nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒02‒23
39 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Does institutional diversity promote global innovation networks? By Grillitsch, Markus; Chaminade, Cristina
  2. Determinants of innovation in Croatian SMEs: Comparison of service and manufacturing firms By Bozic, Ljiljana; Mohnen, Pierre
  3. “Technological cooperation in Spanish firms” By Erika Raquel Badillo; Rosina Moreno
  5. Indian Manufacturing Sector: Competitiveness at Stake By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  6. R&D investments and spillovers under endogenous technological opportunity By Mário Alexandre Patrício Martins da Silva
  7. Technology transfer with search intensity and project advertising. By Giorgio Calcagnini; Germana Giombini; Paolo Liberati; Giuseppe Travaglini
  8. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
  9. The propensity to employ high skilled employees. An empirical analysis on Manager and Intellectual Professions By Lucia Aiello; Giuseppe Espa; Mauro Gatti; Andrea Mazzitelli
  10. ICT and global sourcing: Evidence for German manufacturing and service firms By Rasel, Fabienne
  11. Venture Capital and Knowledge Transfer By Dessí, Roberta; Yin, Nina
  12. Emerging Multinational Corporations: Theoretical and Conceptual Framework By Mustafa Sakr; Andre Jordaan
  13. Comments on the Impact of Knowledge on Economic Growth across the Regions of the Russian Federation By Jens K. Perret
  14. Export Performance with Border Sharing Countries: An Assessment of Pakistan By Munir, Kashif; Sultan, Maryam
  15. Gendering Entrepreneurship and Technology: A Mixed Methods Study of Retailers in a Developing Economy By DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh
  16. Inter-industry relatedness and industrial-policy efficiency: Evidence from China's Export Processing Zones By Zhao Chen; Sandra Poncet; Ruixiang Xiong
  17. Routines and Networks: Strengthening a Missed Link By Aura Parmentier Cajaiba; Giovany Cajaiba Santana
  18. Understanding the "regional policy mix": A classification and analysis of European regions' support policies By Kroll, Henning
  19. The Impact of Researcher Diversity on Firms' Patent Application Activity (Japanese) By EDAMURA Kazuma; INUI Tomohiko
  20. The Effect of Global Green Economy on Taiwan's Environment-Related Goods Export By Lih-Cnyi, Wen; Chun-Hse, Lin
  21. Efficiency measures of the Chinese commercial banking system using an additive two-stage DEA By Ke Wang; Wei Huang; Jie Wu; Ying-Nan Liu
  22. Identifying Telecommunication strategies and investment Opportunities in Latin American Countries Based on Clustering Analysis By Peñas-de Pablo, José Miguel; Portilla-Figueras, José Antonio; Navío-Marco, Julio; Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho
  23. Industrial Research and Innovation: Evidence for Policy By Mafini Dosso; Petros Gkotsis; Fernando Hervas; Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello
  24. Mapping Information Economy Business with Big Data: Findings from the UK By Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
  25. Creativity, Clusters and the Competitive Advantage of Cities By Martin, Roger; Florida, Richard; Pogue, Melissa; Mellander, Charlotta
  26. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship By Quan-Hoang Vuong
  27. Bank Entry Mode, Labor Market Flexibility and Economic Activity By Wang, Teng
  28. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development By Cobb-Clark, Deborah A; Salamanca, Nicholas; Zhu, Anna
  29. Measuring the Quality of Education Policies and Their Implementation for Better Learning: Adapting World Bank’s SABER Tools on School Autonomy and Accountability to Senegal By Yuki, Takako; Igei, Kengo; Demas, Angela
  30. Equal Opportunities: Towards a greater understanding of the fulfilment of Women’s career aspirations in senior management By Syme, Bettena (Tina)
  31. Policy Design & Delivery: Undermanaged Human Resources as Determinants of India’s High Growth & Low Productivity By Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta; Patel, Akash
  32. Towards a managerial engineering of coopetition By Mourad Hannachi; Francois-Christophe Coleno
  33. Enforcement spillovers: Lessons from strategic interactions in regulation and product markets By Mary F. Evans; Scott M. Gilpatric; Jay P. Shimshack
  34. Challenges in property management within the Swedish cooperative housing sector By Muyingo, Henry
  35. The position of BRIC’s countries in the modern global economy By Amanda Muranska
  36. Stimulation of enterprises for sustainable development and investment attractiveness of the territories By Kalashnikova, Svetlana
  37. Clústeres competitivos del comercio minorista unilocalizado By Josep-Francesc Valls; Joan Sureda; Antoni Parera; Marçal Tarragó
  38. Human capital and international portfolio diversification: a reappraisal By Lorenzo Bretscher; Christian Julliard; Carlo Rosa
  39. The Network Composition of Aggregate Unemployment By Axtell, Robert L.; Guerrero, Omar A.; López, Eduardo

  1. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Chaminade, Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Recent literature stresses the increasing importance of global innovation networks as a new mechanism to organize innovation across geographical space. This paper investigates if institutional diversity, defined at the level of the firm, influences firms’ engagement in GINs. Institutional diversity provides knowledge about the institutional context of other countries, increased capabilities to deal with institutional differences, larger social networks to build GINs and a broader search space. Further, the paper examines how the absorptive capacity of firms mediates the relationship between institutional diversity and global innovation networks. The empirical study is based on a linked employee-employer dataset with 8,573 innovative firms in Sweden. It provides strong evidence that the engagement in GINs is positively related to institutional diversity and that the relation is particularly strong for global innovation networks, depending, however, on the absorptive capacity of firms.
    Keywords: global innovation networks; institutions; institutional diversity; absorptive capacity; open innovation
    JEL: D02 F20 O30
    Date: 2016–02–15
  2. By: Bozic, Ljiljana (Institute of Economics, Zagreb); Mohnen, Pierre (UNU-MERIT, SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: In this paper we focus on SMEs in Croatia operating in the manufacturing and services sectors and seek to compare them in terms of their involvement in innovation activities, the factors that determine their decision to innovate in general and in four types of innovations in particular: product/service, process, organisational and marketing innovations. The analysis relies on the Croatian Community Innovation Survey 2010 (CIS 2010) data. To find out whether innovations have a different pattern of drivers in manufacturing and in services, we estimate the probit and multivariate probit models separately on these two groups of firms. The findings reveal that despite some differences, service and manufacturing SMEs are not that different from one another when it comes to innovation activities. Service SMEs are somewhat less likely to introduce technological innovations, but manufacturing and service SMEs do not significantly differ from each other when it comes to non-technological innovations. One noteworthy difference between manufacturing and service SMEs is that the latter rely much more than the former on acquired knowledge.
    Keywords: Croatia, innovation, services, manufacturing, SME, multivariate probit
    JEL: O31 L80
    Date: 2016–02–16
  3. By: Erika Raquel Badillo (AQR Research Group. University of Barcelona.); Rosina Moreno (AQR Research Group.Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study to what extent participating in technological cooperation agreements can be a useful mechanism for improving the innovative capacity of Spanish firms, specially in the context of the economic recession. We analyse if there are differences in the returns obtained from cooperation alliances according to the firm’s size as well as different geographical scopes of such alliances. In addition, we want to study to what extent innovation cooperation may have a different effect on incremental innovations than on radical/breakthrough innovation s. We use the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel from 2004 to 2012 to provide evidence on the above issues.
    Keywords: Innovation cooperation; Technological partners; Performance; Spanish firms. JEL classification: L25; O31; O33; R1
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Biondolillo, Aldo; Brandi, Juan Pedro
    Abstract: Over the last years there has been a debate about the “structural change” in emerging economies and their impact on the understanding of development. New types of structuralisms are discussed using the concept of value chain in certain production sectors that have undergone significant changes. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the debate about the structural change of the Argentine grape-wine growing sector using the dual analysis of “Strengths and Governance”. First of all, we wish to point out that viticultural production is carried out in imperfect markets where prices are the result of an asymmetric negotiation between the purchasing power of a demand that is concentrated in a few firms and an atomized supply that is in the hands of thousands of producers. We analyze the strengths resulting from the interaction between the internal factors characteristic of the production unit and the external forces that operate within a given business organization. We describe the manner in which the supplier is related to the resources and the markets. We combine the above analysis with the governance approach, which refers to the manner in which the relationship among the several actors engaged in grape-wine growing is governed. We also analyze the relationships between firms and institutional mechanisms through which coordination actions are implemented outside the market. Emphasis is laid on the importance of explicitly incorporating institutionality into the analysis of the grape-wine growing sector chain so as to make sure that enforcement agencies comply with decisions reached by “consensus”. One first conclusion of the study refers to the complementariness of both approaches and, in both cases, there is a continuous segment that spans from “decentralized coordination to a more centralized one”. By learning how value chains are governed, it is possible to know how they affect suppliers’ “upgrade” (increasing the added value of the chain through innovation). The upgrade is illustrated with a case study in which the knowledge acquired by the innovative firm is spread within the grape-wine growing sector, giving rise to a positive externality that may be internalized by means of suitable public policy instruments.
    Keywords: trade, wine, Argentina, competition, Crop Production/Industries, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: Productivity is a matter of survival for any business. Higher productivity is sine-qua-non for “survival and growth” of business prospects. India’s series of economic reforms since 1991 have accelerated economic growth but not productivity. India’s productivity remained low compared to global but peers as well. High productivity is good for business, consumers and economy. Higher the productivity, higher the profit, lower the price. Productivity in manufacturing sector in the last two decades remains stagnant, but nobody sincerely has bothered to measure and improve. India’s various global indices, ranking and score relevant to measure productivity, including manufacturing productivity remains poor. This paper attempts to identify role and lacuna by manufacturing sector in productivity.
    Keywords: Productivity, Indian Manufacturing Sector, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: A1 A11 M0 M2
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Mário Alexandre Patrício Martins da Silva (Faculdade de Economia do Porto)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on endogenous technological opportunity and its effects upon R&D outcomes in the independent and cooperative cases. In light of the importance of spillovers in economic analysis of R&D incentives, we examine the relationship between R&D appropriability and R&D investment in the presence of an endogenous technological opportunity. In order to do this, we develop a three-stage game in which firms first choose their R&D orientations, then how much to invest in R&D, and finally their Cournot outputs. Contrary to the usual assumption made in oligopoly models that technological opportunity is external to the industry where firms operate, we fully endogenize technological possibilities through the firms’ choices of their R&D approaches. We find that competing firms invest more in R&D as spillovers increase (and R&D appropriability diminishes) but still less than cooperating firms no matter the degree of exogenous spillovers. This is a reversal of well-known results established in the literature on R&D and spillovers.
    Keywords: Technological opportunity, R&D spillovers, R&D investment, absorptive capacity
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2016–02
  7. By: Giorgio Calcagnini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo" and Mo.Fi.R., Ancona, Italy); Germana Giombini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo" and Mo.Fi.R., Ancona, Italy); Paolo Liberati (Department of Economics, Università degli Studi di Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.); Giuseppe Travaglini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: TIn this paper we present a model where technology transfer is embedded into a competitive model of utility and profit maximization and is the result of a matching process between heterogeneous Knowledge Transfer Offices (KTOs) and innovative firmrms. Our model improves on previous literature by endogenizing the process that drives the dynamics of university researchers in search and firm vacant projects. We are able to show that the KTOs' reservation fee rate must be greater than the ratio between the marginal researcher cost and the marginal utility of matched projects, and that technology transfer strictly depends on the efficiency units of searching researchers and vacant projects. Further, we show that firm technological progress might be too low when KTOs too much intensively search for project matches. This occurs because both sides of the market ignore the externalities of their decisions. Finally, behavioral complementarity, substitutability, and free riding are all potential equilibrium outcomes.
    Keywords: Technology transfer, Matching, Externalities
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
    Abstract: __Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: International Technology Diffusion, Exports, Imports, Joint Patent, Cross-border Patent, R&D, Negative Binomial Panel Data.
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2015–05–15
  9. By: Lucia Aiello; Giuseppe Espa; Mauro Gatti; Andrea Mazzitelli
    Abstract: The paper is focused on a particular dimension of performance of work organization: the high skills (h-skills) of workers required by enterprises. This choice depends on the interaction between different variables; in particular, the need of the enterprise to obtain an economic equilibrium that can be sustainable over time. Thus, this work aims to consider the role of skills and competences of workers into the hiring propensity of enterprises. The mission of this research is to verify the main characteristics, which affect the choice of employing of high skilled employees, in pre-crisis time. In order to not correlate required skills and financial-economic crisis after 2008, the work refers to the pre-crisis period (2003-2007). The territory that we have considered is Rome and its province. The managerial implication is to put in evidence the importance of stimulating and supporting the hiring policies of workers with high skills and considering their impact on educational policies. This evidence can create the main conditions to increase the quality of supply of the labor market and subsequently, the satisfaction of demand of the labor market, namely the enterprise also. The suggestions consider the labor market and its actors; in this perspective the mains actors are the enterprises, since this study shows that the quality of workers is a higher priority for them compared to the other conditions. In addition, companies that follow this approach are those that export and operate in international markets and this may be an incentive to other companies. This study verifies what the previously cited quality conditions are. Finally, one of the managerial implications is new evidence: for enterprise and its survival the policy makers may have to be directed towards ensuring the right balance between supply and demand and not the contractual typology only. From the organizational perspective, the enterprise should reflect on this aspect: the lever of the contract is not really significant, as we can see from this study, to stimulate the qualitative aspects of labor demand, namely the commitment and organizational health. The analysis is based on the Excelsior's data-base Information System, which collects data on the recruitment propensity of enterprises, propensity that is confirmed in more than 80% of cases into recall of the next year; the methodological approach was the logistic regression model, which was fitted to managers and intellectual professions. The original contribution is that quantitative analysis explains what the skills and competences of workers are and what the needs to succeed today in the workplace are. This may stimulate the organizational behavior and well-being of the worker, as well as the society. In a rapidly changing world, graduates have to strengthen their cvs in order to cultivate increasingly higher skills and to convince of their abilities. Companies were already looking for talents in pre-crisis times.
    Keywords: Employability, propensity to employ, well-being, high skills, Excelsior Information System, logistic model, Cook’s influence statistic, ROC Curve.
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Rasel, Fabienne
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relevance of information and communication technologies (ICT) for firms' probability of global sourcing of inputs. Using firm-level data from Germany in 2009, which include mainly small and medium-sized firms, the empirical analysis differentiates between manufacturing and service firms. The results show some differences between the manufacturing and service sector. Controlling for various sources of firm heterogeneity, the global sourcing probability is increasing in the firms' share of employees with Internet access in the manufacturing sector. E-commerce-intensive firms are more likely to source inputs from abroad but generally, this relationship between e-commerce and global sourcing is only robust in services and much stronger there than in manufacturing. In both sectors, it is strongest in industries with higher upstream industry diversity. Moreover, labour productivity is positively linked to global sourcing. The findings support arguments for the importance of the Internet for global trade and they confirm the productivity advantage of importing in comparison to non-importing firms that is stated in the literature.
    Keywords: global sourcing,importing,information and communication technologies,inputs
    JEL: D22 L23 F14
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Dessí, Roberta; Yin, Nina
    Abstract: This paper explores a new role for venture capitalists, as knowledge intermediaries. A venture capital investor can communicate valuable knowledge to an entrepreneur, facilitating innovation. The venture capitalist can also communicate the entrepreneur's innovative knowledge to other portfolio companies. We study the costs and benefits of these two forms of knowledge transfer, and their implications for investment, innovation, and product market competition. The model also sheds light on the choice between venture capital and other forms of finance, and the determinants of the decision to seek patent protection for innovations. Our analysis provides a rationale for the use of contingencies (specifically, patent approval) in VC contracts documented by Kaplan and Stromberg (2003), and for recent evidence on patterns of syndication among venture capitalists.
    Keywords: competition; contracts; innovation; knowledge intermediaries; patents; venture capital
    JEL: D82 D86 G24 L22
    Date: 2015–02
  12. By: Mustafa Sakr (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); Andre Jordaan (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: Given the looming significance of emerging multinational corporations, this article outlines the primary theoretical aspects pertaining to this growing phenomenon. The following four main aspects are covered: The concept of emerging multinational corporations, theories explaining their evolution, market penetration modes, and finally the types of such firms. Based on the motive of multinationality, it is proposed to classify the different theories into three groups, namely: Firm advantages (asset exploiting), host country advantages (asset seeking), and both firm and host country advantages. This article distinguishes between 10 different types of emerging multinational corporations, based on the timing and the motives for initiating the multinationality process, the relation between the headquarters and affiliates, and the geographical dispersion of foreign activities. Entry modes adopted by emerging multinational corporations vary significantly according to ownership, the nature of overseas’ operations, the control of parent firms over these activities, and the extent of externalising and internalising.
    Keywords: emerging multinational corporations, foreign market entry modes, theories of emerging multinational corporations, types of emerging multinational corporations
    JEL: P45 F21
    Date: 2016–01
  13. By: Jens K. Perret (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Using a basic growth accounting approach it is deduced how far the regional knowledge infrastructure plays any significant role across the regions of the Russian Federation. Aside from aspects of the size of the regional innovation system, like the number of researchers and students, it is discussed in how far the inflow and outflow of knowledge plays a role in determining the economic growth. The study shows thereby that while the Russian growth dynamics are indeed driven by the exploitation of natural resources, foremost of oil and gas, a significant part of Russian growth is due to its innovation system. This shows that innovation oriented growth politics as promoted by former president Dmitry Medvedev do have a solid foundation to be built on.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Russian Federation, Knowledge, Innovations
    JEL: O31 P25
    Date: 2015–04
  14. By: Munir, Kashif; Sultan, Maryam
    Abstract: This study analyzed the export performance of Pakistan with its border sharing countries for the year 2014. The study has followed Dalum et al. (1998) revealed symmetric comparative advantage index to measure export performance. The study has split the analysis into highest and marginal comparative advantage and disadvantage. Pakistan is exporting around 160, 155, 133 and 60 commodities at three-digit level of SITC (Rev 3) classification to Afghanistan, China, India and Iran respectively. We found that in more than half of these commodities exported to border sharing countries Pakistan has highest and marginal comparative disadvantage. Result shows that rice and cotton is of worth importance because both are cash crops of Pakistan. Rice is in marginal disadvantage segment for Afghanistan, China and Iran. Political and diplomatic channels are needed to improve the performance of cross border trading among the countries especially with border sharing countries.
    Keywords: RCA, Exports, Pakistan, Border Sharing
    JEL: F01 F14 R1 R10
    Date: 2016–02–14
  15. By: DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh
    Abstract: This study explored the application of technology in entrepreneurial activities of retailers in a developing economy. The conceptual framework for this study is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM was adopted to examine gender differences in perceived usefulness, perceived user friendliness, and ICT usage among entrepreneurs in Cameroon. Specifically, this study examined the types of technological equipment used by male and female entrepreneurs and their reasons for the choice preferences. Cameroon’s entrepreneurs in the North West Region were the subject of this study. The perceptions of 158 female and male entrepreneurs were surveyed and focus groups interviews/discussions conducted from December 2014 to February 2015. The non-random sampling approach was applied in selecting participants. Results indicate that there are gender differences in the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of ICT of choice by entrepreneurs in this study. The paper concludes by recommending further studies be conducted on entrepreneurs in all ten regions of the country in order to address the major limitation of this study.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, technology, gender differences, technology acceptance model, Cameroon
    JEL: M1
    Date: 2015–11–10
  16. By: Zhao Chen; Sandra Poncet; Ruixiang Xiong
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate whether the efficiency of industrial policies depends on the consistency of their focus with the local productive structure. We use sector-level data from Chinese manufacturing surveys over the 1998-2007 period to show that the efficiency of the export-promoting policies implemented in Export Processing Zones depends on whether they target activities for which the necessary capabilities and resources are available. We find export benefits from the EPZ policy which are greater for sectors with denser links with the local productive structure. Our results suggest that industrial-policy effectiveness is magnified by pre-existing productive knowledge.
    Keywords: Export Processing Zones;Industrial Policy;Export Promotion Effectiveness;China
    JEL: F13 F14 O25 R11
    Date: 2016–02
  17. By: Aura Parmentier Cajaiba (GREDEG CNRS; University of Nice Sophia Antipolis); Giovany Cajaiba Santana (Kedge Business School)
    Abstract: This paper aims at understanding how and why managers can mobilize networks for creating and modifying organizational routines. We mobilize both routines and social capital corpus associated to structuration theory to deepened understanding on how networks are deployed and further used for elaborating and modifying organizational routines. Our research is based on a 3-year in-depth engaged study in a small firm pertaining to European biopesticide industry confronted to developing a registration capability. This process led to routine creation and modification through managerial agency. This study brings insights on how social capital plays a role in the elaboration and modification of routines related to social structures imposed to the firm. We provide a model that articulates social structure, social system and social capital. It provides a recursive and dialogical perspective of structures and social capital as a carrier for creating and modifying routines conceptualized as a social system. Results show that the modification or creation of routines is oriented by how the manager perceives it as legitimate by specific ties. It also shows that the elaboration of a bundle of routine can be supported by external networks that are not initially part of the firm resources. These networks provide diverse kind of resources such as information, human resources, and procedures. But more important, they are also a medium for legitimating both routines and associated actions.
    Keywords: routine formation, social capital, network
    JEL: M10 B52
    Date: 2014–12
  18. By: Kroll, Henning
    Abstract: In recent years, no small number of studies have emphasised the importance of "getting the policy mix right". What that term, "policy mix" relates to, however, remained less than clear, not least as a result of the absence of an appropriate database on regional policies. With the Regional Innovation Monitor repository, such a database has now become available. Using this novel source of data, this paper identifies specific types of "policy mixes" common among European regions as well as external and internal factors that determine regional policy makers' choices of policy mixes. Finally, it demonstrates that regions' choice of a particular policy mixes may have influenced their economic resilience during the recent years of crisis.
    Date: 2016
  19. By: EDAMURA Kazuma; INUI Tomohiko
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes the impact of researcher diversity on firms' patent application activity. To account for diversity, we focus on their gender, doctorate degree, research field, and age. For firms' patent application activity, we use the number of patent applications and patent diversity as measured by an international patent classification. A poisson model regression for the count data of patents and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression for patent diversity using Japanese firm level-data show that firms with more female researchers and doctorate degree-holding researchers actively filed for patent applications. However, the relationship between the two groups and firms' patent activity is an inversed-U shape. In addition, the regressions show that firms that employ researchers without research field biases and with a flat age composition filed for patent applications more actively. The results suggest that a rich diversity of researchers in firms advances the research and development (R&D) activity.
    Date: 2016–02
  20. By: Lih-Cnyi, Wen; Chun-Hse, Lin
    Abstract: As Green Economy has become a global trend and rising concept among governments, it is important to examine the effects of this campaign on industries to what extent. According to The International Institute for Management Development (IMD, 2010), Taiwan's green technology competitiveness is ranked second to Japan in Asia and sixth in the world. Therefore, with green economy prevailing, the purpose of this study is to investigate the market performances of Taiwan’s environment-related industries, whether they have international competitive advantages? How does green economy shape the industries? In addition, we would like to investigate in the major market barriers that industries face and what government can assist. The study found that Taiwan's environment-related businesses are small in terms of the market size and most of them focus only on the domestic market; expanding to international market for them is not easy. Although green technology competitiveness of Taiwan performs well compared to most countries, the production cost in Taiwan cannot compete with those countries with large market scales. In terms of the assistance they need, green policy in different countries and financial assistance are probably two major areas necessary for them to promote environmental related industries. Especially the collection of information about international green regulations and public procurements is important to business. Financial measurements and assistances to are also needed.
    Date: 2014–07
  21. By: Ke Wang; Wei Huang; Jie Wu; Ying-Nan Liu
    Abstract: Measuring and improving the efficiency of the Chinese commercial banking system has recently attracted increasing interest. Few studies, however, have adopted the two-stage network DEA to explore this issue in the Chinese context. Because the entire operational process of the banking system could be divided into two sub-processes (deposit producing and profit earning), the evaluation of the sub-process efficiencies could be used to assist in identifying the sources of the inefficiency of the entire banking system. In this study, we utilize the network DEA approach to disaggregate, evaluate and test the efficiencies of 16 major Chinese commercial banks during the third round of the Chinese banking reform period (2003-2011) with the variable returns to scale setting and the consideration of undesirable/bad output. The main findings of this study are as follows: i) the two-stage DEA model is more effective than the conventional black box DEA model in identifying the inefficiency of banking system, and the inefficiency of the Chinese banking system primarily results from the inefficiency of its deposit producing sub-process; ii) the overall efficiency of the Chinese banking system improves over the study period because of the reform; iii) the state-owned commercial banks (SOBs) appear to be more overall efficient than the joint-stock commercial banks (JSBs) only in the pre-reform period, and the efficiency difference between the SOBs and the JSBs is reduced over the post-reform period; iv) the disposal of non-performing loans (NPLs) from the Chinese banking system in general explains its efficiency improvement, and the joint-equity reform of the SOBs specifically increases their efficiencies.
    Keywords: Chinese commercial banks, Data envelopment analysis (DEA), Efficiency decomposition, Two-stage DEA
    JEL: Q40 Q58
    Date: 2014–08–26
  22. By: Peñas-de Pablo, José Miguel; Portilla-Figueras, José Antonio; Navío-Marco, Julio; Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho
    Abstract: In this paper we present a methodology for feature selection and clustering over variables describing countries’ economies and ICT indicators to study and identify investment opportunities, based on similarities between European and Latin American countries. We address two different problems. First, the work is based on a feature selection problem carried out with the Coral Reef Optimization algorithm. The CRO is a novel bio-inspired based on the simulation of reef formation and coral reproduction. On the other hand, the K-Means++ method is a high-performance robust tool designed to solve clustering problems. Together, both algorithms are able to successfully identify investment opportunities in Latin America and quantify the potential of the telecommunications industry in both regional areas. The work considers different economical and ICT’s variables from different European and Latin America countries datasets (mainly Agenda 21 and other available and global sources) for the period 2002-2012.
    Keywords: ICT Market,Coral Reef Optimization algorithm,K-Means++ Clustering,Investment Opportunities,Europe,Latin America
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Petros Gkotsis (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fernando Hervas (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This policy Brief addresses the results of the fifth European Conference on Corporate R&D and Innovation, CONCORDi 2015, on ‘Industrial Research and Innovation: evidence for policy’. Taking stock from the underlined background issues, the document presents the main evidence-based insights for policy drawing upon the contributions and debates. It also highlights the main implications for industrial and innovation policies making and for the science-policy interface. A series of open questions for policy and evidence makers conclude the brief.
    Keywords: corporate R&D, innovation, evidence for policy
    Date: 2015–11
  24. By: Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
    Abstract: Governments around the world want to develop their ICT and digital industries. Policymakers thus need a clear sense of the size and characteristics of digital businesses, but this is hard to do with conventional datasets and industry codes. This paper uses innovative ‘big data’ resources to perform an alternative analysis at company level, focusing on ICT-producing firms in the UK (which the UK government refers to as the ‘information economy’). Exploiting a combination of public, observed and modelled variables, we develop a novel ‘sector-product’ approach and use text mining to provide further detail on the activities of key sector-product cells. On our preferred estimates, we find that counts of information economy firms are 42% larger than SIC-based estimates, with at least 70,000 more companies. We also find ICT employment shares over double the conventional estimates, although this result is more speculative. Our findings are robust to various scope, selection and sample construction challenges. We use our experiences to reflect on the broader pros and cons of frontier data use.
    Date: 2014–11
  25. By: Martin, Roger (Martin Prosperity Institute & University of Toronto); Florida, Richard (Martin Prosperity Institute & University of Toronto); Pogue, Melissa (Martin Prosperity Institute & University of Toronto); Mellander, Charlotta (Jönköping International Business School, & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies)
    Abstract: Purpose – The article marries Michael Porter’s industrial cluster theory of traded and local clusters to Richard Florida’s occupational approach of creative and routine workers to gain a better understanding of the process of economic development. By combining these two approaches, four major industrial-occupational categories are identified. The shares of U.S. Employment in each – creative-in-traded, creative-in-local, routine-in-traded and routine-in-local – are calculated and a correlation analysis is used to examine the relationship of each to regional economic development indicators. Our findings show that economic growth and development is positively related to employment in the creative-in-traded category. While metros with a higher share of creative-in-traded employment enjoy higher wages and incomes overall, these benefits are not experienced by all worker categories. The share of creative-in-traded employment is also positively and significantly associated with higher inequality. After accounting for higher median housing costs, routine workers in both traded and local industries are found to be relatively worse off in metros with high shares of creative-in-traded employment, on average.
    Keywords: Creativity; clusters; cities; metros; occupations; regional development
    JEL: J30 O10 R10
    Date: 2015–06–24
  26. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: This paper presents new results that are obtained from investigations into a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs survey data, containing 3071 observations. Evidence found from the estimations using multinomial logits supports relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurshiprelated performance or traits has been found. Specifically, those relationships include: a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that help to learn in details about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers a discussion on some striking insights and useful explanations on this entrepreneurship data set.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; creativity; perseverance; cultural changes; transitional economies
    JEL: L26 M13 O33
    Date: 2016–02–04
  27. By: Wang, Teng
    Abstract: In this paper, I investigate whether information accessibility in the target market influences the mode in which out-of-state banks enter the new market following the U.S. interstate banking deregulation and consequently affects local economic activity. I exploit heterogeneity in legal enforcement of non-compete covenants across states and over time as exogenous variations in the key channel through which an out-of-state bank could gain access to local information: the mobility of local incumbent bank employees. The findings show that banks enter new markets by establishing new branches after the relaxation of non-compete enforcement in the target market, while they enter by acquiring incumbent banks’ branches after the enforcement becomes restrictive in the target market. Interestingly, only bank entries via new branches significantly increase bank competition, improve the availability of credit to small businesses, and facilitate economic growth. The findings highlight the critical role of labor market flexibility in influencing financial development and economic growth.
    Keywords: Bank entry, Economic activity, Labor market flexibility
    JEL: G21 J24 O16
    Date: 2015–06
  28. By: Cobb-Clark, Deborah A; Salamanca, Nicholas; Zhu, Anna
    Abstract: We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empirical support. We demonstrate that parenting style is a construct that is distinct from standard goods- and time-intensive parental investments and that effective parenting styles are negatively correlated with socioeconomic disadvantage. Moreover, parenting style is an important determinant of young adult’s human capital net of other parental investments.
    Keywords: parenting style; cognitive load; locus of control; socioeconomic disadvantage; parental investments; human development
    Date: 2016–01
  29. By: Yuki, Takako; Igei, Kengo; Demas, Angela
    Abstract: This paper examines the quality of policy intent and policy implementation in education policies related to school-based management (SBM) in rural Senegal. For this purpose, we adapted the World Bank diagnostic tool for the SBM system known as SABER-SAA (System Approach for Better Education Result for the policy domain of School Autonomy and Accountability), to conduct a survey of various actors in the education system of Senegal. In terms of policy intent, the results of the assessment show that Senegal is making progress on strengthening the participatory roles of school councils in school operations, and on the management of operational budgets at the municipal level. However, the field survey data show that there are differences between policy intent and implementation, and differences among stakeholders in the degree of policy implementation. In terms of the participation of school councils in school activities, we found that when school councils were active in the implementation of procedural policies, such as holding general assemblies, the amount of financial contributions to the school were larger, and there were more council inspired activities. Furthermore, the variables indicating a more active role for school councils also had a positive and statistically significant association with pass rates in the primary graduation exam. The degree of functionality of the school council was also assisted by supporting measures, such as training and monitoring visits. Other factors positively associated with increased pass rates include: a shared vision by school directors and school councils on commune responsibility towards a school, and the use of comparisons of school performance with the performance of other schools as a motivator for making improvements in the subject school. These findings suggest that strengthening the implementation of policy in the area of participatory school councils, as well as improving linkages with sub-national administrations, is important for better learning outcomes. We also recommend that better use of student assessment information by schools should be promoted in the context of rural Senegal.
    Keywords: SABER , system approach , benchmarking , school-based management , school councils , community participation , accountability , assessment , decentralization , primary education , Senegal , World Bank
    Date: 2016–02–15
  30. By: Syme, Bettena (Tina)
    Abstract: Firms are beginning to understand that a key to economic growth and competitive advantage lies in gender diversity within senior leadership positons, yet the number of women who hold senior managerial positions remains disproportionately small. Research shows that many women who aspire to senior management plateau in middle management positons despite obtaining the necessary education, skills and expertise to advance. Therefore this exploratory study sought to understand how women approach their career decisions, within the context of their lived realities, by focussing on the research question “what factors or circumstances influence women middle managers career planning and advancement decisions? “. Eight women were interviewed who held middle management positons for at least 5 years. From analysis of the interview text five interconnected themes emerged: Trial and error, Mentorship, Self-confidence, Value alignment and Perceived organisational value. These themes add insight to the existing literature addressing how women approach their careers and lives. Furthermore the findings of this research indicate actions that can be considered by organisations to support the retention and development of women’s career pathway towards senior management. Areas for future research are also identified.
    Keywords: Women, Senior, Management,
    Date: 2015
  31. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta; Patel, Akash
    Abstract: India’s series of economic reforms since 1991 have accelerated economic growth but not productivity at same pace. Productivity in manufacturing sector in the last two decades remains stagnant, but nobody sincerely has bothered to measure and improve. There are several ways & means to measure productivity, defined differently by different scholars. It is a fact that even using same data, different methodology will give different numbers of productivity. But whatsoever methodology we use to measure productivity, India’s productivity is quite low compared to USA & other BRIC nations. As per world management survey, 1% increases of management score increases 6% productivity. Comparatively there is not much empirical study in India to understand employee efficiency. And hence there are no concentrated efforts to take remedial measures to make them more effective and efficient using study of health economics, human psychology, education, cognitive & non-cognitive capabilities and its effect on skill formation. India faces challenges of poor governance, corruption, slow decision making process, lack of accountability, low & obsolete management skill. This research aims at investigating reasons of low productivity specifically in the manufacture sector due to human resource management of industry & the government. The industry to some extent look at their own human resources as part of employee performance management, but this research aims to investigate; does the government policy affect productivity? Indian business environment is said to be heavily influenced by various government interfere and red-tapism. A business has to pass through dozens of windows varies in one state to another. The government policies cobweb is cumbersome and puzzle. The government policy is what is inferred by the person who implements it. The policy is implemented through various stages and each stage has its own nuances. It is the people on ground that understands the policy and implement which determine the fate of the policy. The policy is framed at high level after detailed study of the relevant factors and with full knowledge. But on the ground those who are responsible to implement such policy at micro level hardly understand the rationale and have same self-drive to implement the policy. Corruption, lack of accountability, political influence and lack of managerial & leadership skill of the government employees adds hurdle in safe delivery of the policy.
    Keywords: India, Productivity, Growth
    JEL: A1 M2 M20
    Date: 2015
  32. By: Mourad Hannachi (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)); Francois-Christophe Coleno (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA))
    Abstract: Even if academics and practitioners identify coopetition as a winning strategy, a coopetition relationship appear to be difficult to sustain. Coopetition is relied to be a paradoxical and unstable interfirm relationship related with tensions. Academic works begun to study the causes and nature of tension in coopetition relationship but little is known about the way those tension is managed. The aim of this paper is to investigate, via in depth case studies, the management tools used to manage coopetition at the inter-organizational level. Through multiples case studies in the same industry (the French grain merchants industry), we reveal the existence of differing management tools of the coopetition relationships. Some tools found by our research (tacit conventions, mediation arenas, coopetition inducers) seem particularly novel in the coopetition literature. The use of tacit convention and social pressure epitomize the embeddedness and the social construction of the coopetition relationship. It shows that inter-firm coordination can exist in a direct and informal way, without being locked into a rigid structure and without collusion. Moreover, we found that an external party can induce the coopetition and bring rival firms to consider a coopetitive relationship. This finding reveals that some tools can change inter-firms dynamics and rationalities giving rise to coopetition. Those findings lead us to reveal the perspective of a managerial engineering of coopetition and to suggest some embryonic basis to open the way for its development.
    Keywords: biotechnology,coopetition,collective strategies,Inter-organizational relationships,Management tools,gmo
    Date: 2016
  33. By: Mary F. Evans (The Robert Day School of Economics and Finance, Claremont McKenna College); Scott M. Gilpatric (Department of Economics, University of Tennessee); Jay P. Shimshack (Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, University of Virginia)
    Abstract: We explore mechanisms driving enforcement spillovers - when sanctions at one entity influence behavior at other entities. Our model illustrates when spillovers arise from a regulatory channel and when they arise from a channel not emphasized in the existing literature: product markets. Using facility-by-month data from Clean Water Act manufacturers, we find that penalties generate strong positive spillovers for other facilities facing the same authority. We find suggestive evidence that penalties generate negative spillovers for facilities in the same industry but facing a different authority. Results are consistent with spillovers driven by strategic interactions in both regulation and product markets.
    Keywords: general deterrence, strategic substitutes, strategic complements, pollution policy
    JEL: E32 R10
    Date: 2015–08
  34. By: Muyingo, Henry (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Purpose - The paper investigates the challenges to property management in the tenant-owner cooperative (TOC) housing sector in Sweden which accounts for 22% of the housing stock in the country as compared to an average of 10% in the rest of Europe. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative descriptive approach is used in the paper in which semi-structured interviews of governing committee members in 12 TOCs; a questionnaire on operation and management strategies sent to chairpersons in 725 TOCs as well as a questionnaire on issues related to energy efficiency sent to chairpersons in 91 TOCs provide the empirical data. This is complemented by an analysis of financial reports. Findings – The paper provides indications that most of the challenges identified are related to the lack of a long-term perspective in the decision-making due to various principal-agent related problems. There appears to be an exploitation of the TOC sector by construction companies especially in cooperatives with newly constructed buildings. Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen sampling method and research approach, the presented results may lack generalisability. Thus, researchers are encouraged to carry out further studies. Practical implications - The paper highlights the need for knowledge sharing as well as enhancement of competence in procuring outsourced services. Originality/value – This paper fulfils the need for more research into the large but rarely studied TOC sector governed by amateurs in property management. Paper type - Research Paper
    Keywords: Property management; cooperative housing; tenant-owner; multi-owner housing; Sweden
    JEL: M21 R30
    Date: 2016–02–08
  35. By: Amanda Muranska (University of Opole, Poland)
    Abstract: The global economy is still dynamic transformed. Over the last two decades the forces have regrouped. An important role have begun to play the emerging markets, especially the group of BRIC’s countries. The aim of this paper is an attempt to place those economies in the area of the modern global economy. Therefore, it has made an analysis of several indicators from 2001 to 2013. It has used figures from the online database of The World Bank. The analysis has taken some interesting conclusions. First of all, BRIC’s countries have improved their position in the global economy, but they have still a lot of problems, primarily social problems. Brazil and Russia are countries, which are mainly based on natural resources, and at the moment their economies are developing slower. India is a country that is characterized by innovation, and it has to be the key to success. China is strong leader, which has still a very big economic potential and is still improving their competitive position.
    Keywords: Brazil, China, India, Russia, BRIC
    JEL: O10 O57
    Date: 2015–06
  36. By: Kalashnikova, Svetlana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The article describes methods of stimulating industrial activities for sustainable development of the territories and environment. The main methods of economic incentives include: preferential taxation of profits, innovative insurance risk transactions under the state guarantees, information support and free advertising, the provision of showrooms, the possibility of obtaining preferential expert, consulting and design services. The article also justified such incentive mechanisms of enterprises in the field of environmental management, as preferential loans and finance leases. Currently, there are no Russian leasing companies, which would be exclusively environmental focused, which greatly complicates the work of environmentally oriented enterprises under leasing schemes. Another effective tool to stimulate the activities of enterprises is a concession that represents a long-term form of investment. International cooperation in this area will allow to access new technologies and information resources. It is also noted that the perspective stimulating nature protection direction is the development of market mechanisms to sell the rights to pollute. In conclusion, the use of these incentive mechanisms will effectively manage the processes of environmental protection for sustainable ecological and economic development of territories.
    Keywords: sustainable development, promotion of ecological projects, economical stimulation of environmental security work
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Josep-Francesc Valls; Joan Sureda; Antoni Parera; Marçal Tarragó
    Abstract: El comercio minorista en las ciudades turísticas se enfrenta a una serie de cambios que se han acelerado a raíz de la crisis económica. Los que se derivan del incremento de la competencia comercial acelerados por la crisis, de las modificaciones de los hábitos de los consumidores, y de la presencia de turistas nacionales e internacionales. Estos cambios generan impactos negativos sobre el comercio, pero a la vez oportunidades para satisfacer las nuevas demandas. Tomando como marco los resultados de la Encuesta trimestral ICOB- ESADE, realizada entre 2010 y 2014, este trabajo se ha propuesto establecer una serie de clústeres de comercio urbano minorista, unilocalizados, desde la óptica de la competitividad. Los cinco clústeres que aparecen, de mayor a menor nivel de competitividad, han sido obtenidos gracias a una serie de dimensiones de competitividad sometidas a una muestra de 500 comerciantes minoristas de Barcelona. Llama la atención entre esas dimensiones que no resulta relevante para la competitividad en una ciudad turística ni el tipo de actividad comercial que realiza, ni la gama de los productos vendidos, ni el tipo de clientela a la que se dirige. Sin embargo, importan mucho para la competitividad la singularidad del comercio –identificación con la ventaja competitiva-, la dimensión del negocio ajustada a los factores productivos, la incorporación del e-commerce y de las tecnologías, y la adaptación a los horarios y calendario comerciales a la clientela
    Keywords: Sensibilidad al precio; precios baratos; canal de descuento; precio por valor
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2015–10
  38. By: Lorenzo Bretscher; Christian Julliard; Carlo Rosa
    Abstract: We study the implications of human capital hedging for international portfolio choice. First, we document that, at the household level, the degree of home country bias in equity holdings is increasing in the labor income to financial wealth ratio. We show that a heterogeneous agent model in which households face short selling constraints and labor income risk, calibrated to match both micro and macro labor income and asset returns data, can both rationalize this finding and generate a large aggregate home country bias in portfolio holdings. Second, we find that the empirical evidence supporting the belief that the human capital hedging motive should skew domestic portfolios toward foreign assets, is driven by an econometric misspecification rejected by the data. Third, we show that, given the high degree of international GDP correlations in the data, very small domestic redistributive shocks are sufficient to skew portfolios toward domestic assets.
    Keywords: home country bias; incomplete markets; international diversification puzzle; non-traded human capital; hedging human capital; optimal portfolio choice.
    JEL: F30 G11 G12
    Date: 2015–10
  39. By: Axtell, Robert L.; Guerrero, Omar A.; López, Eduardo
    Abstract: We develop a theory of unemployment in which workers search for jobs through a network of firms, the labor flow network (LFN). The lack of an edge between two companies indicates the impossibility of labor flows between them due to high frictions. In equilibrium, firms' hiring behavior correlates through the network, modulating labor flows and generating aggregate unemployment. This theory provides new micro-foundations for the aggregate matching function, the Beveridge curve, wage dispersion, and the employer-size premium. Using employer-employee matched records, we study the effect of the LFN topology through a new concept: `firm-specific unemployment'.
    Keywords: Aggregate unemployment, labor flow networks, job search
    JEL: C8 D2 D85 J6 L2
    Date: 2016

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