nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒06‒25
27 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. Innovation and Entrepreneurship for the growth and diversification of the GCC Economies By Miniaoui, Hela; Schilirò, Daniele
  3. Small, young, and exporters: New evidence on the determinants of firm growth By M. Grazzi; D. Moschella
  4. Entry and technological performance in new technology domains: Technological opportunities, technology competition and technological relatedness By Bart Leten; Rene Belderbos; Bart Van Looy
  5. Industrial Cluster Policy and Transaction Networks: Evidence from firm-level data in Japan By OKUBO Toshihiro; OKAZAKI Tetsuji; TOMIURA Eiichi
  6. The Clean Development Mechanism and Dynamic Capabilities of Implementing Firms: Evidence from India By Aradhna Aggarwal
  7. Long-term effects of subsidies on firm growth: introducing the concept of outcome additionality By Goerke, Björn; Albers, Sönke
  8. Are Competitors Forward Looking in Strategic Interactions? Evidence from the Field By Mario Lackner; Rudi Stracke; Uwe Sunde; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
  9. New Firms and Post-Entry Performance: The Role of Innovation. By Colombelli, Alessandra; Krafft, Jackie; Vivarelli, Marco
  10. Stimulating digital innovation for growth and inclusiveness: The role of policies for the successful diffusion of ICT By OECD
  11. Modern Forms of Globalization of Human Capital - The New Trends in the Global Mobility of Staff By Myasoyedov, Sergei; Martirosyan, Emil; Sergeeva, Anastasia
  12. Incorporating innovation subsidies in the CDM framework: Empirical evidence from Belgium By Dirk Czarnitzki; Julie Delanote
  13. Trade, firm selection, and innovation: the competition channel By Giammario Impullitti; Omar Licandro
  14. A comparative study of the role of imports and exports on service sector productivity in Ghana By Effah Nyamekye, Gabriel
  15. The impact of upper-secondary voucher school attendance on student achievement. Swedish evidence using external and internal evaluations By Tyrefors Hinnerich, Bjorn; Vlachos, Jonas
  16. Measuring firm-level innovation using short questionnaires : evidence from an experiment By Cirera,Xavier; Muzi,Silvia
  17. Analysis of International Experience of Intensification of Scientific and Innovative Activity in the Modern Unstable Conditions By Kushlin, Valery Ivanovich; Ustenko, V.S.
  18. The Causal Effect of Education on Health Behaviors: Evidence From Turkey By Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz
  19. Innovations in Student Centric Learning – A Study of Top Business Schools in India By Aithal, Sreeramana
  20. Are cooperatives more productive than investor-owned firms? Cross-industry evidence from Portugal By Natália P. Monteiro; Odd Rune Straume
  21. What are the biggest obstacles to growth of SMEs in developing countries? - A picture emerging from an enterprise survey By Flora Wang
  22. The transmission of socially responsible behaviour through international trade By Carol Newman; John Rand; Finn Tarp; Neda Trifkovic
  23. Patents: A Means to Innovation or Strategic Ends? By Jiri Schwarz; Martin Stepanek
  24. Cities Export Specialization By Jorge Díaz-Lanchas; Carlos Llano; Asier Minondo; Francisco Requena
  25. Strategic Planning in Higher Education Institutions : A Case Study of SIMS - VISION 2025 By Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh; Aithal, Sreeramana
  26. Strategic Management Models & Indian Epics By Aithal, Sreeramana; Acharya, Radhakrishna
  27. Knowledge transfer at the science-policy interface: How cognitive distance and the degree of expert autonomy shapes the outcome By Broström, Anders; McKelvey, Maureen

  1. By: Mohammad Saleh Farazi (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Shanthi Gopalakrishnan (School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study focuses on knowledge structuration and its strategic implications for new research-intensive firms. These firms mainly pursue growth strategies by leveraging their knowledge-based resources and capabilities in inter-organizational relationships, while they are typically constrained on other resources. Therefore, they need to strategically develop and structure their knowledge resources in a way that guarantees their survival and serves their future goals best. Taking biotechnology firms as our research setting, we first identify groups of firms with similar generic knowledge structuration, i.e. depth and breadth of knowledge possessed by the firm. Then, drawing from organizational learning theory and knowledge-based view, we discuss how strategically structuring the technological knowledge of the firm can affect the benefits it gains from collaborating with other organizations. We provide research propositions for different strategic groups and theoretically link knowledge structuration to both exploration and exploitation alliances.
    Keywords: Knowledge strategy, structuration, depth, breadth, alliance, biotechnology
    Date: 2016–01
  2. By: Miniaoui, Hela; Schilirò, Daniele
    Abstract: The region of Gulf Arab states has vast reserves of petroleum that make it a vital source of the global economy. The reduction in oil prices and, in general, their high volatility pose strong challenges to the GCC economies. In the present contribution we argue that innovation and entrepreneurship can be the main drivers to diversify and develop the GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE). In fact, in the long-run, diversified economies perform better than mono-sector economies. Moreover, innovation and entrepreneurship are key factors that trigger economic development and contribute to the degree of competitiveness, playing also an important stakeholder role in boosting the overall economic growth rates. Therefore, having an entrepreneurial and innovative capacity is very important in order to facilitate competitiveness and growth in a region such as that of GCC countries. More specifically, in this article we analyze the innovation environment in the GCC countries and their innovation performance. Also we consider the innovation policies, underlining the important role of institutions for innovation. To support our analysis, we take into account of several data and information sources, and surveys. In addition, we provide an overview on entrepreneurship in the GCC countries and grasp the current state of entrepreneurship in these countries. We also aim to identify the conditions to stimulate entrepreneurship and qualify the human capital in order to diversify and develop the non-oil private sector and improve the competitiveness of the GCC economies.
    Keywords: Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Diversification; Competitiveness; Growth; GCC countries
    JEL: L10 L26 M13 O31 O38
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: M. Grazzi; D. Moschella
    Abstract: This work investigates how the export status of the firm influences the patterns of growth at different age classes. We address this research question resorting to a novel set of data that links together the universe of Italian firms and detailed data on export transactions. We find that the positive relationship between export status and growth declines with firm age. Further, we also find that, even when accounting for the role of age, the negative size-growth relationship does not disappear, contrary to some recent evidence. These results, which are robust to a series of controls, suggest for a positive signaling role of the export status which is stronger for young exporters or born globals. Exploiting the product-country level dimension of the customs data we also provide, for the first time, evidence on differences in exchange rates pass through between young and experienced exporters. In particular, we find that early exporters appear to be well equipped to face exchange rates variations as their exports decrease less following a currency appreciation.
    JEL: D22 F14 L11 L21 L25
    Date: 2016–06
  4. By: Bart Leten; Rene Belderbos; Bart Van Looy
    Abstract: Entry and success in new technology domains (NTDs) is essential for firms’ long-term performance. We argue that firms' choices to enter NTDs and their subsequent performance in these domains are not only governed by firm–level factors but also by environmental characteristics. Entry is encouraged by the richness of opportunities for technology development, while technology competition by incumbent firms discourages entry and render entries that do take place less successful. Firms are expected to be positioned heterogeneously to recognize and capitalize on technological opportunities, depending on the presence of a related technology base. We find qualified support for these conjectures in a longitudinal analysis of entry and technological performance in NTDs by 176 R&D intensive firms. While opportunity rich technology environments attract entries by firms even if these NTDs are distal from firms’ existing technologies, firms require related technological expertise in order to exploit technological opportunities post-entry.
    Keywords: Competition, entry, innovation, relatedness, technological opportunities, technology search
    Date: 2016–05
  5. By: OKUBO Toshihiro; OKAZAKI Tetsuji; TOMIURA Eiichi
    Abstract: Cluster policy is designed to facilitate inter-firm networking. We examine industrial clusters in Japan based on firm-level transaction data. Firms in clusters expand transaction networks at higher speeds, but do so significantly only with firms agglomerated in Tokyo and not with local firms within the same region. By disaggregating firms according to their main bank types, we find that cluster firms expanding networks are mainly financed by regional banks and not by banks with nationwide operations. This suggests the importance of intensive relationships with main banks for inter-firm network formation.
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Aradhna Aggarwal
    Abstract: This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the dynamic capabilities of implementing firms in India. While doing so, it uses three indicators of firms' dynamic capabilities: R&D expenditures to sales ratio, fuel consumption to sales ratio and total factor productivity growth. It moves away from the analysis of technology transfer claims made in either Project Development Documents or primary surveys to use actual information on firms' performance for the analysis. A difference-in-difference design is used by defining CDM-implementing firms as the treatment group and non-CDM firms as the control group for the pre- and post-CDM implementation periods. We control for unobserved fixed effects of firms and time periods and observed characteristics of firms and CDM projects. The analysis draws on the balance sheet data of 612 firms from India between 2001 and 2012 from the PROWESS database. Our results reveal that the CDM implementation does not have significant outcome effects on the dynamic capabilities of firms. Much depends on the type and size of the project, and size of the firm.
    Keywords: CDM, Dynamic capability, R&D, Fuel efficiency, Total factor productivity, India
  7. By: Goerke, Björn; Albers, Sönke
    Abstract: Public agencies provide subsidies for small and medium sized businesses (SMEs) to foster their development in terms of employment and sales. Although input and output additionality have been researched intensively little is known about the actual long-term effects of subsidies on SME growth. Relying on a unique dataset of actual SMEs we provide a means of evaluating whether subsidies lead to the expected positive long-term effects. We apply a specifically designed 3-stage-effects-model (3SEM) from the input of resources to the final outcome. The results imply that the effects of subsidies differ across types: While R&D grants unfold enduring positive effects other subsidies like corporate matchmaking might even harm companies.
    Keywords: subsidies,additionality,innovation
    JEL: L2 H2 O3
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Mario Lackner; Rudi Stracke; Uwe Sunde; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically whether decision makers are forward looking in dynamic strategic interactions. In particular, we test whether decision makers in multi-stage tournaments take heterogeneity induced changes of continuation values and the ability of their immediate opponent into account when choosing effort. Using data from professional and semi-professional basketball tournaments, we find that effort is negatively affected by the ability of the current opponent, consistent with the theoretical prediction and previous evidence. More importantly, the results indicate that the expected relative strength in future interactions does affect behavior in earlier stages, which provides support for the ‘standard’ view that decision makers are forward looking in dynamic strategic interactions.
    Keywords: Promotion tournament; multi-stage contest; elimination; forward-looking behavior; heterogeneity
    JEL: D84 D90 M51 J33
    Date: 2015–11
  9. By: Colombelli, Alessandra; Krafft, Jackie; Vivarelli, Marco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the reasons why entry per se is not necessarily good and the evidence showing that innovative startups survive longer than their non-innovative counterparts. In this framework, our own empirical analysis shows that greater survival is achieved when startups engage successfully in both product innovation and process innovation, with a key role of the latter. Moreover, this study goes beyond a purely microeconomic perspective and discusses the key role of the environment within which innovative entries occur. What shown and discussed in this contribution strongly supports the proposal that the creation and survival of innovative start-ups should become one qualifying point of the economic policy agenda.
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report analyses the importance of the adoption and the effective use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for enabling digital innovation for growth and inclusiveness, and discusses the role of public policies in stimulating such adoption and use. Given the emergence of a new digital divide caused by a possible breakdown of the “diffusion machine”, and given the strong interest of governments in furthering ICT adoption and use in particular by SMEs and disfavoured social groups, emphasis is put on policies stimulating ICT diffusion across society, i.e. ICT demand side policies.
    Date: 2016–06–16
  11. By: Myasoyedov, Sergei (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Martirosyan, Emil (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Sergeeva, Anastasia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In modern conditions of international business the main driver of corporate value, along with successful products and technologies, is human capital. Its stability and programmed growth in one company is prerequisite for successful implementation of the strategy. Companies are developing in the sphere of international, global business, in this context, the global mobility of human capital is already a well-established trend and prospect of career employees, their capitalization in the international context. Global mobility of staff in businesses as the phenomenon grows into a massive trend and makes new, unique demands for cultural, professional and personal adaptation to local realities of the country.
    Keywords: international business, corporations, mobility, globalisation, staff, HR, technologies
    Date: 2015–03–23
  12. By: Dirk Czarnitzki; Julie Delanote
    Abstract: This paper integrates innovation input and output effects of R&D subsidies into a modified Crépon–Duguet–Mairesse (CDM) model. Our results largely confirm insights of the input additionality literature, i.e. public subsidies complement private R&D investment. In addition, results point to positive output effects of both purely privately funded and subsidy–induced R&D. Furthermore, we do not find evidence of a premium or discount of subsidy–induced R&D in terms of its marginal contribution on new product sales when compared to purely privately financed R&D.
    Keywords: CDM model, R&D, subsidies, innovation policy
    Date: 2016–06
  13. By: Giammario Impullitti; Omar Licandro
    Abstract: We study the welfare gains originating from pro-competitive effects of trade liberalization in an economy with heterogeneous firms, variable markups and endogenous growth. Variable markups arise from oligopoly trade in similar goods, and cost-reducing innovation is the engine of sustained productivity growth. Trade liberalization stiffens product market competition by reducing markups, generating tougher firm selection and increasing the aggregate productivity level. Market share reallocations triggered by selection increase firms’ incentives to innovate, thereby leading to a higher aggregate productivity growth rate. Endogenous productivity growth boosts the selection gains from trade, leading to substantial welfare improvements. A calibrated version of the model shows that growth doubles the gains from trade obtainable in models with static firm-level productivity.
    Keywords: Endogenous Growth, Heterogeneous Firms, Oligopoly, Variable Markups, Dynamic Gains from Trade.
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Effah Nyamekye, Gabriel
    Abstract: In this paper the author examine the effect of imports, and exports on service sector productivity of Ghana for the period 1970-2013, using annual time series data. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADF), and the KwiatKowski (KPSS) test were used for the assessment of the effect of external shock on imports, exports, and service sector productivity whereas the ordinary least square method (OLS) was used to examine the role of import, and export on service sector productivity. The results indicate that the effect of external shock to imports, exports, and service sector productivity are permanent and not temporary. There is negative significant effect of export and positive effect of import on service sector productivity in Ghana during the period of discussion. The results suggest that policy makers can rely on import to influence service sector productivity and not export. Future studies should examine the effect of import of goods and services on the service sector productivity to determine whether the current findings will be replicated since the current study used export and import volumes.
    Keywords: Export, Import, Service Sector Productivity
    JEL: F14 L25 L80
    Date: 2015–12–18
  15. By: Tyrefors Hinnerich, Bjorn (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University); Vlachos, Jonas (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Sweden has a school voucher system with universal coverage and full acceptance of corporate providers. Using a value added approach, we find that students at upper- secondary voucher schools on average score 0.06 standard deviations lower on externally graded standardized tests in first year core courses. The negative impact is larger among lower achieving students (but not among immigrant students), the same students who are most prone to attend voucher schools. For high achieving students, the voucher school impact is around zero. Comparing internal and external evaluations of the same standardized tests, we find that voucher schools are 0.14 standard deviations more generous than municipal schools in their internal test grading. The greater leniency in test grading is relatively uniform across different groups, but more pronounced among students at academic than vocational programs. The findings are consistent with voucher schools responding more to differences in educational preferences than municipal schools.
    Keywords: Voucher schools; student achievement; grading standards
    JEL: H40 I21 I22
    Date: 2016–06–01
  16. By: Cirera,Xavier; Muzi,Silvia
    Abstract: Little is known about innovation in developing countries, partly because of the lack of comparable and reliable data. Collecting data on firm-level innovation is challenging because of the subjective definition of what determines an innovation, a problem that is exacerbated in developing countries where innovation is likely to be more incremental and less radical. This paper contributes to the literature by presenting the results of an experiment aiming to identify the survey instrument that better captures firm-level innovation in developing countries. The paper shows that a small set of questions included in a multi-topic, firm-level survey does not provide an accurate picture of firm-level innovation and tends to overestimate innovation rates. Issues related to framing explain some of the unreliability of innovation responses, while cognitive problems do not appear to play a significant role.
    Date: 2016–06–06
  17. By: Kushlin, Valery Ivanovich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Ustenko, V.S. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the modern foreign practice to enhance research and innovation activities and to assess their applicability in the Russian context. Shown objectivity rise in the leading countries of the world work on the preparation of the new cycle of scientific and technological developments, despite the high uncertainty of the economic environment, and therefore the revealed changes in the forms of scientific innovation and industrial policy. Special attention is paid to the study of new approaches to the formation of innovative development of human potential in the United States, Germany, Britain, China and other countries. It is shown that in connection with the re-industrialization of the economy and trends roll on innovative modernization of the real production of special importance in the field of education and retraining (by, inter alia, the dual education) assumes the formation of the trainees and the natural sciences, especially, applied engineering and management skills.
    Keywords: innovations, science, modern conditions
    Date: 2016–03–28
  18. By: Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz
    Abstract: This study provides causal effect of education on health behaviors in Turkey which is a middle income developing country. Health Survey of the Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 are used. The health behaviors considered are smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercising and one health outcome namely, the body mass index (BMI). We examine the causal effect of education on these health behaviors and the BMI Instrumental variable approach is used in order to address the endogeneity of education to health behaviors. Educational expansion of the early 1960s is used as the source of exogenous variation in years of schooling. Our main findings are as follows. Education does not significantly affect the probability of smoking or exercising. The higher the education level the higher the probability of alcohol consumption and the probability of fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher levels of education lead to higher BMI levels. This study provides a baseline for further research on the various aspects of health behaviors in Turkey.
    Keywords: Turkey, Health Behaviors, Education, Instrumental Variable Estimation
    JEL: I10 I12 I19
    Date: 2016–06–20
  19. By: Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Based on opening up the higher education system to Private sectors in India, the competition between institutions for quality education became primary issue of discussion to attract more students to their courses. Innovation in Student-centric learning is one of the basic requirements to attract interested students to the institution. In this context, the institutions of higher education in India are in need of an infusion of quality and clarity on the approach of building world-class educational institutions. In this paper, we have discussed how co-curricular and extra-curricular innovations helped higher education top business schools in India by identifying the innovations made by top business schools in their admission process, course design, course delivery, course schedule, course pedagogy, and examination system. The study is based on collecting the information from top ten old Business schools of IIM category announced by NIRF, MHRD, for the year 2013-15 and some top private business schools. The effectiveness of these innovations is analysed and compared using a self-designed curriculum analysis framework.
    Keywords: Student centric curriculum, Student centric learning, Innovations in higher education teaching
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2016–05
  20. By: Natália P. Monteiro (Department of Economics/NIPE, University of Minho); Odd Rune Straume (Department of Economics/NIPE, University of Minho)
    Abstract: We analyse empirically whether cooperatives and investor-owned fims differ in terms of productive efficiency. Using rich Portuguese panel data covering a wide range of industries, we apply two different empirical approaches to estimate potential diffferences in total factor productivity between the two groups of fi rms. The results from our benchmark random-effects model show that cooperatives are signi cantly less productive, on average, than investor-owned fi rms. This conclusion is to a large extent confi rmed by the results from System-GMM estimations. The lower productivity of cooperatives applies to a wide spectrum of industries. In six out of thirteen industries, cooperatives are outperformed by investor-owned firms in all empirical speci cations considered, while there is no industry in which cooperatives are consistently found to be the more productive type of firm.
    Keywords: Cooperatives; investor-owned fi rms; productive effiiciency
    JEL: D24 J54 P12 P13
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Flora Wang (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: SMEs are drivers of economic growth and job creation in developing countries. It is paramount to determine the factors that hinder their growth. This paper uses the Enterprise Survey from the World Bank which covers data from 119 developing countries to investigate the biggest obstacles SMEs are confronting and the determinants that influence the obstacles as perceived by enterprise managers. The results show that SMEs perceive access to finance as the most significant obstacle which hinders their growth. The key determinants among firms’ characteristics are size, age and growth rate of firms as well as the ownership of the firm. The latter – the role of the state in financing SME - is particularly intriguing. External reasons for the financing dilemma are also examined. It is shown that the main barriers to external financing are high costs of borrowing and a lack of consultant support.
    Keywords: SMEs, Obstacles to Growth, Financing Dilemma, Developing Countries, firm characteristics, internal and external barriers
    Date: 2016–05
  22. By: Carol Newman; John Rand; Finn Tarp; Neda Trifkovic
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between the corporate social responsibility practices of local domestic firms and their engagement with foreign markets using four waves of panel data on a sample of more than 4,500 manufacturing firms from Viet Nam. We develop a measure of corporate social responsibility that combines compliance with labour standards, management commitment to corporate social responsibility, and community activities. We find a strong relationship between engagement in international markets and the corporate social responsibility activities of firms, with the exception of trade with China. Results suggest that firms in exportintensive sectors engage in more corporate social responsibility activities, while those in sectors with higher levels of imports engage in less. Length: 22 pages
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility, trade, spillovers, Viet Nam
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Jiri Schwarz (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic; Czech National Bank, Na Prikope 28, 115 03 Prague 1, Czech Republic); Martin Stepanek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: This paper utilizes a data set of over 208,000 U.S. patents applied for between 1975 and 2010 to study development of strategic patenting over time and across industries. With received citations as a measure of patent social value, we use data envelopment analysis to estimate firm-level relative importance of strategic versus protective patenting. Our novel identification strategy reveals there was an almost universal drop in patent social value in the second half of the 1990s, signaling a shift towards the strategic use of patents. But the development of patenting strategies continued even after 2000 with semiconductor companies increasing their focus on patent value relative to companies from other industries. On average, aerospace and software companies preferred the production of valuable patents, but patenting strategies can differ vastly even among companies operating within one industry. The results confirm our expectations regarding the focus of aerospace companies on socially valuable patents.
    Keywords: Patents, patent value, strategic patenting, intellectual property rights
    JEL: D23 K11 O32 O34
    Date: 2016–04
  24. By: Jorge Díaz-Lanchas (Department of Economic Analysis: Economic Theory. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Lawrence R. Klein Institute/CEPREDE. 28049 Cantoblanco. Madrid); Carlos Llano (Department of Economic Analysis: Economic Theory. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Lawrence R. Klein Institute/CEPREDE. 28049 Cantoblanco. Madrid); Asier Minondo (Corresponding author. Deusto Business School, University of Deusto, Camino de Mundaiz 50, 20012 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain). Research afiliate of Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales.); Francisco Requena (Department of Economic Structure, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain).)
    Abstract: Do large and small cities exhibit different patterns of export specialization? Using highly disaggregated product-level trade data for Brazilian cities in year 2013, we find that more populated urban areas export proportionately more complex and skill-intensive goods than less populated urban areas. We also show that Brazilian urban areas that have increased more in population have also augmented more than proportionately the exports of complex and skill-intensive goods. Our empirical findings support recent models which argue that large cities attract more skilled workers and exhibit a wide range of capabilities, providing them a comparative advantage in skill-intensive and complex goods.
    Keywords: urban areas, exports, complexity, skills, comparative advantage, Brazil
    JEL: F11 F14 R12
    Date: 2016–05
  25. By: Rao, Srinivas; Kumar, Suresh; Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Every organization should have a vision which spells out what it expects to realise in the long run, and continuously strive towards converting it into reality. Vision is born out of the minds and hearts of its propounders - ever constant and persistent, yet adaptive and responsive to rapidly changing conditions. The question of what SIMS as an educational institution would be like in 2025 is attempted to be outlined in this paper. Vision realization in some areas is possible to estimate quantitatively with a fair degree of confidence. In some others the broad direction is perceivable but unable to reasonably put in numbers the likely accomplishments. The institution itself is instrumental in determining its quality and furthering it strategically towards its future. Admissions should reflect heterogeneity of student population in terms of gender, regional, religious, cultural & linguistic differences. Courses should cover all realms of human life from technology to business and social service. Faculty should have a functional area of specialization and bend of mind for research and continuous improvement. This apart, the infrastructure should be sound. Teaching learning methods should incorporate a variety of pedagogy. Research and collaboration should be strong. Consultancy and training should be manifold. Industry exposure and placement should be extensive. Social service and civic responsibility should form the pillar of student orientation. Value addition through certificate courses, modular courses and soft skill should be incorporated. Beyond all this, there should be sufficient scope for horizontal and vertical integration. The perspective plan aligned with the vision and mission should spell out clearly, various aspects considered for students, faculty, courses, employers, infrastructure developments should be in the plan. Appropriate strategy development is required for planning and deployment of the various elements mentioned above.
    Keywords: Vision, Quality in Higher Education
    JEL: Y8 Y80
    Date: 2015–03
  26. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Acharya, Radhakrishna
    Abstract: A business strategy is the means by which it sets out to achieve its desired goal. A business strategy is concerned with major resource issues e.g. raising the finance to build a new factory or plant. Strategies are also concerned with deciding on what products to allocate major resources or ensure a win in a given challenge. In this paper, we have discussed various strategic management models under the broad headings of generic strategies, competitive/red ocean strategies, monopoly/blue ocean strategies, sustainability/green ocean strategies, unethical/black ocean strategies and combined/white ocean strategies, their bases in Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. The strategies used in Indian epics as examples for various modern strategies are analysed and their instances and implementations are discussed. Finally, based on the analysis of all strategies, it is concluded that white ocean mixed strategy can be accepted as a global strategy for the winners. Using PEST analysis, the organizational global strategy can be correlated with White ocean mixed strategy as optimum strategy, to make an organization to be sustainable in global business.
    Keywords: Strategic Management models, Strategy in Indian philosophy.
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2016–04
  27. By: Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); McKelvey, Maureen (Institute of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Department of Economy & Society, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the conditions for successful knowledge transfer between the spheres of science and public policy. It does so by focusing upon the science-policy interface, specifically the processes of direct interaction between scientists and scientifically trained experts on the one hand and agents of policy-making organizations on the other. The paper defines two dimensions – cognitive distance and expert autonomy – which are argued to influence knowledge exchange, in such a way as to shape the outcome. A case study on the implementation of congestion charges in Stockholm, Sweden illustrates how the proposed framework pinpoints three central issues for understanding these processes: 1) differentiating the roles of e.g. a science-based consultancy firm and an academic environment in policy formation; 2) examining the fit between the organizational form of the science-policy interface and the intended goals; and 3) increasing our understanding of when policy makers themselves need to develop scientific competence in order to interact effectively with scientific experts.
    Keywords: organizational learning; science-based policy; evidence-based policy; interaction; cognitive distance; congestion charges
    JEL: A14 R41
    Date: 2016–06–02

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