nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒07‒02
29 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation and University-Firm R&D Collaboration in the European Food and Drink Industry By Cristian Barra; Ornella Wanda Maietta; Roberto Zozzi
  2. Measures of the Contribution made by ICT to Innovation Output. An Update of the ICT Innovation Output Indicator By Annarosa Pesole
  3. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors of Competitiveness of Domestic High-Tech Companies By Barinova, V.A.; Zemtsov, S.P.; Sorokina, A.V.
  4. Competition, Innovation, and the Number of Firms By Pedro Bento
  5. Green startups and local knowledge bases: Newborn suppliers of energy-related technologies in Italian Provinces By Colombelli, Alessandra; Quatraro, Francesco
  6. Modern Factors of Competitiveness of Socio-Economic Systems: Organizations, Regions and Cities By Gaponenko, A.L.;, Marina
  7. The Competitiveness of Ports in Emerging Markets: The case of Durban, South Africa By OECD
  8. Academic Entrepreneurship: Bayh-Dole versus the 'Professor's Privilege' By Astebro , Thomas B; Braguinsky , Serguey; Braunerhjelm , Pontus; Broström , Anders
  9. Firm-level environmentally sensitive productivity and innovation in China By Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke
  10. The long-run impact of human capital on innovation and economic development in the regions of Europe. By Claude Diebolt; Ralph Hippe
  11. The Emergence of a Market for Football Stars: Talent Development and Competitive Balance in European Football By Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Olsson, Martin; Persson, Lars
  12. How Innovations and Best Practices can Transform Higher Education Institutions : A Case Study of SIMS By Aithal, Sreeramana; Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh
  13. Government-induced Production Commitment in the Open Economy By Hiroaki Ino; Akira Miyaoka
  14. The long-run impact of human capital on innovation and economic development in the regions of Europe By Claude Diebolt; Ralph Hippe
  15. The Contribution of Research and Development Investments by Sectors to GDP growth By Takashi Obinata
  16. Research, Modeling and Process Management Dissemination of Innovations in Socio-Economic Systems By Levin, Mark; Matrosova, K.
  17. Managing the diversity: board age diversity, directors’ personal values, and bank performance By Talavera, Oleksandr; Yin, Shuxing; Zhang, Mao
  18. A Structural Model of Advertising Signaling and Social Learning: The Case of the Motion Picture Industry By Haiyan Liu
  19. Digital Convergence and Beyond: Innovation, Investment and Competition in Communication Policy and Regulation for the 21st Century By OECD
  20. Does Competition from Private Surgical Centres Improve Public Hospitals' Performance? Evidence from the English National Health Service By Zack Cooper; Stephen Gibbons; Matthew Skellern
  21. Strategic interactions in corporate tax between Chinese local governments By Chen, Yang; Regis, Paulo José
  22. RIO Country Report 2015: Portugal By Manuel Mira Godinho; Vitor Corado Simões; Jana Zifciakova
  23. Is it the way they use it? Teachers, ICT and student achievement By Simona, Comi; Marco, Gui; Federica, Origo; Laura, Pagani; Gianluca, Argentin;
  24. Application of ABCD Analysis Framework on Private University System in India By Aithal, Sreeramana; V.T., Shailashree; Kumar, Suresh
  26. Corporate Management as a Factor in Economic Development and Improving the Competitiveness of Businesses By Kalenjyan, S.; Zhdanov, D. A.
  27. Industry Clusters and Regional Economic Development in the Midwest By Amugeh, Naomi; Van der Sluis, Evert
  28. Management as a Technology By Bloom, Nicholas; Sadun, Raffaella; Van Reenen, John

  1. By: Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Ornella Wanda Maietta (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Roberto Zozzi (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In National Innovation Systems (NIS), knowledge is generally understood to be produced and accumulated through an interactive innovation process that is embedded in a national context which in turn may help determine propensity for innovation. This paper aims to verify how product and process innovation in the European food and drink industry are affected by: i) NIS structure ii) NIS output in terms of WoS indexed publications and the supply of graduates iii) NIS fragmentation and coordination and iv) NIS scientific impact and specialisation. The main source of data on innovation by firms is the EU-EFIGE/Bruegel-UniCredit dataset. This is supplemented by information from the International Handbook of Universities, Eurostat and the bibliometric analysis of academic research output. The results obtained suggest that large research institutions in the public sector may well be detrimental to interaction between university and industry and that the indicators used for public research assessment are not necessarily the most appropriate proxies of local knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: university–industry interaction, firm R&D collaboration, product and process innovation, academic research quality, university education
    JEL: O3 I23 D22 R1
    Date: 2016–06–18
  2. By: Annarosa Pesole (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report presents an update of the ICT Innovation Output Indicator based on the latest available data, and provides a measure of the performance of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in ICT innovation. The ICT Innovation Output Indicator is the contribution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the Innovation Output Indicator elaborated by the European Commission in 2013. The contribution of ICT has been computed for each underlying component of the Innovation Output Indicator for all EU Member States. Depending on the indicator component analysed and data availability, the ICT contribution to innovation can refer either to innovation in the ICT sector as defined by the classification of economic activities, or to ICT use as a general purpose technology in the rest of the economy. The up-to-date ICT contributions for the EU aggregate are: 1. 28% in technological innovation as measured by patents; 2. 19% in absorption of skills as measured by employment in knowledge intensive activities; 3. 27% in competitiveness of knowledge goods as measured by exports of medium-high tech goods; 4. 20% in competitiveness of knowledge services as measured by exports of knowledge intensive services; 5. 23% in innovative firms’ dynamics as measured by employment of innovative fast-growing firms. All data refer to 2013 with the exception of data on patents which refer to 2011. The methodology to compute the ICT Innovation Output Indicator follows the one presented in "How much does ICT contribute to innovation output? An analysis of the ICT component in the innovation output indicator" (Pesole, 2015 ). The reader is referred to this report for more detail on the methodology. The 2013 EU aggregate ICT contributions are very similar to those in 2012 reported by Pesole (2015). The technological innovation component (i.e. ICT PCT patent) increased by two percentage points in 2011 (from 26% to 28%). Similarly, competitiveness of knowledge goods increased from 25% to 27% in 2013. The other contributions remain unchanged. The ICT Innovation Output Indicator delivers a measure of output-oriented ICT innovation that captures both the technological and non-technological aspects of innovation in ICT and ranks Member States' performance. The three top performing countries remain the same as in Pesole 2015: Finland, Ireland and Sweden.
    Keywords: ICT innovation output indicator, measurement of ICT innovation
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: Barinova, V.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zemtsov, S.P. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Sorokina, A.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This work analyzes the main patterns of development of fast-growing companies on the basis of domestic and foreign literature. Also, some hypotheses about the possible internal factors of increased competitiveness were put. These hypotheses were tested on the data about development of domestic high-tech companies - "gazelles" - with usage of statistical and econometric methods of data analysis and based on experience of different companies.
    Keywords: high-tech, fast-growing companies, econometrics, competitiveness, development
    Date: 2015–03–12
  4. By: Pedro Bento (Texas A&M University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: I look at manufacturing firms across countries and over time, and find that barriers to competition actually increase the number of firms. This finding contradicts a central feature of all current models of endogenous markups and free entry, that higher barriers should reduce competition and firm entry, thereby increasing markups. To rationalize this finding, I extend a standard model in two ways. First, I allow for multi-product firms. Second, I model barriers as increasing the cost of entering a product market, rather than the cost of forming a firm. Higher barriers to competition reduce the number of products per firm and per market, but increase markups and the total number of firms. Calibrating the model to U.S. data, I estimate cross-country differences in consumption as large as 3-fold due to observed differences in barriers to competition. In addition, increasing barriers generates either a negative or inverted-U relationship between firm-level innovation and markups. While higher markups encourage product-level innovation through the usual Schumpeterian mechanism, firm-level innovation (at least eventually) drops as firms reduce their number of products. I provide new evidence supporting these two novel implications of the model - that product-level innovation increases with barriers to competition, while the number of products per firm decreases.
    Keywords: product market regulation, entry costs, firm size, productivity, innovation, markups, competition, multi-product firms
    JEL: L1 L5 O1 O3 O4
    Date: 2016–06–08
  5. By: Colombelli, Alessandra; Quatraro, Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: There is wide consensus about the importance of green technologies for achieving superior economic and environmental performances. The literature on their determinants has neglected the creation of green start-ups as a channel to bring about green technologies in the market. Drawing upon the knowledge spillovers theory of entrepreneurship, we test the relevance of local knowledge stocks, distinguishing between clean and dirty stocks, for the creation of green start-ups. Moreover, the effects of the technological composition of local stocks is investigated, by focusing on technological variety, both related and unrelated, as well as on coherence. Consistently with recent literature, green start-ups are associated to higher levels of variety, pointing to the relevance of diverse and heterogeneous knowledge sources, but in related and complementary technological fields.
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Gaponenko, A.L. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA));, Marina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Growing in recent processes of globalization, increased competition and the acceleration of environmental changes require a review of factors lay in the basis of competitiveness and social and economic systems. Reliance on the factors that had previously laid the basis for competitive advantage (production of new products, introduction of new technology - for companies, the development of industry, the availability of natural resources - for the regions and states), now do not provide a sustainable competitive position in the market. This work reveals the modern factors of socio-economic development of the socio-economic systems, especially the influence of modern factors of competitiveness on the socio-economic development of regions, cities, organizations, represents the direction of development of modern factors of competitiveness of the socio-economic systems. Materials of this study allow for more targeted and reasonably build and implement strategies for the formation and strengthening of the competitiveness of organizations, regions and cities in the face of constant change and activation of the processes of globalization and to ensure their long-term and sustainable economic growth.
    Keywords: globalization, competition, environmental changes
    Date: 2016–05–04
  7. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper outlines the competitiveness of ports in Durban, south Africa. It looks at port performance, impact, and policies and governance issues.
    Date: 2014–11–01
  8. By: Astebro , Thomas B; Braguinsky , Serguey; Braunerhjelm , Pontus; Broström , Anders
    Abstract: Should society encourage scientists at universities to become entrepreneurs? Using data on U.S. university-employed scientists with a Ph.D. in STEM disciplines leaving their university to become entrepreneurs during 1993-2006 and similar data from Sweden we show evidence suggesting that owning your idea outright (the “Professor’s Privilege”) rather than sharing ownership with your university employer (the Bayh-Dole regime) is strongly positively associated with the rate of academic entrepreneurship but not with apparent economic gain for the entrepreneur. Further analysis show that in both countries there is too much entry into entrepreneurship, and selection from the bottom of the ability distribution among scientists. Targeted policies aimed at screening entrepreneurial decisions by younger, tenure-track academics may therefore produce more benefits for society than general incentives.
    Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship; economic incentives; Bayh-Dole; Professor’s Privilege
    JEL: J20 L26 N32
    Date: 2016–02
  9. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study analyzes productive efficiency in relation to CO2 emissions using a unique dataset of 562 Chinese manufacturing firms for the period from 2005 to 2009. We develop a directional distance function approach to identify technical innovators in the area of CO2 emissions. The results indicate that a large number of technical innovators are observed in the textile, paper, steel, and computer industries. Furthermore, there are clearly different trends in productivity change and corporate performance across industries and provinces. This result implies that policy makers need to consider industrial and regional characteristics to develop effective policies that conserve energy and reduce CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Technical innovator; total factor productivity; technology adoption; CO2 emissions; Chinese manufacturing firm
    JEL: D24 O14 Q55
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Claude Diebolt; Ralph Hippe
    Abstract: Human capital is supposed to be an important factor for innovation and economic development. However, the long-run impact of human capital on current innovation and economic development is still a black box, in particular at the regional level. Therefore, this paper makes the link between the past and the present. Using a large new dataset on regional human capital and other factors in the 19th and 20th century, we find that past regional human capital is a key factor explaining current regional disparities in innovation and economic development.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Economic Development, Innovation, Regions, Europe.
    JEL: I25 N90 O18 R11
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Norbäck, Pehr-Johan (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Olsson, Martin (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Persson, Lars (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We analyze how the Bosman ruling affected the market for star players and talent development in the European football market. We develop a model with sports competition and endogenous ownership of star players in which we show how the stiffer bidding competition over star players after the Bosman ruling has spurred talent development foremost in EU nations lacking established top clubs. This has a positive impact on their national teams’ performance. However, the stiffer bidding competition has also lead to less competition in the Champions League, as non-established clubs prefer to sell their star players instead of challenging the top clubs. We provide empirical evidence consistent with these findings.
    Keywords: Sports industry; Star players; Champions League; Bosman ruling
    JEL: J44 L50 L83
    Date: 2016–05–31
  12. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: Education has become competitive so as the educational institutions. In order to survive the competition, institutions have to improve the quality of their services. Changes in culture, aspiration and levels of skills required in securing employment for students, force higher education institutions today to rework on their educational models and add value to each and every aspect of their service. Innovations and best practices serve to enhance quality and add value. Srinivas Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), which combines technology, management and social service education has identified and implemented innovations and best practices to differentiate itself among the competitors and to add value in its educational services. In this paper, we have discussed innovations, small and big, developed indigineously and implemented during last four years. They are broadly classified under six key aspects namely "curricular aspects, teaching-learning and evaluation, research, consultancy and extension, infrastructure and learning resources, student support and progression, and governance, leadership, and management". The paper also contains some of the institutional and individual faculty best practices having visible impact on the quality of higher education imparted by the institution. The best practices concern admission, fees, attendance, teaching, performance, skill building, employability, student involvement, collective learning, value addition, ensuring transparency, information dissemination etc. Finally two institutional best practices are elaborated with its aim of practice, underlying principles and concepts, particular contextual features or challenging issues that have had to be addressed in designing and implementing the practice, and its implementation, including its uniqueness in Indian higher education, evidence of success, identifying the problems encountered and resources required to implement the practice.
    Keywords: Best practices in higher education, Innovations in Higher education
    JEL: M1
    Date: 2015–02
  13. By: Hiroaki Ino (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University); Akira Miyaoka (Graduate School of Economics, Kansai University)
    Abstract: We investigate the welfare effects of the strategic regulation that induces a collusive leadership of the organized domestic incumbents under free entry of foreign firms. We formulate such a strategic regulation in the quantity-setting competition where the domestic firms can collusively make their production decision before the entry of foreign firms, and demonstrate how strongly the regulation works in terms of domestic social welfare by comparing to the welfare-maximizing import tariff policy. We show that when the products of firms are homogeneous, that strategic regulation always yields higher welfare than the import tariff does even if the regulator perfectly engages in the domestic-industry protection and ignores consumer surplus. We also consider the differentiated products and demonstrate that the similar result holds when the degree of differentiation is relatively small, but the converse holds when the degree of differentiation is relatively large even if the regulator is perfectly benevolent.
    Keywords: Protectionism, Non-tariff barriers, Import tariff, Endogenous entry, Developmental state, Transition economy, Public enterprise, Trade association, Self-regulation
    JEL: F12 F13 L11
    Date: 2016–05
  14. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Ralph Hippe (London School of Economics and Political Science, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment)
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Takashi Obinata (The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics)
    Abstract: This Paper investigates the relationship between the growth in research and development investments (R&Ds) and GDP growth, focusing on the sector of execution. By the vector error correction model (VECM), the result shows that R&Ds by business enterprises do not contribute to GDP growth in Japan. However, the growth in R&Ds by universities gives significant positive effects to both GDP growth and the growth in R&Ds of business enterprises sector. According to the U.S. data, the opposite results are observed. While R&Ds by business enterprises contribute to GDP growth, those of universities have no effects on both GDP growth and the R&Ds by business enterprises. Another Estimation by a Structural Equation Model (SEM) gives the robust results, showing that the growth in R&Ds by universities contributes to GDP growth in Japan.
    Date: 2016–06
  16. By: Levin, Mark (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Matrosova, K. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper is an analysis of the diffusion of innovation. The aim of the study is to elaborate comprehensive survey involving many carefully consistent peculiarities or different approaches of innovative diffusion and to create an original model of innovative processes.
    Keywords: innovation, diffusion of innovation, externalities, simulation analysis, attributes, evolutionary theory
    Date: 2016–04–14
  17. By: Talavera, Oleksandr; Yin, Shuxing; Zhang, Mao
    Abstract: This study examines the role of board age diversity on bank performance. Using a sample of 97 Chinese banks, we document a negative and significant relationship between age diversity and bank performance. To further investigate the negative link between age diversity and bank performance, we decompose age diversity into personal value diversities. In particular, a variety of directors’ views with respect to work, prudence, and wealth harm bank performance. This indicates that age diversity among directors can affect bank performance via their values.
    Keywords: corporate governance, board of directors, age diversity, value diversity, bank performance
    JEL: G21 G30 J1 J10
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Haiyan Liu (Department of Economics, University of South Florida)
    Abstract: This paper empirically studies how social learning among consumers shapes ?firms' ?optimal strategies of using advertising to signal product quality. I present an equilibrium model that describes both consumers? and fi?rms' ?learning and decision-making under quality uncertainty. My model allows me to distinguish between two roles of informative advertising ?reaching consumers and signaling product quality. I apply the model to the U.S. motion picture theatrical market where advertising and social learning are two main factors for a new movie?'s success. The structural estimates imply that movie studios? signaling advertising only helps to reduce consumers'? uncertainty by less than 10 percent. Word-of-mouth is a much more efficient learning channel for consumers, reducing their uncertainty by more than 90 percent. I also ?find that around 27 percent of advertising spending for movies in my sample is used for signaling product quality, while 73 percent is used for reaching consumers. Studios? tendency to advertise more during the pre-release rather than the post-release weeks is explained to a large extent by the signaling purpose.
    Keywords: Advertising, Signaling, Social Learning, Information, Motion Picture Industry
    JEL: D22 D82 D83 L15 L82 M37
    Date: 2016–02
  19. By: OECD
    Abstract: The digital convergence anticipated during the 2008 Seoul Ministerial has become a reality. Historically, communication services were delivered via single-purpose dedicated networks (e.g. telephone, television). Many OECD countries now function with converged networks, facilitated by the Internet Protocol (IP) in which “bits” are the building blocks for transmission of all content and service – all “applications.” This process of convergence is steadily deepening as technology evolves and more and more activity shifts online. In particular, technological, service and business innovations both at the core and at the edge of the network are significantly affecting competitors, investors and consumers. This report identifies trends in convergence, the opportunities and challenges arising from these changes and suggests policies to meet them.
    Date: 2016–06–07
  20. By: Zack Cooper; Stephen Gibbons; Matthew Skellern
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of competition from government-facilitated entry of private, specialty surgical centres on the efficiency and case mix of incumbent public hospitals within the English NHS. We exploit the fact that the government chose the location of these surgical centres (Independent Sector Treatment Centres or ISTCs) based on nearby public hospitals' waiting times - not length of stay or clinical quality - to construct treatment and control groups that are comparable with respect to key outcome variables of interest. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, we find that ISTC entry led to greater efficiency - measured by pre-surgery length of stay for hip and knee replacements - at nearby public hospitals. However, these new entrants took on healthier patients and left incumbent hospitals treating patients who were sicker, and who stayed in hospital longer after surgery.
    Keywords: Hospital Competition, Public-Private Competition, Market Entry, Market Structure, Outsourcing, Hospital Efficiency, Risk Selection, Cherry Picking
    JEL: C23 H57 I11 L1 L33 R12
    Date: 2016–06
  21. By: Chen, Yang (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Regis, Paulo José (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
    Abstract: Within the time framework of this study (1998–2012), the institutional settings of intergovernmental relations may constrain any strategic behavior of local governments since provincial tax rates are set by the central government. However, attracting business is an important measure of public officials’ performance. Government officials have created alternative channels for tax competition. Our findings are consistent with this view that competition in corporate tax is relevant between provinces. As expected, the positive coefficient on the neighbor’s tax variable indicates provinces respond by changing around 0.73% of GDP to changes in neighboring jurisdictions of 1%.
    Keywords: Strategic interaction, average effective corporate tax, panel data, spatial regression model
    JEL: C23 H25 H77 R12
    Date: 2013–04–01
  22. By: Manuel Mira Godinho (University of Lisbon); Vitor Corado Simões (Technical University of Lisbon); Jana Zifciakova (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, Portugal
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2016–05
  23. By: Simona, Comi; Marco, Gui; Federica, Origo; Laura, Pagani; Gianluca, Argentin;
    Abstract: We provide evidence on whether ICT-related teaching practices affect student achievement. We use a unique student-teacher dataset containing variables on very specific uses of computer and ICT by teachers matched with data on national standardized tests for 10th grade students. Our identification strategy relies on a within-student between-subject estimator and on a rich set of teacher’s controls. We find that computer-based teaching methods increase student performance if they help the teacher to obtain material to prepare lectures, if they channel the transmission of teaching material, if they increase students’ awareness in ICT use and if they enhance communication. Instead, we find a negative impact of practices requiring an active role of the students in classes using ICT. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of ICT at school depends on the actual practice that teachers make of it and on their ability to integrate ICT into the teaching process.
    Keywords: Teaching practices, Student performance, ICT, Between-subject variation
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016–06–10
  24. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; V.T., Shailashree; Kumar, Suresh
    Abstract: Private Universities recently introduced in Indian educational system, have enhanced the scope of innovations in Higher education in India due to their autonomy and zeal to excel. In this paper, we have analyzed its merits and limitations using the analyzing framework called ABCD technique. For these six determinant issues which relate to the functioning of a University has been chosen. These are Organizational aspects, Students Progression, Faculty development, Societal & other stakeholders issues, Governance, Leadership, and Issues on Innovations and Best Practices. Further, four key issues were identified under each of these and critical constituent elements under these factors are worked out. Through this analysis, 192 critical constituent elements which satisfy the success of a private university have been explored.
    Keywords: ABCD analysis framework, Opportunities for Private universities, Challenges for private universities.
    JEL: M1 M10
    Date: 2016–04
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Kalenjyan, S. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zhdanov, D. A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The original motivation of the present study was the interest in the peculiarities of the construction of national corporate relations and, in particular, on the basis of which as owners of domestic companies are choosing top managers for their business. A correct selection of these "agents" is traditionally one of the key elements in the formation of efficient corporate relations and effective way to reduce agency costs. Another aim of the present study was to find the answer to the question: how these affect the quality of hired top manager for the future effectiveness of its activities in this regard, to pick the best leader among several candidates, as well as a desire to describe the mechanisms of the effects on the model level. It was studied in detail the dependence of the potential impact of the top leaders of the totality of their "personal" qualities. On the basis of ordinal approach formed a model tool, assessing candidates for executive positions, and use the following conclusions. The analysis of the parameters affecting the core functionality of the management of the corporation holding type and efficiency of its operation, formed a model that describes the effect of type (a set of personal qualities) heads of individual business units of a holding corporation for the management of its core tasks. The results obtained allowed to form recommendations for the shareholders and other principals to reduce agency costs by Russian corporations by correct selection and hiring managers. It highlights the key factors that characterize agents that can provide the greatest organizational efficiency and eliminates the need of effective leaders is not enough. Formed tools can be used for the selection and hiring managers understand the mechanisms and ways of improving their effectiveness.
    Keywords: corporate management, competitiveness of business, organizational efficiency
    Date: 2015–05–14
  27. By: Amugeh, Naomi; Van der Sluis, Evert
    Abstract: Industry clusters (ICs) are a popular strategy followed by state and local governments to achieve regional and local economic growth and development. We investigate the presence of ICs in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the Midwest between 2000 and 2010, and the degree to which the ICs have contributed to economic growth. Results indicate that the manufacturing, retail trade, health care and social assistance, finance and insurance, wholesale trade and construction industries were the six most common industries with concentrations across the MSAs in the Midwest. Also, only few industries (manufacturing, construction, utilities and wholesale trade) consistently showed statistically significant connections with the economic growth variables considered, even though most industries considered correlate positively with the economic development indicators. Changes in control variables such as population density, unemployment rate and education have greater impacts on economic development than do the cluster variables. Our study supports the hypothesis that while the presence of an industry cluster contributes to economic development, changes in other variables, such as a reduction in unemployment rate, have relatively greater impacts. Thus, the IC approach may not necessarily be among the most preferred strategy to boost economic development in the Midwest.
    Keywords: Industry clusters, regional economies, economic growth, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Midwest, Community/Rural/Urban Development, R10,
    Date: 2016–06–07
  28. By: Bloom, Nicholas; Sadun, Raffaella; Van Reenen, John
    Abstract: Are some management practices akin to a technology that can explain company and national productivity, or do they simply reflect contingent management styles? We collect data on core management practices from over 11,000 firms in 34 countries. We find large cross-country differences in the adoption of basic management practices, with the US having the highest size-weighted average management score. We present a formal model of "Management as a Technology", and structurally estimate it using panel data to recover parameters including the depreciation rate and adjustment costs of managerial capital (both found to be larger than for tangible non-managerial capital). Our model also predicts (i) a positive effect of management on firm performance; (ii) a positive relationship between product market competition and average management quality (part of which stems from the larger covariance between management with firm size as competition strengthens); and (iii) a rise (fall) in the level (dispersion) of management with firm age. We find strong empirical support for all of these predictions in our data. Finally, building on our model, we find that differences in management practices account for about 30% of cross-country total factor productivity differences.
    Date: 2016–06
    Date: 2016

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