nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒02‒29
thirty-two papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship By Backman, Mikaela; Lööf, Hans
  2. Uncovering Regional Clustering of high technology SMEs: Russian Case By Vera Barinova; Denis Burkov; Stepan Zemtsov; Vladimir Eremkin
  3. Empirical Analysis of Factors Promoting Product Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use By Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Ueki, Yasushi; Shinohara, Sobee
  4. Innovation Performance of Chilean SMEs: A Bivariate Probit Analysis By Rehman, Naqeeb Ur
  5. Strategic Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers: Spatial and Aspatial Perspectives By Tavassoli, Sam; Bengtsson, Lars; Karlsson , Charlie
  6. Business Practices in Small Firms in Developing Countries By McKenzie, David; Woodruff , Christopher
  7. Do R&D and ICT Affect Total Factor Productivity Growth Differently? By Edquist, Harald; Henrekson, Magnus
  8. Measuring creativity: Learning from innovation measurement By Stéphane Lhuillery; Julio Raffo; Intan Hamdan-Livramento
  9. The Joint Influencing Mechanism of Proximities and Knowledge Base on Multinational Companies’ Global Innovation Networks By Liu , Ju; Liefner , Ingo
  10. Digital Dynamism: How IT and social media are enhancing business opportunities for Sri Lankan entrepreneurs  By Anushka Wijesinha
  11. Empower Workers to Innovate and Entrepreneurship: Raison d'être of Successful Workers Cooperatives By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  12. A selective review of foreign direct investment theories By Dinkar Nayak; Rahul N. Choudhury
  13. Does skill-biased technical change diffuse internationally? By Schulte, Patrick
  14. Productivity and Organization in Portuguese Firms By Lorenzo Caliendo; Giordano Mion; Luca David Opromolla; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  15. Selectivity and Transparency in Social Banking: Evidence from Europe By Simon Cornée; Panu Kalmi; Ariane Szafarz
  16. Determinants of trade: the role of innovation in presence of quality standards By Maria Cipollina; Federica Demaria; Filomena Pietrovito
  17. The Catch-22 of External Validity in the Context of Constraints to Firm Growth By Dean Karlan; Greg Fischer
  18. Employer branding for SMEs: Attracting graduating students in IT industry By Komulainen, Ruey
  19. What determines entepreneurial failure: taking advantage of the institutional context By Lucio Fuentelsaz; Consuelo González-Gil; Juan P. Maicas
  20. The German excellence initiative and efficiency change among universities, 2001-2011 By Gawellek, Bastian; Sunder, Marco
  21. Blue Oceans: Looking overseas for business success - How do New Zealand SMEs internationalise and manage branding in foreign markets? By Palazzetti, Daniele
  22. Ecologically oriented model of consumer behavior in order to sustainable development By Kalashnikova, Svetlana
  23. Critical raw material strategies in different world regions By Bartekova, Eva; Kemp, Rene
  24. Fitting Talent Management Strategy into National Culture By Agarwal, Promila
  25. Entrepreneurship and Innovation: New Entries, Survival, Growth By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Marco Vivarelli
  26. The geography of the economic crisis in Europe: national macroeconomic conditions, regional structural factors and short-term economic performance. By Riccardo Crescenzi; Davide Luca; Simona Milio
  28. Structuration processes in complex dynamic systems - an overview and reassessment By Gräbner, Claudius; Heinrich, Torsten; Kudic, Muhamed
  29. A review of pay-for-performance programs in the inpatient sector in OECD countries By Milstein, Ricarda; Schreyögg, Jonas
  30. Vertical organization of production and firm growth By Fabio Pieri
  31. Dynamics and performances in the international trade of Romania’s agri-food products, by the processing level By Rusali, Mirela-Adriana
  32. Competition in Telecommunications and Internet Services: Problems with Asymmetric Regulations By Paul J.J. Welfens

  1. By: Backman, Mikaela (Jönköping University, & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labour market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.
    Keywords: Innovation; entreprenurship; spillovers; regional economy; spatial heterogeneity
    JEL: C10 O30 R10
    Date: 2015–09–11
  2. By: Vera Barinova (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Denis Burkov (RANEPA); Stepan Zemtsov (RANEPA); Vladimir Eremkin (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The Soviet Union predetermined Russia’s economic activity’s location patterns. While the main forms of industry organization were territorial production complexes (TPC) - networks of industrial organizations united by a single technological process, - switch to the market economy in the early 90s destroyed economic ties within the TPC, leading to fragmentation of large enterprises and formation of a number of independent firms. Some scientists believe that this situation over the last 20 years could serve as a necessary foundation for clusters’ formation. Nowadays interest in clusters in Russia is rekindled due to the need to find new support mechanisms for production and innovation in a stagnating economy. The Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation has initiated a project to support pilot territorial innovation clusters with infrastructure formation funding. The aim of this work is to identify clusters as areas of geographical concentration of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in high technology sector. Authors also try to check, whether existing cluster initiatives comply with the actual concentration of high-tech SMEs and whether there is any potential for new cluster initiatives. The present paper analysis exploits modified methodology, based on localization index. The study provides tables and maps, reflecting small and medium businesses concentration in Russian regions using evidence from high and medium-high technology industries. The authors empirically confirm the existence of traditional and well-known clusters and identify new concentrations of firms in Russia. This useful information can be used for policy advice.
    Keywords: cluster identification, localization, SME, Russian regions, industrial complex, territorial innovation cluster, innovation, high technology, innovative firms
    JEL: F34 G24 O18 O47 R11
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Ueki, Yasushi; Shinohara, Sobee
    Abstract: In recent years, East Asian economies have been rapidly developing. The reason is that firms have been successfully achieving product and process innovation by introducing advanced technologies and know-how from MNCs. In order to enhance innovation, firms have to own technology, capability and ICT use. In particular, collaborations with outside organizations such as MNCs (Multi-national corporations), universities, public organizations, local firms are indispensable for firms in developing economies. Authors’ previous research clarified external linkages enhance innovation capability and ICT use, and innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation in ASEAN firms. These studies analyzed under what conditions firms can promote absorptive capability if they had external linkages. Whether or how absorptive capacity affected innovation capability and ICT use were not explained there. Based on survey data from four ASEAN economies such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, from 2013 to 2014, this study clarifies how absorptive capacity, ICTs, and innovation capability such as QC and cross-functional team enhance product innovation by using SEM (Structural equation modeling). As a result, the following causality from external linkages (origin) to innovation (final outcome) is demonstrated: (i) absorptive capacity is enhanced by external linkages such as local firms, public organizations, and universities; (ii) absorptive capacity enhances innovation capability; (iii) innovation capability enhances ICT use; and (iv) innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation. These are similar to those of authors’ previous research. Since data are different, it is difficult to compare the results, but the robustness of the results is demonstrated.
    Keywords: ICT use,absorptive capacity,external linkages,product innovation,SEM (Structural equation modeling)
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Rehman, Naqeeb Ur
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation activities of Chilean firms’ by using micro level data. Previous studies showed research gap related to micro level analysis of the Chilean SMEs. For the first time, multiple proxies have been used as dependent variables (product/process innovations and patent application/spending), which is neglected by the past studies. A micro level data has been obtained from the World Bank, Enterprise Survey on 696 Chilean SMEs. Bivariate probit estimation method has been used. Results: The results showed that SMEs are less likely to apply for patents and introduce product innovations. This outcome indicates that Chilean SMEs face resource constraint in terms of introducing product innovations and applying for patents. In addition, SMEs undertaking R&D and making network ties with other research institutions are more likely to introduce patents and product innovations. Similarly, SMEs that are engage in quality programs are more likely to spend on patents. Lastly, SMEs with public support for innovation activities positively influence the patent application. Findings imply that SMEs investment in knowledge based assets (e.g., R&D, networks and quality methods) accelerate their innovation output. Policy makers should not only provide financial incentives (R&D subsidies) to SMEs but also encourage their strong ties with research institutions for higher innovation output.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2016–01–04
  5. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University); Bengtsson, Lars (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Management and Logistics, Lund University); Karlsson , Charlie (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), & Jönköping International Business School (JIBS))
    Abstract: The literature in the Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) is increasingly embracing the concept and implication of knowledge spillovers. In this paper, we add to the theoretical literature on SE and knowledge spillovers by investigating the different types of knowledge spill-overs and what they imply for various dimensions of SE. On the one hand, we distinguish between spatial and aspatial knowledge spillovers. On the other hand, we distinguish be-tween various dimensions of SE, i.e. inputs, resource orchestration, and output. Finally, we conceptually link the various types of knowledge spillovers and dimensions of SE and dis-cuss the implications. Doing so, we argue that spatial knowledge spillovers (inter-firm) play the major role in increasing the amount of ‘inputs’ dimension of SE, while the aspatial knowledge (either inter-regional or intra-firm) play the major role not only for ‘inputs’, but also for ‘resource orchestration’ dimension. At the end, the paper provides suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: Strategic entrepreneurship; knowledge spillovers; spatial; aspatial
    JEL: D23 D83 L10 L26 R10
    Date: 2016–01–14
  6. By: McKenzie, David (World Bank); Woodruff , Christopher (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Management has a large effect on the productivity of large firms. But does management matter in micro and small firms, where the majority of the labor force in developing countries works? We develop 26 questions that measure business practices in marketing, stock-keeping, recordkeeping, and financial planning. These questions have been administered in surveys in Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria and Sri Lanka. We show that variation in business practices explains as much of the variation in outcomes – sales, profits and labor productivity and TFP – in microenterprises as in larger enterprises. Panel data from three countries indicate that better business practices predict higher survival rates and faster sales growth. The association of business practices with firm outcomes is robust to including numerous measures of the owner’s human capital. We find that owners with higher human capital, children of entrepreneurs, and firms with employees employ better business practices.
    Keywords: business practices; small enterprises; productivity; management
    JEL: O12 L26 M20 O17 M53
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Edquist, Harald (Erricsson Research); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of ICT and R&D on total factor productivity (TFP) growth across different industries in Sweden. R&D alone is significantly associated with contemporaneous TFP growth, thus exhibiting spillover effects. Although there is no significant short-run association between ICT and TFP, we find a positive association with a lag of seven to eight years. Thus, spillovers from R&D affect TFP much faster than spillovers from ICT-investments. We also divide ICT capital into hardware and software capital. To our knowledge, this distinction has not been made in any previous study analyzing TFP at the industry level. The results show that lagged hardware capital services growth is significantly associated with TFP growth. Hence, investments complementary to hardware are needed to reap the long-run TFP effects from reorganizing production.
    Keywords: ICT; R&D; Spillovers; Total factor productivity; Panel data analysis
    JEL: L16 O33 O47
    Date: 2016–02–08
  8. By: Stéphane Lhuillery (ICN Business School & BETA-CNRS 7522, Nancy, France.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Intan Hamdan-Livramento (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in broadening the measurement scope of innovation and considering “creative” activities, meaning that the usual indicators of innovation satisfy neither scholars nor policy makers. Conceptually, there is not much difference between innovative and creative activity: but to what extent are current measures that capture innovation relevant for creativity? Can the new measures for creativity benefit from the experience accumulated through R&D and innovation? Our article provides insights and lessons learned from using measures of innovative activities for scholars who are interested in capturing creative activities. We underscore the difficulties faced when measuring innovation and draw some parallels of these difficulties with the efforts undertaken to measure creativity.
    Keywords: innovation metrics; creativity measurement; patents; copyrights.
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2016–02
  9. By: Liu , Ju (CIRCLE, Lund University); Liefner , Ingo (Department of Economic Geography, Justus Liebig University Giessen)
    Abstract: This paper explores the joint influencing mechanism of the two-dimensional proximity, namely geographical and organisational proximity, and knowledge base on the relational pattern of multinational companies’ (MNCs) global innovation networks (GINs). It argues when it comes to MNCs’ GINs, the conventional geographical-proximity-and-knowledge-base framework allows only for an incomplete understanding of the network relational patterns and particularly the observed differences between different GINs. The paper suggests an extended theoretical framework based on a two-dimensional proximity concept and the knowledge base approach for understanding how and why MNCs’ GINs are organised in specifically different ways. An in-depth comparative case study with social network analysis is used to illustrate the applicability of the framework in question.
    Keywords: global innovation network; Multinational company; Knowledge base; Geographical proximity; Organisational proximity; Social network analysis
    JEL: F23 L60 M16 O32
    Date: 2016–01–18
  10. By: Anushka Wijesinha (Ministry of Industry and Commerce of Sri Lanka)
    Abstract: As the Sri Lankan economy attempts to transform into a more value-added and knowledge-led one, recent advancements in technology and innovation have created a plethora of new opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper provides four case studies of innovative enterprises and initiatives to demonstrate how the digital economy is enhancing the country’s business potential and creating jobs. The firms studied are all start-ups run by young professionals (between 28-35 years) and are specifically unique to show the range of possible benefits. The aim of this initiative is to shape a new narrative around the use of IT and social media for entrepreneurship in the future.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, entrepreneurship, innovation, SMEs, technology
    JEL: M13 M15 M21 M37 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–07
  11. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: The study critically analyses selected Indian workers cooperatives to find reasons over time of its success or failures. Worker cooperatives flourish in many industries and regions, where decisions are made democratically by workers who also act as entrepreneurs, managers and members. By value creation it tends to provide employment, remains accountable to community. The entrepreneurs are risk takers but who innovate to satisfy ever-changing consumers’ needs succeed through well managed business. The study has qualitative research design employed on variety of workers cooperatives. It looks at phenomena of business cycle, value creation cum distribution, overlapping multiple roles of workers, management practices, innovation & product life cycle, consumer satisfaction vis-à-vis business performance. We attempts to explore and interpret dynamism of activities and interactions among key stakeholders to ascertain success factors. We find that continuous innovation and entrepreneur spirit is the key to success. The finding may help to advance socio-economic enterprises.
    Keywords: Workers Cooperative, Labour Cooperative, Industrial Cooperative
    JEL: A12 A3 L00
    Date: 2015–01–10
  12. By: Dinkar Nayak (MS University of Baroda); Rahul N. Choudhury (MS University of Baroda)
    Abstract: Several theories have been put forward by the researchers to explain foreign direct investment. However, no single theory fits the different types of direct investment or the investment made by a particular multinational corporation or country in any region. This paper traces the evolution of the theories of foreign direct investment (FDI) during the past few decades. An attempt is also made to explain the growth phenomenon of Third World multinational companies. The applicability of the theory differs with the type and origin of investment. Nevertheless, all these theories are unanimous in their view that a firm moves abroad to reap the benefits of the advantages in the form of location, firm-specific or internationalization of markets.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment, internalization, MNCs, motivation, trade
    JEL: F21 F23 F36
    Date: 2014–04
  13. By: Schulte, Patrick
    Abstract: This paper studies the question whether skill-biased technical change diffuses internationally and that way contributes to the increasing relative skill demand in other countries. So far, the role of skill-biased technology diffusion has hardly been studied empirically. Using new sectoral data for a panel of 40 emerging and developed countries, 30 industries (covering manufacturing and service industries) and 13 years (1995-2007), the analysis shows that skill-biased technology diffusion is statistically and economically important in explaining skill-biased technical change. Countries further away from the skill-specific technological frontier subsequently show higher skill-specific productivity growth. For that, the bilateral distance between two countries proves to be an important mediating factor, whereas intersectoral trade linkages, so far, explain only a small part of it. The main results hold for both, developed and emerging countries.
    Keywords: skill-biased technical change,technology diffusion,distance,inputoutput linkages,industry-level data,emerging and developed countries
    JEL: F16 J24 O14 O33 C67
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Lorenzo Caliendo; Giordano Mion; Luca David Opromolla; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: The productivity of firms is, at least partly, determined by a firm’s actions and decisions. One of these decisions involves the organization of production in terms of the number of layers of management the firm decides to employ. Using detailed employer-employee matched data and firm production quantity and input data for Portuguese firms, we study the endogenous response of revenue-based and quantity-based productivity to a change in layers: a firm reorganization. We show that as a result of an exogenous demand or productivity shock that makes the firm reorganize and add a management layer, quantity based productivity increases by about 4%, while revenue-based productivity drops by more than 4%. Such a reorganization makes the firm more productive, but also increases the quantity produced to an extent that lowers the price charged by the firm and, as a result, its revenue-based productivity.
    JEL: D22 D24 L23 F16 J24 J31
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Simon Cornée (Université de Rennes 1, CREM CNRS, and CERMi, France); Panu Kalmi (University of Vaasa); Ariane Szafarz (Université Libre de Bruxelles, SBS-EM, CEB, and CERMi)
    Abstract: How do social banks signal their social commitment to motivated funders? This paper hypothesizes that two main channels are used, namely selectivity and transparency. We test these predictions using a rich dataset comprising balance-sheet information on 5,000 European banks over the 1998-2013 period. The results suggest that social screening leads social banks to higher project selectivity compared with mainstream banks. Social banks also tend to be more transparent than other banks. However, combining selectivity and transparency can result in excess liquidity. Overall, the empirical findings not only confirm our theoretical hypotheses, but also raise challenging issues on the management of social banks.
    Keywords: Social banks, Social enterprises, Social mission, European banks
    JEL: G21 L33 M14 L31 D63 D82
    Date: 2016–02
  16. By: Maria Cipollina (UNIMOL - University of Molise [Campobasso] - University of Molise); Federica Demaria (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM); Filomena Pietrovito (UNIMOL - University of Molise [Campobasso] - University of Molise)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role that quality standards and innovation play on trade volume, by using a gravity model. The role of innovative activity and quality standards in enhancing trade performance is widely accepted in the literature. However, in this paper, we argue that the net effect of quality standards on trade depends on the producers’ ability to innovate and comply with these requirements. In particular, by using a sample of 60 exporting countries and 57 importing countries, for a wide range of 26 manufacturing industries over the period 1995-2000, we show that the most innovative sectors are more likely to enhance the overall quality of exports, and then gain a competitive advantage. We also find that this effect depends on the level of technology intensity at sector-level and on the level of economic development of exporting country.
    Keywords: trade policies,non-tariff measures,innovation,trade flows,gravity model
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Dean Karlan (Economic Growth Center, Yale University); Greg Fischer (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: We document the presence of multiple and varied constraints to small and medium firm growth. This presents both a practical problem for business training programs and a challenge to academic economists trying to identify mechanisms though which these programs may affect outcomes. External validity needs theory. This pushes researchers to narrowly defined and highly selected sample frames, which limits the potential for clear, generalizable policy prescriptions. Ultimately, larger samples, multi-arm evaluations, process documentation, and narrowly-focused, theory-supported empirical work are all needed, but the complexity of the problem limits what we learn from any single study.
    Keywords: external validity, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship training
    JEL: B4 L2 M1 M2 M3 O1
    Date: 2015–01
  18. By: Komulainen, Ruey
    Abstract: Employer Branding has been an emerging topic in HRM for less than two decades. The concept of Employer Branding is a popular recruitment strategy used by large companies or MNCs. However, researches on the effectiveness of Employer Brand-ing for SMEs are very limited. Thus, this research aims to study the role of Employer Branding in SMEs, especially IT SMEs in Finland. This research focused on the perspectives of graduating students, the prospective employees of SMEs, as the main research targets. The theoretical framework is developed using concepts of Marketing (Lievens and Highhouse (2003)) and Strategic HRM (Barney 1991) and how they are connected within Employer Branding. Quantitative survey is utilised and 181 good responses were collected. The empirical findings suggest that employer branding has positive influence on students' decision to apply for a job in SMEs but on the contrary, the correlation between instrumental and symbolic values of the employer branding to the attitude of the prospective student employees is weak. The study suggests that although Employer Branding is a widely used approach to attract prospective employees by large companies, this concept may not be as effective if applied by the SMEs in the Finnish IT industry.
    Keywords: IT SMEs,Employer Branding,graduating students
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Lucio Fuentelsaz (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Consuelo González-Gil (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Juan P. Maicas (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Most management literature has been devoted to explaining business success. However, empirical evidence shows that one of the main problems of new ventures is precisely failure. A simple Google search for “business success” provides 986 million results, while “business failure” finds approximately ten times fewer. The same is found in the academic literature, which has been less interested in explaining the determinants of entrepreneurial failure. In this paper, we contribute to the entrepreneurship literature by offering new theoretical insights into and empirical evidence on the determinants of entrepreneurial failure. Our results confirm that both the quality of formal institutions and high-impact entrepreneurship reduce failure and, more importantly, that these two variables reinforce each other. As a consequence, a greater development of formal institutions strengthens the negative relationship between high-impact entrepreneurship and failure.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, failure, institutions, GEM
    JEL: L26 M21
    Date: 2015–05
  20. By: Gawellek, Bastian; Sunder, Marco
    Abstract: The "Excellence Initiative" is a prestigious third-party funding program for German universities, organized as a research contest. We investigate whether universities in this program (or that prepared an application) had different trends in terms of productivity and technical efficiency than universities that did not apply for the program, albeit these dimensions were not the target of the program. While universities became more efficient if the extra funding through the program is included, we do not find a substantially positive effect that extends beyond this funding. The evidence even suggests that applicants suffered a drop in efficiency at the time of applying. All this does not rule out, however, that research-oriented universities jointly gained productivity through increased competition between them.
    Keywords: Efficiency,Malmquist index,German Research Foundation,DFG
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Palazzetti, Daniele
    Abstract: The purpose of this study and its underlying research questions is to understand how New Zealand SMEs, that fall within knowledge intensive service industries, internationalise and manage branding in foreign markets. The research is important because it aims to provide insight into cost effective means for SME’’s to directly deliver service solutions to international markets. Consequently, this will allow companies to further build and develop their resources, assets and markets. New Zealand is a small market economy with limited growth potential and domestic market opportunities. Therefore, companies are considering extending their sales activities and customer reach to foreign markets and develop international networks. In the literature review, a strong link between internationalisation and FSA has been established and Dunning (1997) suggested that firms develop a competitive advantage in their home market and transfer this advantage to international markets with CSA. Other literature pointed out that FSA and company capabilities can also be acquired and augmented abroad. Therefore, these can act as a driver and motivator for firms to internationalise. This is a phenomenological research and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The findings of this research suggest that business have to focus on global niche markets and provide quality outputs in order to effectively compete internationally. The primary method for internationalisation is through personal and direct relationships with international key clients which facilitate foreign market entry. The organisational structure and corporate culture are key competencies that must be managed or they can turn into a barrier.
    Keywords: Internationalise, Branding, SME, Small and medium enterprise,
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Kalashnikova, Svetlana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The article deals with environmental performance as a factor in the competitiveness of companies under market conditions. The trend in the ecologically oriented business increasingly manifested in the consumer market, the production of consumer goods. The incentives are need to be identified for users to make their behavior more environmentally oriented. The following components are important: waste reduction, reuse, recycling. The article highlights the benefits to producers and consumers of organic products.
    Keywords: environmental marketing, eco-friendly product, the perception of the goods by the consumer
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Bartekova, Eva (UNU_MERIT, Maastricht University); Kemp, Rene (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The rising imbalance between increased demand for minerals and their tighter supply has resulted in growing concerns about their criticality. This has in turn stimulated both resource-rich and resource-poor countries to take active role in implementing mineral policy strategies. This paper explains why different world regions responded differently to the global problem of securing stable supply of critical minerals, in particular of rare earths. The paper first provides an in-depth overview of development trajectories of critical mineral strategies through a historical case study analysis of major stakeholder regions - China, the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia. Next, it offers answers as to why they have responded the way they did: how national interest considerations, resource endowment circumstances, countries’ historical experience in tackling supply risk and their respective policy styles influenced the development of critical mineral policy choices within a comparative political economy framework. The overall findings show distinctive differences in policy strategies towards critical materials. Whereas Europe opts for a policy dialogue with resource-rich countries, Japan and the United States have a more hands-on approach in research and development initiatives. Australia and China instead, strive to promote domestic mining activities and to protect their resources through resource nationalist policies.
    Keywords: raw materials, material criticality, rare earths, national policy styles, comparative political economy
    JEL: L72 L78 O57 Q34 Q38
    Date: 2016–01–22
  24. By: Agarwal, Promila
    Abstract: In the face of globalization, organizations are concerned with how to design the talent management strategy that fits the national context. Based on an extensive literature review, the paper presents a systematic review of the literature on the role of talent management stagey, and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in creative sense of justice among employees. The paper examines the effectiveness of inclusive and exclusive talent management strategy using the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. The paper investigates the association between organizational justice and talent management strategy in different cultural conditions.
  25. By: Alessandra Colombelli (DIGEP, Politecnico di Torino; BRICK, Collegio Carlo Alberto); Jackie Krafft (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis; GREDEG-CNRS); Marco Vivarelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the reasons why entry per se is not necessarily good and the evidence showing that innovative startups survive longer than their non-innovative counterparts. In this framework, our own empirical analysis shows that greater survival is achieved when startups engage successfully in both product innovation and process innovation, with a key role of the latter. Moreover, this study goes beyond a purely microeconomic perspective and discusses the key role of the environment within which innovative entries occur. What shown and discussed in this contribution strongly supports the proposal that the creation and survival of innovative start-ups should become one qualifying point of the economic policy agenda.
    Keywords: innovation, startups, survival, product innovation, process innovation
    JEL: L26 O33
    Date: 2016–02
  26. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Davide Luca; Simona Milio
    Abstract: This paper explores the linkages between pre-2008 crisis national macro-economic conditions, regional resistance factors and depth of the crisis in the regions of the EU27. The results suggest that only a limited set of macro-economic factors shape the regional reaction to the crisis. A healthy current account surplus is associated with stronger economic performance during the post-2008 recession. Conversely, high public debt countries are more successful in sheltering their regional economies in the short-run. When looking at regional-level resistance, human capital is the single most important positive factor. Conversely, research and development-intensive regions are more exposed to negative shocks.
    Keywords: economic crisis; crisis consequences; European Union; regional resistance; spatial heterogeneity.
    JEL: E32 O52 P48 R11
    Date: 2016–01–11
  27. By: Nesterenko, Nadezhda (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: In article modern approaches to definition of the category "labour motivation" are described. Elements of system of motivation which are actual for the enterprises of confectionery branch of the Saratov region in the conditions of crisis are considered.
    Keywords: labor motivation, motives and incentives, "cafeteria" as motivation method
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Gräbner, Claudius; Heinrich, Torsten; Kudic, Muhamed
    Abstract: Many questions addressing the emergence and dynamics of economic networks are still unresolved, especially regarding dynamics on and of networks. Previous research shows that processes at the micro-level affect socio-economic systems at aggregated levels. These insights facilitated the development of models taking the network structure explicitly into account. However, what is still missing is a systemic network theory that considers the full complexity of socio-economic systems. We argue that sociological, economic and institutional theories are complementary in many respects and have the potential to fill this gap by providing the theoretical ground for an eclectic network theory. In this paper, we address key concepts that are concerned with structuration processes in socio-economic networks, review and reassess the literature in this field and discuss approaches to explain pattern formation processes at higher aggregation levels. We propose to take advantage of the complementarities of the above outlined yet unconnected research programs.
    Keywords: complex systems; innovation networks; structuration processes; network dynamics; evolutionary economics
    JEL: D85 L14 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–01–25
  29. By: Milstein, Ricarda; Schreyögg, Jonas
    Abstract: Background: Across the member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), pay-for-performance (P4P) programs have been implemented in the inpatient sector to improve the quality of care provided by hospitals. However, little is known about whether such programs can live up to expectations. Thus far, evaluations and reviews have focused on the ambulatory care sector in Anglo-Saxon countries. The transferability of lessons learned to the inpatient sector, however, is limited. Objectives: We aimed to provide an overview of existing P4P programs in the inpatient sector in the OECD countries and to assemble information on their effects. Furthermore, we attempted to identify whether evaluations of such programs allow preliminary conclusions to be drawn about the effects of P4P. [...]
    Keywords: hospitals,pay-for-performance,quality,health system,health policy
    JEL: I10 I11 I18
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Fabio Pieri
    Abstract: This paper empirically explores if different vertical organizational forms (i.e. vertical integration versus dis-integration) give rise to unlike growth ''behaviors'' within the same industry. An econometric analysis is conducted in a sample of around 500 Italian machine tool (MT) builders for the period 1998-2007, implementing instrumental variables to control for the endogeneity of the organizational form in the relation. Ceteris paribus, vertically integrated firms result to be characterized by a less dispersed distribution of growth rates than their dis-integrated counterparts. Several concurring factors, such as adjustment costs, organizational slacks and a better management of fluctuations in the markets of intermediate and final products, may explain the more ÒstableÓ growth profile of vertically integrated firms. By means of analyzing how different organizational forms map into the distribution of output growth rates, this work provides insight into the firm dynamics in a mature industry in which both vertically integrated and dis-integrated firms coexist.
    Keywords: Vertical integration, Firm growth, Variance-vertical integration scaling relation, Instrumental variables, Quantile regression, Italian machine tool industry
    JEL: D22 L23 L24 L26 L64
    Date: 2016
  31. By: Rusali, Mirela-Adriana
    Abstract: The research aims at analyzing the factors of export growth of Romania's agri-food products on the world market during the period 2001-2013. The analysis used statistics for Romania's foreign trade and world trade in nominal terms, by main groups of products aggregated by codes 01-24 of the Harmonised System. The results show changes in the structure of agri-food trade flows of import and export by processing degree, evolution of trade balance and structure of export growth, highlighting the comparative performance of pre-accession Romanian and post-accession.
    Keywords: Agri-food trade, processing sector, post-accession.
    JEL: F13 F17 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2015–11–20
  32. By: Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: With the digital convergence of internet services markets and telecommunications markets, the issue of a common, consistent regulation has become more important. While Google or Facebook can exploit knowledge about the content of “data mails” or SMS, data protection rules for telecommunication operators are different – they cannot use info about “structural content” and are thus unable to generate high revenues from advertising that is based on knowledge about structural content. Internet service providers thus can cross-subsidize digital communication services and thereby gain market shares - based on cross-subsidization - in traditional telecommunication markets. Thus there is a fundamental inconsistency of regulations for internet service providers and telecommunication operators which should be remedied by new global rules for the emerging global communications market. The EU and the US, as well as other countries, plus the ITU should launch a joint initiative in order to create a global level playing field.
    Keywords: Internet services, Telecommunication, Regulation, Digital global markets
    JEL: L86 L96 L98
    Date: 2014–12

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