nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
thirty papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. “Exploration during turbulent times: an analysis of the effects of R&D cooperation on radical innovation performance during the economic crisis” By Lorena M. D'Agostino; Rosina Moreno
  2. “Innovation, heterogeneous firms, and the region” By Enrique López-Bazo; Elisabet Motellón
  3. ICT use, competitive pressures and firm performance in Mexico By Iacovone,Leonardo; Pereira Lopez,Mariana De La Paz; Schiffbauer,Marc Tobias
  4. Rethinking Deindustrialization By Andrew B. Bernard; Valerie Smeets; Frederic Warzynski
  5. University-Industry Knowledge Transfer: The Role of UAS in Fostering Regional Innovation By Curdin Pfister; Miriam Rinawi; Dietmar Harhoff; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  6. Building Co-Creative Partnerships with Asia –A New Development Cooperation Strategy for Japan– By Izumi OHNO
  7. Emerging Multinational Corporations: a prominent player in the global economy By Mustafa Sakr and Andre Jordaan
  8. On regional innovator networks as hubs for innovative ventures By Uwe Cantner; Tina Wolf
  9. Problem Solving and Intermediation by Local Public Technology Centers in Regional Innovation Systems: The first report on a branch-level survey on technical consultation By FUKUGAWA Nobuya; GOTO Akira
  10. Health, Work and Working Conditions: A Review of the European Economic Literature By Thomas Barnay
  11. The role of technological trajectories in catching-up-based development: An application to energy efficiency technologies By Zhong, Sheng; Verspagen, Bart
  12. Foreign Direct Investments and trade in agriculture: an incomplete contracts approach By Scoppola, Margherita
  13. Heterogeneity in agricultural innovation systems' impact on food security: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Pamuk, Haki; van Rijn, Fedes
  14. The patenting performance of second-generation immigrants in Sweden: differentiated by parents’ region of origin By Zheng, Yannu
  15. Identifying gazelles : expert panels vs. surveys as a means to identify firms with rapid growth potential By Fafchamps,Marcel; Woodruff,Christopher M.
  16. Understanding the Knowledge and Social Networks in India- Case study of Bihar By Mittal, Surabhi; S.P., Subash; Ajay, Anurag; Kumar, Anurag
  17. The Relation of Cultural Values and CSR: A study in Portugal and Greece By Paula Rodrigues; Hélder Oliveira
  19. China’s Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Development: Harnessing the New Engine of Technological Innovation By Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
  20. The Economic Properties of Information and Knowledge: An Introduction. By Antonelli, Cristiano; David, Paul
  21. Strategic orientation of hotels: evidence from a contingent approach By Vincenza Odorici; Manuela Presutti; Marco Savioli
  22. Effectiveness of Government intervention in the SME sector: Evidence from the Brussels-Capital Region By Gilles Eric Fombasso Toyem; Michele Cincera
  23. Efficiency analysis of organic farming systems- a review of methods, topics, results, and conclusions By Lakner, Sebastian; Breustedt, Gunnar
  24. Heterogeneous firms and cost sharing in China's marketplaces By Ding, Ke; Gokan, Toshitaka; Zhu, Xiwei
  25. Strategic behavior of non-expected utility players in games with payoff uncertainty By Kauffeldt, T. Florian
  26. Fairness, Reciprocity and Informal Lending in Farming Communities: A Comparative Study of China and India By Turvey, Calum G.; Kumar, Chandra; Rong, Kong
  27. Do Individuals Differentiate Their Support for the Three Pillars of Sustainability? A Case Study within Hotels By Simon, Jason; Penn, Jerrod; Hu, Wuyang
  28. Patent protection, intelligence and economic growth: a cross-country empirical investigation By Odilova, Shoirahon
  29. A Resource-Sensitive Framework for Defining and Measuring Equality of Opportunity in Health By Antonio Abatemarco; Sergio Beraldo; Francesca Stroffolini
  30. Regulatory management practices in OECD countries By Isabell Koske; Faisal Naru; Philipp Beiter; Isabelle Wanner

  1. By: Lorena M. D'Agostino (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: During the recent economic recession, firms have been less willing to invest in innovation, which often is an uncertain and long-term process. This reduction did not occur equally for all firms, and recent literature has analysed the characteristics of those firms which maintain or even raise their innovative efforts during the crisis. Technological collaboration has been recognised as one of the most important external sources that affects innovation performance. However, how economic recession has changed the impact of R&D collaboration on innovation performance has received few attention. This paper investigates the effect of different external cooperation patterns of firms before and during the last economic recession. We highlight the role of geographical and organizational diversity of knowledge sources, as well as the effect of past experience. We find that R&D cooperation has a stronger effect on radical innovation performance during the economic recession than before, this being true irrespectively of the geographical location of the partners. This benefit from cooperation during the economic turmoil is higher in the case of firms having a diverse portfolio of partners. In addition, we also find that past experience in R&D cooperation positively affects innovation performance during the crisis.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation; innovation Performance; Spanish firms. JEL classification: L25; O31; O31; O33
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Enrique López-Bazo (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Elisabet Motellón (AQR Research Group-IREA. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of regional determinants on innovation performance controlling by the firm’s absorptive capacity and other sources of firm heterogeneity. The findings for a sample of firms in Spain support the hypothesis that regional determinants matter, though their role is subtler than the one frequently assumed. Rather than a direct influence on firm’s innovation, the regional context moderates the effect of internal determinants. In the case of product innovation the most important mechanism of interaction seems to be operating through cooperation in innovation, whereas for process innovation it seems to be through highly skilled labour.
    Keywords: product innovation; process innovation; firm; multilevel modelling; Spanish regions. JEL classification: D21; O31; R10; R15
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Iacovone,Leonardo; Pereira Lopez,Mariana De La Paz; Schiffbauer,Marc Tobias
    Abstract: This paper presents a set of stylized facts on the relation between information and communications technology (ICT) use, firm performance, and competition. Taking advantage of a novel firm-level data set on information and communications technology for Mexico, the study finds that firms facing higher competition appear to have more incentives to increase their use of information and communications technology. Accordingly, although there is indeed a positive relation between information and communications technology use and firm performance, this effect is greater for firms that face higher competition pressures, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions of the trade-induced technical change hypothesis.
    Keywords: E-Business,ICT Policy and Strategies,Education for the Knowledge Economy,Knowledge for Development,Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2016–04–11
  4. By: Andrew B. Bernard; Valerie Smeets; Frederic Warzynski
    Abstract: Manufacturing in high-income countries is on the decline and Denmark is no exception. Manufacturing employment and the number of firms have been shrinking as a share of the total and in absolute levels. This paper uses a rich linked employer-employee dataset to examine this decline from 1994 to 2007. We propose a different approach to analyze deindustrialization and generate a series of novel stylized facts about the evolution. While most of the decline can be attributed to firm exit and reduced employment at surviving manufacturers, we document that a non-negligible portion is due to firms switching industries, from manufacturing to services. We focus on this last group of firms before, during, and after their sector switch. Overall this is a group of small, highly productive, import intensive firms that grow rapidly in terms of value-added and sales after they switch. By 2007, employment at these former manufacturers equals 8.7 percent of manufacturing employment, accounting for half the decline in manufacturing employment. We focus on the composition of the workforce as firms make their transition. In addition, we identify two types of switchers: one group resembles traditional wholesalers and another group that retains and expands their R&D and technical capabilities. Our findings emphasize that the focus on employment at manufacturing firms overstates the loss in manufacturing-related capabilities that are actually retained in many firms that switch industries.
    JEL: D21 L25
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: Curdin Pfister (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Miriam Rinawi (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Dietmar Harhoff (Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Previous research analyzing the importance of knowledge for firms’ innovation activities has focused on knowledge taught at universities, i.e., tertiary level academic education. So far, research has largely neglected a new type of knowledge taught at Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), i.e., tertiary level vocational education, which is based on more applied research. In this paper, we exploit a unique institutional setting, the foundation of UAS in Switzerland, to estimate the causal effect of this new type of knowledge on firms’ innovation activity. We apply difference-in-differences estimation, comparing the innovation activity of firms in regions where UAS were founded with the innovation activity of firms in regions where no UAS were founded. In line with previous literature, we measure the innovation activity by the number of filed patents. Our results show that firms in regions with newly founded UAS increase their innovation activities by about 10 percent.
    Keywords: Innovation, Universities of Applied Science, Tertiary Vocational Education, Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: I26 O31 J24
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Izumi OHNO (Asia Pacific Institute of Research)
    Abstract: The landscape of international development has changed dramatically, with a rise of emerging economies, more diverse actors of development cooperation, and intensifying aid competition. Moreover, Japan itself stands at a major turning point. There is a new wave of ‘internationalization’ of Japanese manufacturing FDI involving SMEs, which necessitates building much deeper and co-creative partnerships with Asia. The latest revision of the 2003 ODA Charter and the formulation of the new Development Cooperation Charter by the Japanese government can be understood as an attempt to respond to such changes. This paper stresses the four principles of Japan’s contribution to international development in a new era—i.e., a quality and knowledge leader, a people-centered approach, a solution-provider, and network-based cooperation. It then proposes three sets of enhanced partnerships with Asia: (i) manufacturing (monozukuri) partnership, (ii) city development (toshizukuri) partnership, and (iii) knowledge (chiteki) partnership. Japan should create a global strategy that increases its soft power, making full use of the intellectual assets and expertise as well as the human networks accumulated in Japan and abroad, building on its sixty-year ODA cooperation. ‘Co-creative’ partnerships with Asia should be central to this global strategy.
    Keywords: development cooperation, ODA, Asian dynamism, emerging economies, SME internationalization, co-creative partnerships, public-private partnership (PPP) ,開発協力, ODA, アジアダイナミズム, 新興国, 中小企業の海外展開, 共創パートナーシップ, 官民連携
  7. By: Mustafa Sakr and Andre Jordaan
    Abstract: As emerging market multinational corporations (EMNCs) tend to remarkably expand their global presence, it is of the utmost importance to explore the salient attributes of such unfolding phenomenon. One of the key findings is that top EMNCs are displaying a leapfrogging internationalisation process. Moreover, natural resources related sectors, in particular energy, have been proven to dominate the non-financial industry structure of EMNCs. In addition, various interesting findings have been concluded by this article. Regarding the preferred destination for their outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), EMNCs currently tend to invest more in developing markets. However, the relevance of developed markets is growing over time. Available statistics furthermore exhibit that greenfield is often preferred above mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as an entry mode into developing markets. The opposite is true in developed markets. EMNCs are domiciled predominantly in BRICS countries which account collectively for most of the OFDI getting from EMs. Emerging African MNCs are dramatically losing ground in the EMNC landscape. Regarding internationalisation, ownership, industry and geographical structure and preferred entry modes, remarkable differences are easily seen in the salient features of EMNCs compared to those based in developed markets.
    Keywords: Emerging MNCs, BRICS MNCs, African MNCs, emerging markets’ OFDI, differences between EMNCs and DMNCs.
    JEL: P45 F21
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Tina Wolf (University of Southern Denmark, Odense)
    Abstract: At least since Schumpeter published his work 'The Theory of Economic Development' (1912), a wide body of literature has focused on the evolutionary process behind firm growth and survival. Recently a growing interest is devoted to the variable 'location' as a critical factor, shaping firm performance. However, less attention has been paid to the region-specific characteristics that may play a relevant role in determining the growth and survival of a firm. Some works see university-based knowledge spillovers as one such factor (Audretsch and Lehmann 2005, Cassia et al. 2009). This paper extends this approach to the regional innovator network, promoting region-specific knowledge spillovers. Two data bases are applied. First, patent data delivers the innovator network for Thuringia. The second data base contains firm specific information on innovative ventures founded in Thuringia in the period between 1990 and 2006. The results show that the firm's individual probability to be innovative and connected to the innovator network positively influences the chances of this firm to survive.
    Keywords: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Networks, Inventor, Patents, Survival
    JEL: L26 D85 P25 O31
    Date: 2016–04–15
  9. By: FUKUGAWA Nobuya; GOTO Akira
    Abstract: Local public technology centers (LPTCs) are technology transfer organizations administrated by local governments in Japan. LPTCs arrange various technology transfer channels mainly for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the region. Although it has been recognized that technical consultation is the most important channel for technology transfer, there are virtually no reliable statistics that define and measure this. This study is the first to investigate such technical consultation, gathering information from surveys conducted at the branch level. The key findings can be summarized as follows. First, LPTCs solve various (technological and non-technological) problems through technical consultation. What is notable is that a non-negligible proportion of the problems have to do with design. Second, these problems are diverse in terms of complexity as well, with design problems requiring a longer time to solve. Third, technical consultation acts as a gateway to further technology transfer activities. Additional technical assistance triggered by technical consultation varies across technological fields. Fourth, LPTCs act as innovation intermediaries that connect SMEs to other sources of knowledge, such as universities, when the problems are too hard to solve internally. Fifth, LPTCs believe that technical consultation contributes to their researchers' better understanding of local firms' technological needs, which is salient for LPTCs that frequently deal with design problems.
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: Thomas Barnay (TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29%) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific “flexicurity” (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.
    Keywords: work, health, working conditions, employment
    Date: 2015–08–01
  11. By: Zhong, Sheng (UNU-MERIT); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT & SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We argue that the analysis level of a technological trajectory is very suitable to analyse the decisions of firms in latecomer countries with regard to the technological area that they should focus on. Technological trajectories are the main focal points along which technological innovation develops, and they are more detailed than the common sectors, like electronics of pharmaceuticals, that are used in the analysis of catching-up based growth. We present a collection of methods that has been proposed in the literature to identify technological trajectories. These methods use patent citation networks, and are applied to two separate fields in energy efficiency technologies. We identify the relevant technological trajectories, and analyse how the main countries active in these fields can be classified as either latecomer or incumbent countries. We then present a measure for how much patents from a particular country contribute to the main technological trajectories in the field, and to what extent they are derived from these trajectories. We use an explorative regression model to establish that latecomer countries tend to contribute to a lesser extent than incumbents to the main technological trajectories in the fields we investigate.
    Keywords: technological trajectories, patent citation networks, latecomer innovation strategy
    JEL: O31 O33 O47
    Date: 2016–03–29
  12. By: Scoppola, Margherita
    Abstract: Despite the attention given in recent years to the growth of foreign land acquisitions, there have been few studies investigating the pattern of recent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in agriculture and the ones that have are mostly focused on the locational drivers of FDI. This paper explores how the contractual features of transactions of agricultural products affect the “internalization” decision of firms, that is, the choice trade/FDI. The paper develops a partial equilibrium model incorporating incomplete contracts and asset specificity, which is used to address a number of questions: What is the impact of the quality of the institutions on the choice trade/FDI? How may the bargaining power of the downstream and upstream firms affect the outcome? How is the choice FDI/trade affected by the presence of a state–owned firm? The model provides some uncommon results, such as the finding that when the investor is private, weak institutions may promote FDI.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, foreign land acquisitions, agriculture, firm organization, bargaining power, International Relations/Trade, Q15, F23, L23, Q17.,
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Pamuk, Haki; van Rijn, Fedes
    Abstract: A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth relies on the innovation system perspective. The Integrated Agricultural Research for Development Approach (IAR4D) adopted this as its main approach through the implementation of local decentralized Innovation Platforms (IPs) in eight countries. Previous research indicates considerable heterogeneity in IP impact. In this paper we show that this heterogeneity might have resulted from heterogeneity in implementation: IPs have equally implemented the principles of the IAR4D approach. We quantify the five defining principles of IAR4D into an IAR4Dness index and find that the index is correlated positively and significantly to the food security Looking at the sub-components of this index, it seems that especially participation in information sharing activities and field visits is crucial. Our analysis indicates that the effect of IAR4Dness on FSC does not operate through increased use of agricultural technologies or household social capital, two potential channels of impact.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Zheng, Yannu (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Children of immigrants inherit human capital attainment from their parents that impact on their innovative performance. Some of this stem from their migrant parents’ positive and negative selection traits, part from their physical or cognitive proximity of country of origin to the host society. In this paper, I examine how second-generation immigrants (with at least one foreign-born parent), taking into consideration their parents’ region of origin, perform in inventive activity compared with native Swedes (with two native-born parents) and how this is related to their parents’ background. The study is based on a new Swedish database of inventors, which matched with the entire population between 1985 and 2007. The results show that, in terms of probability of becoming an inventor and number of forward citations to their patents, second-generation immigrants with non-Nordic European backgrounds perform better than native Swedes. Their better performance is related to the positive selection of their foreign-born parents and a certain distance of proximity to Sweden. The study indicates that there is a trade-off effect between the selection and proximity of foreign-born parents on second-generation immigrants’ patenting performance, but that differs between groups. For second-generation immigrants with other Nordic backgrounds, their less well performance is mainly attributed to their lower education level, which is further related to their less positively selected parents. However, for second-generation immigrants with one native-born parent and one parent from another non-European country, their large distance of proximity to Sweden seems to impede their performance.
    Keywords: Native Swedes; Foreign-born; Innovation; Human capital; Selection
    JEL: J15 J24 N30 O31
    Date: 2016–04–08
  15. By: Fafchamps,Marcel; Woodruff,Christopher M.
    Abstract: A business plan competition is conducted to test whether survey instruments or panel judges are able to identify the fastest growing firms. Participants submitted six- to eight-page business plans and defended them before a three- or four-judge panel. Applicants are surveyed shortly after they applied and one and two years after the competition. Follow-up surveys are used to construct measures of enterprise growth and baseline surveys and panel scores to construct measures of enterprise growth potential. A survey measure of ability correlates strongly with future growth, but the panel scores add to predictive power even after controlling for ability and other survey variables. The survey questions have more power to explain the variance in growth. Participants presenting before the panel were given a chance to win customized management training. Fourteen months after the training, there is no positive effect of the training on growth of the business.
    Keywords: Business in Development,E-Business,Financial Literacy,Business Environment,Competitiveness and Competition Policy
    Date: 2016–04–20
  16. By: Mittal, Surabhi; S.P., Subash; Ajay, Anurag; Kumar, Anurag
    Abstract: Knowledge networks and social networks are the drivers of information sharing and they play an important role in diffusion of technology and related knowledge. In this study the key informants in a village setup are studies to understand the farmer’s network with an objective to understand the existing social, knowledge systems and their structure, characteristics and relationships between different actors. The purpose is to use these channels as means to disseminate technologies and related information. We use the network map analysis as a tool to demonstrate the linkages between the key actors. Attributes captured in the study are information flows between different actors, the type of information, timeliness and frequency of information and mode of communication. The study is undertaken in 6 districts covering 20 villages of Bihar where 111 key informants were interviewed and this is supplemented with survey of 1000 households. The paper uses a mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis.
    Keywords: Farmers networks, Social networks, Information and communication, Bihar, Technology dissemination, Labor and Human Capital, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, L15, Q16,
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Paula Rodrigues (Lusiada University); Hélder Oliveira (Lusiada University)
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the relationship between individual cultural values and consumers’ perceptions about practices of social responsibility in Portugal and Greece. Data collection was undertaken using a structured questionnaire both in Portugal and Greece. Two theoretical models of structural equations that establish the relationship between cultural values and perceptions of consumers about practices of social responsibility were estimated. The results suggest that individual cultural values of Portuguese consumers influencing the perception of CSR practices are masculinity (MAS), tradition (TRD) and prudence (PRU). In the case of Greece consumers, individual cultural values influencing perception of CSR practices are interdependence (INT), independence (IND), gender equality (GEQ) and prudence (PRU). This paper demonstrates the importance of the subject, since consumers assume different perspectives and value different aspects of CSR practices, and companies must be aware of these differences if they want to effectively reach consumers.
    Keywords: individual cultural values, corporate social responsibility, cross-cultural studies, consumer behaviour, structural equation models.
    JEL: M00
  18. By: Danilova Anastasia; Tursunov Sherzod
    Abstract: This article describes the global development of ICT in the world and provides an analysis of investment activity in this area. Examples and evaluation of the development level of ICT in the world are provided. The review of investments for 2014 has been considered and the leaders of ICT investment have been identified. Key words: Information and communication technology (ICT), investments, investment activity, an index of information and communication technology, finance, economic development
    Date: 2016–03
  19. By: Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: Whether China continues its business-as-usual investment-driven, environment-polluting growth pattern or adopts an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable development holds important implications for both national and global environmental governance. Building on a Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans growth model that features endogenous technological change induced by R&D and knowledge stock accumulation, this paper presents an exposition, both analytically and numerically, of the mechanism underlining China’s economic transition from an investment-driven, pollution-intensive to an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable growth path. We show that if R&D technological innovation is incorporated into China’s growth mechanism, then at some tipping point in time when marginal welfare gain of R&D for knowledge accumulation becomes equalized with that of investment for physical asset deployment, China’s economy will launch capital investment and R&D simultaneously and make a transition to a sustainable growth path along which consumption, capital investment, and R&D have a balanced share of 5: 4: 1, consumption, capital stock, and knowledge stock all grow at a rate of 4.9%, and environmental quality improves at a rate of 2.5%. In contrast, if R&D technological innovation is not harnessed as a new growth engine, then China’s economy will follow its business-as-usual investment-driven growth path along which standalone accumulation of dirty physical capital stock will lead to an more than 200-fold increase in environmental pollution.
    Keywords: Endogenous Technological Change, Sustainable Development, Economic Growth Model, China’s Economic Transition, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q55, Q58, Q43, Q48, O13, O31, O33, O44, F18,
    Date: 2016–03–18
  20. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; David, Paul (University of Turin)
    Date: 2015–10
  21. By: Vincenza Odorici (Department of Management, University of Bologna, Italy); Manuela Presutti (Department of Management, University of Bologna, Italy); Marco Savioli (Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy)
    Abstract: Hotels have to act in a competitive business environment that calls for a continuous emphasis on both customers' needs and innovativeness strategies. Analysing a sample of 120 small hotels operating in April 2014 in Rimini, Italy, probit regression models allow us to ascertain that two dimensions of strategic orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation, significantly and positively impact the likelihood of achieving superior performance. In contrast, learning orientation, measured by external networks, is not an important driver of lodging firm performance. In opposition to mainstream theory suggesting the importance of growth in size, hotel size has a significant negative influence on hotel performance achievement. Finally, the results show that the relationship between strategic orientation and performance is contingent on internal firm-related moderators (size and quality). Both the number of rooms and star classification reinforce the performance achievement of hotels able to introduce innovations and follow a customer-oriented approach.
    Date: 2016–04
  22. By: Gilles Eric Fombasso Toyem; Michele Cincera
    Keywords: Governmental loans; Subsidies; Equity capital; SMEs; Effectiveness
    JEL: H25 H81
    Date: 2016–04–01
  23. By: Lakner, Sebastian; Breustedt, Gunnar
    Abstract: The article summarizes the literature on efficiency and productivity of organic farming. A short overview on theories and models is provided. We can distinguish between studies that concentrate of specific problems of the organic sector and studies that aim to compare conventional and organic farming systems. Sample selection is a major challenge for comparisons between organic and conventional farms, since the organic farms have a different farm-structure and are often represented by a relatively small number of observations. We find that conversion to organic farming is influenced by inefficiency. In three of four studies, organic farms have a lower productivity than conventional farms. Studies on environmental efficiency document that organic farming show a higher degree of efficiency if environmental variables (such as landscape elements and diversity in the croprotation) are taken into account. The impact of subsidies on farm efficiency is often found to be negative.
    Keywords: Organic Farming, Technical Efficiency, Environmental Efficiency, Productivity, Farming Systems, Subsidies, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management,
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Ding, Ke; Gokan, Toshitaka; Zhu, Xiwei
    Abstract: This study extends Melitz's model with heterogeneous firms by introducing shared fixed costs in a marketplace. It aims to explain heterogeneous firms' choice between traditional marketplaces and modern distribution channels on the basis of their productivities. The results reveal that the co-existence of a traditional marketplace and modern distribution channels improves social welfare. In addition, a deregulation policy for firm entry outside a marketplace and accumulation of human capital are factors that contribute to improve the social welfare.
    Keywords: China, Business enterprises, Costs, Econometric model, Market, Heterogeneous firms, Marketplace, Cost sharing, Multiplicity
    JEL: R12 D04
    Date: 2016–03
  25. By: Kauffeldt, T. Florian
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether the strategic behavior of expected utility players differs from that of non-expected utility players in the context of incomplete information games where players can choose mixed strategies. Two conditions are identified where uncertainty-averse non-expected utility players behave differently from expected utility players. These conditions concern the use of mixed strategies and the response to it. It is shown that, if and only if these conditions fail, nonexpected utility players behave as if they were expected utility players. The paper provides conditions, in terms of the payoff structure of a game, which are necessary and sufficient for behavioral differences between expected and non-expected utility players. In this context, games are analyzed that are especially relevant for the design of experiments.
    Keywords: Non-expected utility; Incomplete information games;Uncertainty aversion; Mixed strategies; Strategic behavior
    Date: 2016–04–22
  26. By: Turvey, Calum G.; Kumar, Chandra; Rong, Kong
    Abstract: Though informal lending and borrowing are widely prevalent among close acquaintances in rural areas of developing economies, these informal transactions have not been extensively researched. As it stands, a risk sharing motive has been advanced as an important explanation of such informal exchanges. However, this fails to incorporate social preferences such as altruism, trust, reciprocity and fairness. The primary contribution of this paper is to investigate fairness reciprocity as an important motive underlying informal financial transactions among relatives and friends. Evidence from China and India suggests that fairness can be advanced as an important motive in informal financial transactions.
    Keywords: Fairness, Reciprocity, Mutual-min, Mutual-max, Informal Lending, Familial lending, Agriculture, China and India, Agribusiness, Farm Management,
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Simon, Jason; Penn, Jerrod; Hu, Wuyang
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
  28. By: Odilova, Shoirahon
    Abstract: Extant literature on the link between patent protection and economic growth have yielded inconclusive results. In this study, we aim to engage in this debate by conjecturing that intelligence moderates the effect of patent protection on economic growth. Using annual data of 88 nations from 1970 to 2013 we find that patent protection has positive effect on growth only after accounting for the interaction between IQ and IPR. Indeed, we find that the interaction term is negative and statistically significant suggesting that countries with higher level of intelligence (above 90 points) can offset the negative effect of weak IPR protection. The results remain robust for a battery of robustness tests.
    Keywords: IQ; intelligence; patent protection; economic growth
    JEL: F6
    Date: 2016–04–17
  29. By: Antonio Abatemarco (Università di Salerno); Sergio Beraldo (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Francesca Stroffolini (Università di Napoli Federico II)
    Abstract: We offer a new framework for defining and measuring disparities in the distribution of health opportunities. These are conceived as inversely related to the cost of a specified bundle of health services of given quality, computed by monetizing all the concrete impediments that must be overcome to get access. In the ex-ante perspective we adopt, what is salient is the distribution of costs across cells, where each cell is defined by a set of characteristics determining access barriers. Differently from the existing health literature, our approach allows to disentangle the opportunities individuals enjoy from the mere utilization of health services, working equally well with monetary as well as real costs of access (formal and effective equality of opportunity), where real costs accounts for socioeconomic conditions. Accordingly, an index for the measurement of equality of health opportunities is proposed and resource-conditional policy suggestions are deducted. In particular, given available resources, the design of egalitarian policies is found to depend on how chances of access and socioeconomic conditions are distributed, as well as on the level of cost borne by the individual occupying the best-off cell.
    Keywords: Health, Equality of opportunity, Access costs
    JEL: I14 I18
    Date: 2016–04–12
  30. By: Isabell Koske; Faisal Naru; Philipp Beiter; Isabelle Wanner
    Abstract: This paper provides analysis of the regulatory governance of network sector regulators in electricity, gas, telecommunications, rail, airport and ports within the OECD as it stood in 2013. The paper explores the governance arrangements of network sector regulators as described by law and analyses key institutional characteristics of network sector regulators such as appointments of board members, to whom regulators are formally accountable to, and what functions are most carried out by regulators. The paper also includes a new set of indicators on the regulatory management of the network sectors in terms of their independence, accountability and scope of action, reflecting the OECD Best Practice Principles on Regulatory Policy for the Governance of Regulators and as part of the updated 2013 Product Market Regulation (PMR) Indicators. Pratiques de gestion réglementaire dans les pays de l'OCDE Ce document fournit une analyse, au sein de l'OCDE, de la gouvernance des organismes de réglementation en vigueur en 2013 dans les secteurs de réseau, électricité, gaz, télécommunications, transport ferroviaire, aéroport et ports. Le document explore les modalités de gouvernance des organismes de réglementation des secteurs de réseau, comme décrit par la loi et analyse les caractéristiques institutionnelles fondamentales de ces organismes telles que les nominations des membres du conseil d'administration, auxquels les régulateurs doivent formellement rendre compte, et les fonctions le plus effectuées par les organismes de réglementation. Le document comprend également une nouvelle série d'indicateurs sur la gestion de la réglementation dans les industries de réseau en fonction de leur indépendance, leur responsabilité et la portée de leur action fondée sur le principe des meilleures pratiques de l'OCDE en terme de politique réglementaire pour la gouvernance des organismes de réglementation ; ces indicateurs s’inscrivent dans le cadre de la mise à jour 2013 des indicateurs de réglementation du marché des produits (RMP).
    Keywords: electricity, gas, regulators, economic regulator, regulatory powers, pouvoirs de réglementation, organismes de réglementation, électricité, organismes de réglementation économique, gaz
    JEL: K2 L5
    Date: 2016–04–19

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