaborations), focusing on the sharing principle under uncertainty. The paper draws from an earlier more complicated dynamic control theory model, but it differs in that it brings into the analysis of UI technical knowledge production and transfer the role of uncertainty (randomness) and the benefits of the principle of sharing. The main focus is to show how and why the principle of sharing under uncertainty benefits all entities involved in the technical knowledge production and transfer process, even if some entities experience research failure. Some problems associated with randomness are discussed. Operational aspects and policy value are also briefly discussed.
    Keywords: university-industry, uncertainty, cooperation, sharing, knowledge transfer JEL Classification: 030, 031, 032, 033
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Wang, Qingtao; Chen, Kevin Z.; Chiang, Longwen; Xie, Xuanli
    Abstract: Industrial wages have increased significantly in China in recent years. At the same time, there have been widening gaps in wages across provinces. These trends are likely to prompt company headquarters to relocate. The relocation choices of headquarters are likely to change under different ownership, as a result of variations in their internal capabilities as well as the distinctive nature of their businesses. This paper is the first attempt to examine the effects of rising wages on headquarters’ relocation by ownership. Data were obtained from the China Statistical Yearbook and the Annual Survey of Industrial Enterprises for the period 1998 through 2008. These data allow for differentiation among companies with regard to five types of enterprises: foreign owned, Sino-foreign owned, state owned, domestically joint owned, and privately owned. We use a conditional logit model to identify factors to determine which province headquarters chose to relocate. In addition, we consider the impact of these choices on the “minimum wage standard†introduced in 2004. Results indicate that wages insignificantly affected the relocation choice of all types of headquarters before 2004. After 2004, on average, headquarters were more likely to relocate to low-wage provinces, as predicted by “overall cost leadership.†However, we also find that relocation choices are significantly affected by ownership type. While privately owned and state-owned enterprises are likely to relocate to areas with lower wages, foreign-owned headquarters tend to relocate to high-wage areas, as predicted by the “efficiency wage theory.†Wages did not affect the relocation choices of Sino-foreign-owned companies, but had a negative effect on those of domestically joint-owned headquarters.
    Keywords: wages, industrialization,
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Kou, Kou; Kroll, Henning
    Abstract: China has experienced a surge in innovation output in which state-owned enterprises (SOE) play an essential role. Using panel data of Chinese listed firms, this paper examines the influence of the state ownership on innovation output at the firm level. Controlling for size, we analyse the effects of central and local government control on the number of firms' patent applications in different time periods. Doing so, standard assumptions on state ownership's inhibiting character are confirmed. However, we then qualify these finding by running separate models for different regions and sectors find that the impact of state-control on innovation performance depends on a number of conditions. More precisely, state control of firms has a negative impact on innovation output in particular in China's Northeast region and in mid-tech sectors whereas under other circumstances it does either not matter or can even exert a positive influence.
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Ugur, Mehmet; Trushin, Eshref; Solomon, Edna
    Abstract: This data article is related to the research article entitled “Inverted-U relationship between R&D intensity and survival: Evidence on scale and complementarity effects in UK data”. It describes the trends in R&D expenditures, employment of R&D personnel and firm entry and exit rates in the UK from 1998 to 2012. We also provide statistics on net employment creation and net R&D investments due to firm entry and exits. In addition, we compute the correlation coefficients between entry and exit rates at the two digit industry level so as to examine whether the correlations are contemporaneous or inter-temporal. Finally, we provide information about the underlying dataset to which secure access is available through UK Data Service Archive 7716 at .
    Keywords: R&D; Innovation; Firm dynamics; Survival analysis
    Date: 2016–05–21

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