nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒10‒02
eleven papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Effects of FDI on Innovation Systems in Hungarian Regions: Where is the Synergy Generated? By LENGYEL, BALÁZS; LEYDESDORFF, LOET
  2. Adoption of Cloud Computingin Emerging Countries: The Role of the Absorptive Capacity By Adel Ben Youssef; Walid Hadhri; Téja Meharzi
  3. The impact of urban concentration on countries’ competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance By KOMLÓSI, ÉVA; PÁGER, BALÁZS
  4. Inventions and their commercial exploitation in academic institutions: Analysing determinants among academics By Bijedić, Teita; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
  5. MEDIATEURS effects innovative behavior of the owner-manager on the relationship between human capital and the success of small and medium-sized enterprises in Tunisia By Ammar Samout; Sami Boudabous
  6. Exploring Antecedents of Service Innovation Excellence in Manufacturing SMEs By Mennens, Kars; van Gils, Anita; Odekerken - Schröder, Gaby; Letterie, Wilko
  7. Raising Korea's productivity through innovation and structural reform By Randall S. Jones; Jae Wan Lee
  9. R&D and Productivity in the US and the EU: Sectoral Specificities and Differences in the Crisis By Davide Castellani; Mariacristina Piva; Torben Schubert; Marco Vivarelli
  10. Multinationality, R&D and productivity: Evidence from the top R&D investors worldwide By Davide Castellani; Sandro Montresor; Torben Schubert; Antonio Vezzani
  11. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and International Trade: Evidence from Turkey. By Burcu Ozcan; Hiranya Nath

    Abstract: In this study, we show how internationalization and foreign-owned firms influence synergies in the regional innovation systems of Hungary. We first distinguish three innovation system functions (knowledge exploitation, knowledge exploration, and organizational control) operating in regions and study their interactions using entropy statistics. The functions and their interactions are measured by analysing the distribution of firms in terms of geographical location, organizational size (number of employees), technologies (NACE codes of the OECD), and ownership (foreign versus domestic share in registered stock) in the 2005. Synergy is defined as mutual information among the three dimensions; a fourth dimension is added in order to bring internationalization (FDI) into the model. The factor is relevant since the four-dimensional model explains the GDP contributions to regional development in Hungary, whereas the three-dimensional model does not. We find that regional innovation systems in Hungary are self-organized differently, in relation to a relatively small number of foreign firms. These firms have a large positive effect on synergy in regions between the Hungarian capital and the Austrian border. However, FDI has negative effects on domestic synergy in the lagging eastern and southern provinces of the country.
    Keywords: regional innovation systems, innovation system function, synergy, entropy, foreign firms
    JEL: B52 O18 P25 R12
    Date: 2015–07
  2. By: Adel Ben Youssef (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Walid Hadhri (UAQUAP - Unité de Recherche en Analyses Quantitatives Appliquées à la l'Economie et à la Gestion - ISG - Institut Supérieur de Gestion de Tunis [Tunis] - Université de Tunis [Tunis]); Téja Meharzi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper aims at developing a theoretical framework that explains the decision of cloud computing (CC) adoption in Emergent Countries. It emphasizes the specific role of the technological absorptive capacity especially when the firm is seeking innovation by adopting CC. The absorptive capacity considered in this work is close to the work of Todorova and Durisin (2007) who proposed a framework linking both the contributions of Cohen and Levinthal (1989) and Zahra and Georges (2002).To test our theoretical claims, we estimated two models predicting the probability of adopting CC and adopting CC for innovative aims with (1) competitive pressure and external environment, (2) Technology perceived impacts, and (3) technological absorptive capacity of the firm. We use control variables such as size, sector of activity and seniority in order to control the general purposes of our claims. We use a bivariate probit model in order to understand the determinants of the decision of adoption and an ordered probit with sample selection in order to understand the determinant of adoption of CC for innovative aims. Based on a face-to-face questionnaire administered to a random sample of 350 Tunisian firms, and using a Heckman selection method. Our empirical findings confirm our theoretical claims and show that technology perception is key factor for CC adoption (for general purposes) and that the absorptive capacity is fundamental when the adoption of CC is for innovation goals.We found also that competition pressureis an important explanatory factor:the more competitors that adopt this technology, the more likely the firm adopt it.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption,IPRs,ProbitModel,Absorptive Capacity,Tunisia,Innovation,Heckman selection method,Cloud Computing,Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2015–12–15
    Abstract: This paper aims to elaborate the role of Jacobs-type of agglomeration effects on countries’ competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research allows for a better understanding of the relationship that exists between a country’s urban system, characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating together of people, firms and organizations across different industries. It has recently become an axiom that the better performance of global cities (as they are important nodes of innovation and creativity) is derived from agglomeration effects. This general assumption follows that the more concentrated an urban system of a country, the more competitive and better its entrepreneurial performance. Even though this notion has gained quick and ardent acceptance from practitioners, the related literature shows contradictory results;this has induced a heated debate in academic circles, because it has raised serious doubts about the “bigger is better” theory. We hope to contribute to this debate with our detailed analysis. To understand the impact of urban concentration, we selected 70 countries and calculated the so-called ROXY Index measuring the degree of agglomeration or deglomeration in their urban systems. To exemplify country-level competitiveness, we applied the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) while the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) was used to demonstrate country level entrepreneurial performance. Using these indexes correlation and cluster analysis were designed to obtain understanding of the relationship between them. Our analysis indicates that as urban concentration initially increases competitiveness, entrepreneurial performance also increases, but at a decreasing rate. Both of them eventually reaches a maximum, and then after a certain point decrease with further concentration. Therefore, the curve for this relationship is non-linear and folds back. This indicates that over- or under-concentration of the population within an urban system does not necessarily result in a better outcome. However, we should consider that a high concentration of population is only one important factor for competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance while other effects may exist.
    Keywords: urbanization economies, entrepreneurship, competitiveness, spatial cycles, ROXY Index
    JEL: R00 R10 R11 R12
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Bijedić, Teita; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
    Abstract: Institutions of higher education are considered as an important source of innovation. Consequently, big efforts are made to facilitate technology transfer from academia into the market. However, technology transfer at German universities does not seem to live up to its full potential. We find for example that while 18,5% of our sample did in fact generate at least one invention, only 4,5% of the sample are engaged in commercialization activities. Therefore the vast majority of generated inventions remains unexploited. Based on this finding, we analyze how individual, career-related, and institutional factors affect the innovation and knowledge transfer activities of male and female academics. We show that Gender differences as well as career and human capital related factors (e.g. scope of employment, professional experience, and leadership position) affect such innovation transfer activities. While women generate fewer inventions than men, the fulltime employed researchers with a professional experience outside of academia and a leadership position lead to more inventions as well as partly higher exploitation activities.
    Abstract: Der Wissenstransfer und die Verwertung marktfähiger Erfindungen aus der Hochschulforschung stellt eine bedeutende Innovationsquelle dar, die wirtschftspolitisch breite Unterstützung erfährt. Doch trotz vielfältiger Bemühungen, diesen Prozess zu unterstützen, bleibt ein großer Teil der Innovationen an Hochschulen ungenutzt. Die vorgestellte Untersuchung hat zum Ziel, Determinanten (individuelle, berufsbezogene und Umfeldfaktoren) der Innovationstätigkeit aus der Sicht der an deutschen Hochschulen tätigen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler zu untersuchen. Ergebnisse zeigen, dass an deutschen Hochschulen vor allem vollzeitbeschäftigte Wissenschaftler, die multidisziplinäre oder angewandte Forschung betreiben und daneben noch einer Selbstständigkeit nachgehen, besonders häufig Erfindungen generieren. Frauen bleiben dabei nicht nur insgesamt, sondern auch innerhalb der einzelnen Fächerverbünde hinter ihren männlichen Kollegen zurück. Liegen die Erfindungen erst einmal vor, lassen sich für ihre Kommerzialisierung keine Geschlechterunterschiede finden. In dieser Phase der Innovationstätigkeit sind marktbezogen Praxiserfahrungen ausschlaggebend.
    Keywords: academics,gender,innovation,inventions,commercial exploitation,institutional context
    JEL: O31 O34 J16
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Ammar Samout (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Sami Boudabous (University of Sfax, Tunisia)
    Abstract: The studies on the innovative behavior of the owner-manager in the context of Tunisia have not been the subject of a great interest in our environment. We are interested in the influence of human capital on the success of small and medium sized Tunisian businesses through the mediation of the innovative behavior of the owner-manager. To answer the above question, of descriptive analysis and econometric techniques have been conducted on a sample of 275 owners-leader of different sectors of the economy. This study has helped to identify the impact of human capital, represented by the behavioral factors, the socio-demographic factors and psychological factors, on the success of small and medium-sized enterprises and to see, in effect, that our results are consistent with those of the theory. It is clear from the results of this research that the motivation, the experience and culture of the owner-leader have an indirect effect on the success of SMES, while the effect of the level of training has been completely disappeared once the variable innovative behavior of the owner-manager is introduced.
    Keywords: officer,HRM policies,small business,personality
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Mennens, Kars (Marketing and Supply Chain Management); van Gils, Anita (Organisation and Strategy); Odekerken - Schröder, Gaby (Marketing and Supply Chain Management); Letterie, Wilko (Organisation and Strategy)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss factors that enable SMEs to achieve service innovation excellence. Using a knowledge based-perspective, we posit that absorptive capacity, which is the ability to identify, assimilate and exploit external knowledge, is one of these critical factors. Additionally, we investigate the effect of two potential drivers that can influence absorptive capacity, namely employee collaboration and an SME’s search breadth.
    Keywords: strategy , business administration and economics
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Randall S. Jones; Jae Wan Lee
    Abstract: Raising productivity requires addressing a wide range of policies that affect resource allocation, the creation and diffusion of technology, human capital and the creation and financing of start-ups. The greatest gains can be achieved in the service sector and in SMEs, where productivity has fallen to less than a third of large firms. Regulatory reform, increased international openness and labour flexibility would support such reallocation and technology diffusion. Korea’s large investment in R&D and education should be leveraged to raise productivity by enhancing university and public research and strengthening its links with the business sector and global innovation networks. To take advantage of innovation, the relatively low skill levels of workers above age 35 calls for increased lifelong learning. Perhaps most important, it is essential to shift SME policies away from promoting the survival of firms and towards productivity gains. Given market failures in indirect financing, developing capital markets, including venture capital investment, is a priority to boost firm creation. This Working Paper relates to the 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Korea ( Augmenter la productivité de la Corée à travers l'innovation et la réforme structurelle Un large éventail de politiques touchant l'allocation des ressources, la création et la diffusion de la technologie, le capital humain et la création et le financement des nouvelles entreprises s'imposent pour faire stimuler la productivité. Les gains les plus importants peuvent être atteints dans le secteur des services et dans les PME, où la productivité est tombée à moins d'un tiers de celle des grandes entreprises. La réforme réglementaire, une plus grande ouverture internationale et la flexibilité du travail soutiendraient cette réaffectation et la diffusion des technologies. L’investissement considérable de la Corée en R-D et dans l'éducation devrait être mis à profit pour augmenter la productivité en améliorant la recherche à l'université et dans le secteur public et en renforçant ses liens avec le secteur des entreprises et des réseaux mondiaux d'innovation. Pour tirer parti de l'innovation, il faut renforcer la formation continue pour pallier aux niveaux relativement faibles de compétences des travailleurs ayant dépassé l'âge de 35 ans. Peut-être plus crucialement, il est essentiel de changer les politiques visant les PME en abandonnant progressivement la promotion de leur survie et mettant l’accent sur les gains de productivité. Étant donné les défaillances du marché en matière de financement indirect, le développement des marchés de capitaux, y compris les investissements de capital-risque, est une priorité pour stimuler la création d'entreprises. Ce Document de travail a trait à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Corée, 2016 ( -economique-coree.htm).
    Keywords: productivity, innovation, SMEs, creative economy, regulatory reform, économie créative, réforme réglementaire, innovation, PME, productivité
    JEL: L26 L5 M13 O3 O53
    Date: 2016–09–21
  8. By: Maria De Paola; Francesca Gioia; Vincenzo Scoppa (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: We investigate whether and how social ties affect performance in teams by implementing a field experiment in which a sample of undergraduate students are randomly assigned to either teams composed by friends or teams composed by individuals not linked by friendship relationships. Students undertake an intermediate exam divided into two parts: one graded on the basis of individual performance and the other graded on the basis of the team performance. We find that students assigned to socially connected teams perform significantly better than control students in both the team part and the individual part of the exam, suggesting that social ties are relevant both for solving free-riding problems and for inducing knowledge spillovers among teammates. The positive effect of friendship in teams persists over time and treated students have a better performance also in a second test evaluated exclusively on the basis of their individual performance.
    Keywords: Free-Riding, Knowledge Spillover, Social Ties, Randomized Field Experiment
    JEL: J33 J24 D82 D86 L14 C93
    Date: 2016–09
  9. By: Davide Castellani (Henley Business School, University of Reading); Mariacristina Piva; Torben Schubert; Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: Using data on the US and EU top R&D spenders from 2004 until 2012, this paper investigates the sources of the US/EU productivity gap. We find robust evidence that US firms have a higher capacity to translate R&D into productivity gains (especially in the high-tech industries), and this contributes to explaining the higher productivity of US firms. Conversely, EU firms are more likely to achieve productivity gains through capital-embodied technological change at least in medium and low-tech sectors. Our results also show that the US/EU productivity gap has worsened during the crisis period, as the EU companies have been more affected by the economic crisis in their capacity to translate R&D investments into productivity. Based on these findings, we make a case for a learning-based and selective R&D funding, which – instead of purely aiming at stimulating higher R&D expenditures – works on improving the firms’ capabilities to transform R&D into productivity gains.
    Keywords: R&D, productivity, economic crisis, US, EU
    JEL: O33 O51 O52
    Date: 2016–06
  10. By: Davide Castellani (Henley Business School, University of Reading); Sandro Montresor; Torben Schubert; Antonio Vezzani
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of multinationality on firm productivity, and contributes to the literature in two respects. First, we argue that multinationality affects productivity both directly and indirectly, through higher incentives to invest in R&D. Second, we maintain that the multinational depth and breadth have different direct effects on productivity and R&D. Using data from the top R&D investors in the world, we propose an econometric model with an R&D and a productivity equation that both depend on multinationality. We find: i) multinational depth has a positive effect on productivity, while the effect of multinational breadth is negative; ii) multinationality (along both dimensions) has a positive effect on R&D intensity, translating into an indirect positive effect on productivity; iii) the positive indirect effect is however not large enough to compensate the negative direct effect of multinational breadth.
    Keywords: Multinationality, R&D, productivity
    JEL: F23 F61 O32
    Date: 2016–06
  11. By: Burcu Ozcan (Department of Economics, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey); Hiranya Nath (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) on international trade between Turkey and its trading partners. Based on an extended panel gravity model, the effects of four ICT indices on Turkish bilateral exports and imports are examined with static and dynamic panel data models for the period 2000-2014. The sample includes 35 countries that import Turkish goods and 34 countries that export goods to Turkey. The results indicate that ICT has positive and significant impacts on both Turkish import and export volumes. Additionally, ICT has a larger effect on imports than on exports. Among ICT indices, ICT access has the largest effect on exports while ICT skills have the strongest impact on imports. In contrast, ICT use has the least impact on both Turkish exports and imports. These results are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods. Based on these results, some policy implications can be derived. For instance, Turkey may develop strategic trading partnerships with countries that have high levels of ICT endowments, in order to increase its overall trade.
    Keywords: : Information and Communication Technology; international trade; trade costs; gravity model; panel data models
    JEL: F10 F14 O30
    Date: 2016–09

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