nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒03‒06
thirty-two papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Clusters and collective learning networks: the case of the Competitiveness Cluster ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region By Christian Longhi
  3. Concentration on the few? R&D and innovation in German firms 2001 to 2013 By Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
  4. The Link between R&D, Innovation and Productivity: Are Micro Firms Different? By Julian Baumann; Alexander S. Kritikos
  5. Industrial Dynamics: A Review of the Literature 1990-2009 By Carlsson , Bo
  6. Innovation, Inequality and a Golden Rule for Growth in an Economy with Cobb-Douglas Function and an R&D Sector By Paul J.J. Welfens
  7. Internationalization of European mobile telecommunication operators: institutional diversity and performance implications By Asimakopoulos, Grigorios; Hernández, Virginia; Whalley, Jason
  8. Knowledge Spillovers, absorptive capacity and growth: An Industry-level Analysis for OECD Countries By Ioannis Bournakis; Dimitris Christopoulos; Sushanta Mallick
  9. Smart Specialization Strategies and Key Enabling Technologies. Regional evidence from European patent data. By Sandro Montresor; Francesco Quatraro
  10. Catching up of emerging economies: The role of capital goods imports, FDI inflows, domestic investment and absorptive capacity By Glas, Alexander; Hübler, Michael; Nunnenkamp, Peter
  11. Foreign ownership and the export and import propensities of developing-country firms By Boddin, Dominik; Raff, Horst; Trofimenko, Natalia
  12. Productivity spillovers from foreign multinationals and trade policy: firm-level analysis of Vietnamese manufacturing By Thuyen, Truong Thi Ngoc; Jongwanich, Juthathip; Ramstetter, Eric D.
  14. Explaining regional economic performance: the role of competitiveness, specialization and capabilities By Fagerberg , Jan; Srholec , Martin
  15. Institutional Distance and Foreign Direct Investment By Rafael Cezar; Octavio Escobar
  16. Innovation, cooperation network and economic growth, a Tunisian study By zerzeri, feriel
  17. Skills, Tasks and the Scarcity of Talent in a Global Economy By Michael Koch
  18. Comments on the Impact of Knowledge on Economic Growth across the Regions of the Russian Federation By Jens K. Perret
  19. The Bright Side of Financial Derivatives: Options Trading and Firm Innovation By Blanco, Iván; Wehrheim, David
  20. How Did Young Firms Fare During the Great Recession? Evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey By Zarutskie, Rebecca; Yang, Tiantian
  21. Influencia del liderazgo, estrategia y entorno en la competitividad empresarial de la pyme ecuatoriana By Uzcátegui, Carolina; Solano, Javier
  22. Economic and Technological Complexity: A Model Study of Indicators of Knowledge-based Innovation Systems By Inga Ivanova; Oivind Strand; Duncan Kushnir; Loet Leydesdorff
  23. The role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies: The case of stratospheric aerosol injection By Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert
  24. An exploration of the relationship between police presence, crime, and business in developing countries By Islam,Asif Mohammed
  25. Proposal of benchmarking concerning cooperation networks between justice organisations By Joanna Kuczewska; Sylwia Morawska
  26. Universities as engines for regional growth? Using the synthetic control method to analyze the effects of research universities By Carl Bonander; Niklas Jakobsson; Federico Podestà; Mikael Svenson
  27. Innovation in professional services in a context of disruption By Bailey, Andrew
  28. Why and how to promote cooperative negotiation in a context of competitive globalization: A review of literature By Chérine Soliman; Nicolas Antheaume
  29. Evaluation of the impact of net neutrality on the profitability of telecom operators: A game-theoretic approach By Van der Wee, Marlies; Vandevelde, Niels; Verbrugge, Sofie; Pickavet, Mario
  30. Performance Appraisal as an Instrument to Increase Competitiveness of a Higher Education Institution By Maslova, Yana
  31. Human Resource Management Issues at a Rising Entrepreneurial Company in Cameroon: Employees' Perspective By DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh
  32. Intra-Firm Diffusion of Green Energy Technologies and the Choice of Policy Instruments By Tobias Stucki; Martin Wörter

  1. By: Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the development of the knowledge based economies, clusters and clusters policies have been the subject of increased interest, as sources of knowledge, innovation, and competitiveness. The paper focuses on a case study drawn from the French cluster policy, the pole of competitiveness ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region, based on two high tech clusters, Rousset – Gémenos and Sophia-Antipolis. The policy aims to provide the firms incentives to build network relations of heterogeneous actors to trigger innovative processes. The analysis of the collaborative R&D projects of the pole provides insights on the nature of the collective learning networks working in the clusters as well as the prevailing organizational forms resulting from the firms strategies. It show that knowledge spillovers are not simply “in the air” but very specific of the learning networks and clusters from which they belong. Clusters thus need to be analyzed jointly with networks in order to understand the processes underlying their innovation capacity
    Keywords: Collective Learning Networks,Knowledge,Innovation,Clusters,Cluster Policy,Social Network Analysis
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Mohammad Saleh Farazi (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Shanthi Gopalakrishnan (School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study focuses on knowledge structuration and its strategic implications for new research-intensive firms. These firms mainly pursue growth strategies by leveraging their knowledge-based resources and capabilities in inter-organizational relationships, while they are typically constrained on other resources. Therefore, they need to strategically develop and structure their knowledge resources in a way that guarantees their survival and serves their future goals best. Taking biotechnology firms as our research setting, we first identify groups of firms with similar generic knowledge structuration, i.e. depth and breadth of knowledge possessed by the firm. Then, drawing from organizational learning theory and knowledge-based view, we discuss how strategically structuring the technological knowledge of the firm can affect the benefits it gains from collaborating with other organizations. We provide research propositions for different strategic groups and theoretically link knowledge structuration to both exploration and exploitation alliances.
    Keywords: Knowledge strategy, structuration, depth, breadth, alliance, biotechnology
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
    Abstract: Innovation activities in the German enterprise sector showed two opposing trends over the past two decades: While total innovation expenditures grew substantially, the number of firms conducting innovation activities fell sharply. Innovation expenditures hence concentrate on fewer firms. In this paper we analyse the evolution of firms' innovation and R&D activities. Based on panel data from the German part of the Community Innovation Survey covering a 13 years period (2001 to 2013) we use continuous-time Markov-Chains to analyse the changing properties of the firms' choices to conduct R&D and non-R&D innovation activities. Our findings are threefold. As compared to the pre-crisis period 2001-2007 there is a considerable change in innovation and R&D behaviour of German firms from 2008 onwards with an increasing number of firms exiting R&D and innovation activities. Smaller firms are the main driver behind this process, particularly with regard to quitting non-R&D innovation activities. Although smaller firms were also less likely to move to higher levels of innovativeness and R&D engagement and more likely to fall back in the pre-crisis period, these trends have been more pronounced in the crisis and even in the post-crisis period. Both public innovation support and better financial capabilities can increase the rate chances to move to higher levels of innovativeness and reduce the chances to fall back.
    JEL: O31 C22
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Julian Baumann; Alexander S. Kritikos
    Abstract: We analyze the link between R&D, innovation, and productivity in MSMEs with a special focus on micro firms with fewer than 10 employees; usually constituting the majority of firms in industrialized economies. Using the German KfW SME panel, we examine to what extent micro firms are different from other firms in terms of innovativeness. We find that while firms engage in innovative activities with smaller probability, the smaller they are, for those firms that do make such investment, R&D intensity is larger the smaller firms are. For all MSMEs, the predicted R&D intensity is positively correlated with the probability of reporting innovation, with a larger effect size for product than for process innovations. Moreover, micro firms benefit in a comparable way from innovation processes as larger firms, as they are similarly able to increase their labor productivity. Overall, the link between R&D, innovation, and productivity in micro firms does not largely differ from their larger counterparts.
    Keywords: MSMEs, R&D, Innovation, Productivity
    JEL: L25 L60 O31 O33
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Carlsson , Bo (Case Western Reserve University, Weatherhead School of Management, Department of Economics, Cleveland and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the literature in the field of Industrial Dynamics as it has emerged since I first introduced the term in 1985. Nearly 8,000 articles in 12 major journals have been reviewed and classified under five broad themes that constitute the basic questions in industrial dynamics: 1. The causes of industrial development and economic growth, including the dynamics and evolution of industries and the role of entrepreneurship 2. The nature of economic activity in the firm and the dynamics of supply, particularly the role of knowledge. 3. How the boundaries and interdependence of firms change over time and contribute to economic transformation. 4. Technological change and its institutional framework, especially systems of innovation. 5. The role of public policy in facilitating adjustment of the economy to changing circumstances at both micro and macro levels. Under each theme, the main findings and their implications for theory and policy are summarized.
    Keywords: industrial dynamics; literature review; knowledge; technological change; institutions; growth
    JEL: D00 D20 L00 O30
    Date: 2016–01–18
  6. By: Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: The innovative approach presented introduces a modified neoclassical growth model which includes a new bias of technological progress in a quasi-endogenous growth model in which part of labor is used in the research & development sector. The combination of a macroeconomic production function and a new progress function, plus the assumption that the output elasticity of capital is positively influenced by the size of the R&D sector, sheds new light on innovation and growth as well as income inequality: Thus there is a new approach for explaining Piketty’s historical findings of a medium term rise of the capital income share in industrialized countries – both in the earlier and later part of the 19th century and in 1990-2010. In the approach presented herein, the golden rule issues are also highlighted and it is shown that choosing the right size of the R&D sector will bring about maximum sustainable per capita consumption. While the basic new model is presented for the case of a closed economy, one could easily accommodate both trade and foreign direct investment and thereby get a better understanding of complex international investment, trade and FDI dynamics – including with respect to the envisaged Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
    Keywords: Innovation, Growth, Inequality, Golden Rule, Piketty
    JEL: O11 O32 O40 D63
    Date: 2015–03
  7. By: Asimakopoulos, Grigorios; Hernández, Virginia; Whalley, Jason
    Abstract: Internationalisation plays a key role in the strategy of many firms, with one of the key benefits being improved performance. Since the early 1990s, internationalisation has played a central role within the mobile telecommunications industry, giving rise to multinational enterprises operating in multiple markets. In this paper we investigate whether the internationalisation that has occurred within the European mobile telecommunications industry has resulted in the improved performance of firms. We draw on data for 97 mobile network operators operating in 35 European countries covering the period 2003 to 2012 (inclusive). We adopt a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to explore the relationship between firm performance and the regulatory development of countries. Our findings reveal that regulatory development does impact on firm performance, as does the extent to which markets are concentrated. We also reveal how regulatory diversity impacts on the performance of firms, and discuss the implications that arise..
    Keywords: internationalisation,mobile telecommunications,Europe,DEA
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Ioannis Bournakis; Dimitris Christopoulos; Sushanta Mallick
    Abstract: Given the decline in growth momentum in the manufacturing sector in many OECD countries, the role of knowledge-based capital has emerged as a key driver for sustained growth. While empirical studies on estimating knowledge spillovers have usually been undertaken at the country level, the spillover effects can be more definitive only if the analysis is conducted at the industry-level. The effectiveness of international spillovers is conditional on recipient country’s absorptive capacity and this is an important component of the spillover mechanism that has not attracted significant attention so far. This paper therefore assesses the effect of spillovers in driving per capita output growth taking into account the role of absorptive capacity. Our main findings are first, that there is evidence for a robust positive relationship between human capital and output growth across these countries at industry level. Second, the potential of international spillover gains is greater in countries with higher human capital and a more protective environment as far as intellectual property rights are concerned. Countries that improve their absorptive capacity can potentially increase gains from spillovers either via trade or FDI (including vertical FDI). Finally, significant heterogeneity is found between high and low-tech industries with high-tech group displaying greater knowledge spillovers, suggesting that low-tech industries need to be more innovative in order to absorb the technological advancements of domestic and international rivals.
    Keywords: Growth; R&D; Knowledge Spillovers; Absorptive Capacity; Human Capital; Intellectual Property Rights.
    JEL: E24 F1 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–04
  9. By: Sandro Montresor; Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: The paper investigates the drivers of Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) with a focus on Key Enabling Technologies (KETs). We re-examine the interpretation of S3 as new regional technological advantages (RTAs) obtained through relatedness, by reconceptualising within it the original focus on General Purpose Technologies (GPTs) and by considering their inter-regional spillovers. Combing regional patent and economic data for a 30-year panel (1980-2010) of 26 European countries, we find that KETs positively impact on new RTAs, pointing to a novel “enabling” role for them. KETs also negatively moderate the RTAs-impact of cognitively proximate pre-existing technologies, suggesting that KETs could make relatedness less binding in pursuing S3. The net-impact of KETs is positive, pointing to a new case for plugging KETs in the S3 policy tool-box. Furthermore, KETs also display cross-regional spillovers in their RTAs-impact, leaving KETs “poor” regions with a possible back-up from closer KETs “rich” ones.
    Keywords: Smart Specialization Strategies, Key Enabling Technologies, Relatedness, Revealed Technological Advantages
    JEL: R11 R58 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–08
  10. By: Glas, Alexander; Hübler, Michael; Nunnenkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We assess the role of capital goods imports and inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) as transmission channels through which major emerging economies (BRICs, i.e., Brazil, Russian Federation, India and China) could catch up with advanced source countries in terms of total factor productivity (TFP). We find that the importance of these transmission mechanisms depends on the BRICs' local capacity to absorb superior technologies and on domestic investment.
    Keywords: total factor productivity,imports,foreign direct investment,absorptive capacity,BRICs
    JEL: F14 F21 O47
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Boddin, Dominik; Raff, Horst; Trofimenko, Natalia
    Abstract: This paper uses micro-data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys 2002-2006 to investigate how foreign ownership affects the likelihood of manufacturers in developing countries to export and/or import. Applying propensity score matching to control for differences across firms in terms of labor productivity and other characteristics, we find that foreign ownership is an economically important and statistically significant determinant of the likelihood that a firm will export and/or import. Foreign ownership raises the propensity to export by over 17 and the propensity to import by more than 13 percentage points. The effects are even bigger for the lowest-income countries.
    Keywords: international trade,multinational enterprise,foreign direct investment,foreign ownership,development,intermediation
    JEL: F12 F14 F23 O19
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Thuyen, Truong Thi Ngoc; Jongwanich, Juthathip; Ramstetter, Eric D.
    Abstract: This article examines how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects productivity in local firms in Vietnamese manufacturing in 2005-2010. The paper also emphasizes how import protection has affected these productivity spillovers and how spillovers from wholly-foreign MNEs and joint ventures differ. The most consistent result suggests wholly-foreign MNEs impart negative spillovers while joint ventures generate positive spillovers. Theory and random effects estimates also indicate that import protection reduces local firm productivity and weakens the effect of spillovers from all MNEs, but this result is not obtained when a fixed effects estimator is used. Results are similar in samples of labour-intensive industries, which include close to three-fourths of all sample firms, but differ markedly for more capital-intensive groups.
    Keywords: Multinational enterprise, spillover, tradepolicy, manufacturing, Vietnam, Multinational enterprise, spillover, tradepolicy, manufacturing, Vietnam
    JEL: F23 L60 O24 O53
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Stefania Cosci (LUMSA University); Valentina Meliciani (University of Teramo); Valentina Sabato (LUMSA University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of relationship lending on innovation (the probability to innovate and the intensity of innovation). Using a unique dataset providing detailed information on bank-firm relationships across European firms, we relate different proxies of relationship lending (soft information, long-lasting relationships, number of banks, share of the main bank) to innovation. We find a very strong and robust positive effect of ‘soft-information intensive’ relationships, a less robust positive effect of long-lasting relationships and a negative effect of credit concentration as measured by the number of banking relationships. We also find that ‘soft-information intensive’ relationships reduce credit rationing for innovative firms, while long-lasting relationships seem to favour innovation via other relational channels. These results raise some concern on the impact of screening processes based on automatic procedures, as those suggested by the Basel rules, on firms’ capability to finance innovative activities in Europe.
    Keywords: relationship lending; innovation; R&D; credit constraints; soft information
    JEL: G10 G21 G30 O30 O31
    Date: 2015–03
  14. By: Fagerberg , Jan (CIRCLE, University of Lund, IKE, University of Aalborg, TIK, University of Oslo); Srholec , Martin (CIRCLE, University of Lund, CERGE-EI, Charles University and Economics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with the explanation of differences in regional economic performance. The first part of the paper presents an overview of how theoretical and applied work of relevance for the analysis of regional economic performance has evolved to its present stance. This leads to the identification of two central factors for regional economic performance, that is, capability building and specialization. There is ample evidence on the impact of these two factors on economic development at the national level, but lack of relevant data has until recently made it difficult to explore these relationships at the regional level. This paper uses data that has recently become available for European regions to delve further into the relationships between capability building, specialization and economic performance. The analysis shows that regional economic performance and capability building does indeed go hand in hand, while the evidence regarding the impact of specialization is more mixed. Finally, the implications of these findings for regional policy and future research are considered.
    Keywords: Capabilities; Specialization; Regions; Related Variety; Smart Specialization
    JEL: O30 O38
    Date: 2016–01–18
  15. By: Rafael Cezar (Banque de France - Direction de la Recherche, DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD]); Octavio Escobar (School of Business - Adelphi University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the link between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and institutional distance. Using a heterogeneous firms framework, we develop a theoretical model to explain how institutional distance influences FDI and it is shown that institutional distance reduces both the likelihood that a firm will invest in a foreign country and the volume of investment it will undertake. We test our model, using inward and outward FDI data on OECD countries. The empirical results confirm the theory and indicate that FDI activity declines with institutional distance. In addition, we find that firms from developed economies adapt more easily to institutional distance than firms from developing economies.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment,institutions,heterogeneous firms,gravity model
    Date: 2015
  16. By: zerzeri, feriel
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate postulations on the relations between innovation activities and economic factors growth. The old explication of innovation are limited to the notions of technological progress but there si a new way to analyze innovation and it doesn't limit itself to the number of patent, it deals with improvements on production, process, organisation. This study focus on the determinants of innovations on a microeconomic and a macroeconomic level. This paper explain the role of the innovation system, the government role, the cooperation network and the human ressources capacity in improving tunisian firms growth.
    Keywords: Innovation, Economic growth, cooperation, patent, open innovation,networks, human ressources
    JEL: O31 O33 O44
    Date: 2016–01–18
  17. By: Michael Koch
    Abstract: The scarcity of talent is a tremendous challenge for firms in the globalized world. This paper investigates the role of labor market imperfection in open economies for the usage of talent in the production process of firms. For this purpose, I set up a heterogeneous firms model, where production consists of a continuum of tasks that differ in complexity. Firms hire low-skilled and high-skilled workers to perform these tasks. How firms assign workers to tasks depends on factor prices for the two skill types and the productivity advantage of high-skilled workers in the performance of complex tasks. I study the firms’ assignment problem under two labor market regimes, which capture the polar cases of fully flexible wages and a binding minimum wage for low-skilled workers. Since the minimum wage lowers the skill premium, it reduces the range of tasks performed by high-skilled workers, which increases firm-level productivity and reduces the mass of active firms. Whereas trade does not affect the firm-internal assignment of workers to tasks in a setting with fully flexible wages, it renders high-skilled workers a scarce resource and reduces the range of tasks performed by this skill type with negative consequences for firm-level productivity, if low-skilled wages are fixed by a minimum wage. In this case, trade leads to higher per-capita income for both skill types and thus to higher welfare in the open than in the closed economy, whereas – somewhat counter-intuitive – inequality between the two skill typesdecreases, as more low-skilled workers find employment in the production process.
    Keywords: scarcity of talent, firm-internal labor allocation, trade, minimum wages, heterogenous firms
    JEL: F12 F16
    Date: 2014–04
  18. By: Jens K. Perret (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Using a basic growth accounting approach it is deduced how far the regional knowledge infrastructure plays any significant role across the regions of the Russian Federation. Aside from aspects of the size of the regional innovation system, like the number of researchers and students, it is discussed in how far the inflow and outflow of knowledge plays a role in determining the economic growth. The study shows thereby that while the Russian growth dynamics are indeed driven by the exploitation of natural resources, foremost of oil and gas, a significant part of Russian growth is due to its innovation system. This shows that innovation oriented growth politics as promoted by former president Dmitry Medvedev do have a solid foundation to be built on.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Russian Federation, Knowledge, Innovations
    JEL: O31 P25
    Date: 2015–04
  19. By: Blanco, Iván; Wehrheim, David
    Abstract: Do financial derivatives enhance or impede innovation? We aim to answer this question by examining the relationship between equity options markets and standard measures of firm innovation. Our baseline results show that firms with more options trading activity generate more patents and patent citations per dollar of R&D invested. We then investigate how more active options markets affect firms' innovation strategy. Our results suggest that firms with greater trading activity pursue a more creative, diverse and risky innovation strategy. We discuss potential underlying mechanisms and show that options appear to mitigate managerial career concerns that would induce managers to take actions that boost short-term performance measures. Finally, using several econometric specifications that try to account for the potential endogeneity of options trading, we argue that the positive effect of options trading on firm innovation is causal.
    Keywords: innovation, R&D productivity, options market, stock price efficiency, career concerns
    JEL: D81 G12 G14 G30 G38 O31 O32
    Date: 2016–02–04
  20. By: Zarutskie, Rebecca (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)); Yang, Tiantian (Duke University)
    Abstract: We examine the evolution of several key firm economic and financial variables in the years surrounding and during the Great Recession using the Kauffman Firm Survey, a large panel of young firms founded in 2004 and surveyed for eight consecutive years. We find that these young firms experienced slower growth in revenues, employment, and assets and faced tighter financing conditions during the recessionary years. While we find some evidence that firm growth picked up following the recession, it is not clear that it returned to the levels it would have been absent the recessionary shock. We find little evidence that financing conditions for young firms loosened following the recession and show that financing constraints, in addition to diminished demand, may have contributed to these firms' slower growth. We discuss the strengths and the limitations of the Kauffman Firm Survey in measuring the impact of the Great Recession on young firms and their founders and consider features of future data collection and measurement efforts that would be useful in studying entrepreneurial activity over the business cycle.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Financing constraints; Firm performance; Great Recession; Young firms
    Date: 2015–09–23
  21. By: Uzcátegui, Carolina; Solano, Javier
    Abstract: La determinación e identificación de los factores que posibilitan a las empresas un nivel competitivo, suscita gran interés entre los gestores de empresas necesariamente ligado a la necesidad de supervivencia en la pyme, que en la mayoría de ocasiones se ve frenado por la limitación de recursos del que dispone para llevar a cabo un análisis competitivo profundo. El presente estudio tiene como fin, dar luz sobre este tema; para lo cual se identifica la influencia de determinados factores, como son el liderazgo, el entorno competitivo, y la estrategia de negocio, sobre la competitividad empresarial de la pyme ecuatoriana. Los resultados del análisis fueron obtenidos por medio de un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales basados en la varianza, definido como técnica de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS-SEM), que aborda versátilmente los temas complejos de las Ciencias Sociales, determinándose que entre los tres factores seleccionados, la estrategia de negocio es el de mayor influencia directa sobre la competitividad empresarial, mientras que el liderazgo y el entorno lo hacen indirectamente.
    Keywords: pyme, competitividad empresarial, liderazgo, entorno competitivo, estrategia de negocio, mínimos cuadrados parciales PLS-SEM
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2015–09
  22. By: Inga Ivanova; Oivind Strand; Duncan Kushnir; Loet Leydesdorff
    Abstract: Hidalgo & Hausmann's (2009) Economic Complexity Index (ECI) measures the complexity of national economies in terms of product groups. Analogously to ECI, we develop the Patent Complexity Index (PatCI) on the basis of a matrix of nations versus patent classes. Using linear algebra, the three dimensions countries, product groups, and patent classes can be combined into an integrated ("Triple Helix") measure of complexity (THCI). We measure ECI, PatCI, and THCI during the period 2000-2014 for the 34 OECD member states, the BRICS countries, and a group of emerging economies (Argentina, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, and Singapore). The positive correlation between ECI and average income claimed as an argument for the predictive value of ECI cannot be confirmed using our data. The three complexity indicators are significantly correlated between themselves, yet each captures another aspect of the complexity. THCI adds the trilateral interaction terms among the three bilateral interactions, and can thus be expected to capture the extent of systems integration between the global dynamics of markets (ECI) and technologies (PatCI) in each national system of innovation. Of the world's major economies, Japan scores highest on all three indicators, while China has been increasingly successful in combining economic and technological complexity. Our empirical results raise questions about the interpretation and empirical fruitfulness of the complexity approach.
    Date: 2016–02
  23. By: Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert
    Abstract: This paper analyzes determinants of technology acceptance and their interdependence. It highlights the role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies and examines how it mediates the influence of stable psychological variables on technology acceptance. Based on theory and previous empirical evidence, we develop an analytical framework of attitude formation. We test this framework using survey data on the acceptance of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), a technology that could be used to counteract global warming. We show that affect is more important than risk and benefit perception in forming judgment about SAI. Negative and positive affect directly alter the perception of risks and benefits of SAI and its acceptability. Furthermore, affect is an important mediator between stable psychological variables - like trust in government, values, and attitudes - and acceptance. A person's affective response is thus guided by her general attitudes and values.
    Keywords: technology acceptance,stratospheric aerosol injection,climate engineering,affect,attitudes,values,trust
    Date: 2016
  24. By: Islam,Asif Mohammed
    Abstract: Economic theory predicts that a rise in police presence will reduce criminal activity. However several studies in the literature have found mixed results. This study adds to the literature by exploring the relationship between the size of the police force and crime experienced by firms. Using survey data for about 12,000 firms in a cross-section of 27 developing countries, the study finds that increasing the size of the police force is negatively associated with crime experienced by firms. The results are confirmed using a panel of firms for a subset of countries for which data are available. The study also finds that this negative relationship is stronger under certain macro-economic circumstances.
    Keywords: Law Enforcement Systems,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures,Gender and Law,Governance Indicators
    Date: 2016–02–08
  25. By: Joanna Kuczewska (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk); Sylwia Morawska (Collegium of Business Administration, Warsaw School of Economics)
    Abstract: Benchmarking is the process of investigation of the most effective solutions that produce superior performance in organisations. This concept could be successfully implemented in organisation of justice, however, in this case the main goal of benchmarking must be different. Courts do not compete with each other so they do not have to reach the competitive advantage. The main objective of benchmarking in this situation will be identification and then implementation of the best practices in justice system for improving its general organisational efficiency and cooperation network. The measure of organizational efficiency of the judiciary is to meet needs and requirements of internal and external stakeholders. Efficient organization of justice rationally employs its material goods and skilfully acquires material and human resources. It also ensures smooth interaction of all departments of the organization. The aim of the chapter is to present the benchmarking concept and possibilities of its implementation of cooperation networks between justice organisations.
    Keywords: justice, benchmarking, cooperation networks
    JEL: K10 M10
    Date: 2016–02
  26. By: Carl Bonander; Niklas Jakobsson; Federico Podestà; Mikael Svenson
    Abstract: Are research universities important for regional growth and development? We study the impact on the regional economy of granting research university status to two former university colleges in two different regions in Sweden. We analyze the development in the treated regions compared to a set of control regions that are created using the synthetic control method. We find small or no effects on the regional economy. Our findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of research universities in fostering regional growth and development. We contribute to the existing research by using a more credible identification strategy in assessing the effects of universities on the regional economy compared to what has usually been used in previous studies.
    Keywords: Higher education, Local economy, Regional development, Research, University
    JEL: H52 H75 O18 R11
    Date: 2016–02
  27. By: Bailey, Andrew
    Abstract: This research is focussed on how large professional services firms in New Zealand innovate in the context of and as a response to potential disruption. The theory of disruptive innovation describes how incumbents can be overwhelmed by innovative new entrants. Typically these new entrants begin in markets which are unattractive to incumbents because they can’t make money there with their existing business models. Therefore, some have claimed that new businesses must be set up, or various dual approaches adopted, to survive against disruptive new entrants. Semi-structured interviews were held with senior members of large professional services firms to understand their perspective on how innovation is managed in their organisation in the context of potential disruption and the capabilities which support them in doing this. From these interviews, a number of themes emerged which were compared with some of the approaches advocated by the literature in terms of responding to potential disruption. The research found that large professional services firms in New Zealand are focussed on how they can enable innovation from within the firm – typically built off the back of client demand and concentrating on how they work differently with clients, using new methodologies and resourcing models – particularly partnering with third parties to play a service aggregator role – to deliver better outcomes for clients and maintain the professional services firms’ incumbency. At the same time, there are some tentative steps to think about how incubation and/or ‘dual organisations’ might be able to test more disruptive, alternative business models.
    Keywords: Disruptive, Innovation, Professional services,
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Chérine Soliman (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes); Nicolas Antheaume (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: The economic environment which we know created a reality rich in conflict inside and outside the organization. This article defends the opinion that in such a context cooperation is needed. It presents cooperative negotiation as an important tool for conflict management, dispute management and building sustainable competitive advantages. This article addresses academics through the review and analysis of the most citied literature related to cooperative negotiation. It argues for and defends, based on existing research, the choice of cooperative negotiation. It also addresses professionals and provides arguments and guidelines for organizational cooperation enhancement.
    Keywords: cooperation, organizational performance, negotiation, social dilemma, negotiator’s dilemma
    Date: 2016–02–07
  29. By: Van der Wee, Marlies; Vandevelde, Niels; Verbrugge, Sofie; Pickavet, Mario
    Abstract: Net neutrality is defined as the concept in which Internet service providers are obliged to treat all data streams equally, independent of which application, service, device, sender or receiver is involved. They are as such forbidden to block, throttle or alter data traffic over their networks. The current debate about net neutrality raises important questions about if and how it should be implemented by law. This research summarizes the current regulations regarding net neutrality in the EU and US and finds significant differences, as well as specific cases where operators breached (or tried to breach) the concept of net neutrality. A case study about video on demand is used to analyze both these violations and certain approaches under net neutrality in order to see which scenario offers the greatest benefits, both from an operator’s, as well as from a regulator’s perspective. The results are computed using a game theoretic approach and from these results recommendations are subtracted that can be presented to regulators. The study finds that net neutrality can be enforced by law to prevent the decline of competition and innovation on the market.
    Keywords: net neutrality,game theory,telecommunications,congestion,video on demand,techno-economic analysis
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Maslova, Yana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The problem of the increase of higher education institution competitiveness is actualized. Various approaches to the determination of assessment components are classified. The term “algorithm of carrying out the estimation procedure” for the reflection of the essence of carrying out an assessment is offered and theoretically approved. The assessment of work of the faculty serves as a labor productivity regulator.
    Keywords: Personnel assessment, Personnel technology, Subject of an assessment, Criteria of an assessment, System of an assessment, Faculty, Competitiveness of higher education institutions
    Date: 2015
  31. By: DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh
    Abstract: This case study examines the human resources practices in Universal-Cameroon Link, a promising small business in Cameroon. In-depth interviews were conducted with current and past employees to gain insight into their perspectives on management implementation of human resource management strategies and their (non-)effectiveness. Management treatment of employees not as significant contributors to the growth and success of the business, but mere as "tools" has resulted in distrust from both parties. Employees' dissatisfaction is exhibited through actions such as absenteeism and turnover while management practices of withholding earnings, nepotism, forfeiting overtime payments and bullying employees are indications of serious human resource management challenges for the business. Based on these discussions, targeted areas/questions are identified for management consideration to ensure the maximum utilization of the employees' contributions to the success of the business.
    Keywords: Equal pay; employee satisfaction; employee turnover/retention; employee contract; management conduct
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2015–06–01
  32. By: Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Environmental benefits only unfold if green (environmentally friendly) technologies are widely diffused and intensively deployed within a firm. We investigate how different types of policies - directly and in combination - affect the number of different green energy technologies adopted by a single firm (intra-firm diffusion). Using data from a dedicated survey on the diffusion of green energy technologies of 1200 Swiss firms and applying well-identified econometric models, we found that energy taxes are a very effective policy instrument for the intra-firm diffusion of green energy technologies. Even more important, however, are non-political measures that show the largest effect among all tested instruments. Additional analyses show that (a) time-consistency in policy making is more important for energy tax regimes than for regulations and (b) no evidence for complementarities between the policy types could be identified.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption, Innovation, Policies, Intra-firm diffusion, Survey data
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2016–01

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