nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒02‒12
33 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation Strategies and Firm Growth By Stefano Bianchini; Gabriele Pellegrino; Federico Tamagni
  2. Review of International Production and Global Value Chain Studies: the Case of Turkish Regional Networks By Erkan Erdil; H. Tolga Göksidan
  4. Impact of R&D Activities of Firms on Productivity: Findings from an Econometric Study of the Turkish Manufacturing Sector By Elif Dayar; Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu
  5. “Technological cooperation in Spanish firms” By Erika Raquel Badillo; Rosina Moreno
  6. Growth and innovation in the presence of knowledge and R&D accumulation dynamics By Verba, M.
  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS A ND REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS: BRIDGING THE CONCEPTUAL GAP (International Conference "Recent Advances in Economic and Social Research", 13-14 mai 2015, București) By Catrinel COTAE
  8. European Innovations Dynamics and US Economic Impact: Theory and Empirical Analysis By Paul J.J. Welfens; Tony Irawan
  9. Cohesion and Competition of Europe: Policy Suggestions from The Perspective of Network and Entropy. By Umut Yilmaz Cetinkaya; Erkan Erdil
  10. Public governance versus cutting costs. Better public Action with better knowledge By Maurice Baslé
  11. Public Service Innovation: Solid Waste Sector from the Perspective of Clean Development Mechanism Landfill Projects By Silvia Cruz; Sônia Paulino; Faïz Gallouj
  12. The impact of Online ICT on the dimensions of social capital By Serkan Gürsoy
  13. From Knowledge to Innovation Economy: Developing Education and Creating Entrepreneurial Ecosystems By Jean Bonnet
  14. The dynamics of profits and wages: technology, offshoring and demand By Francesco Bogliacino; Dario Guarascio; Valeria Cirillo
  15. Sustainable development and industrial development: Manufacturing environmental performance, technology and consumption/production perspectives By Mazzanti, M.; Nicolli, F.; Marin, G.; Gilli, M.
  16. Optimal Openness Level and Economic Performance of Firms: Evidence from Belgian CIS Data By Michele Cincera; Pierre De Clercq; Thomas Gillet
  17. Technological change in developing countries: Trade-offs between economic, social, and environmental sustainability By Massa, Isabella
  18. Does technological change drive inclusive industrialization? : A review of major concepts and findings By Gries, T.; Grundmann, R.; Palnau, I.; Redlin, M.
  19. The new strategy of the European Union’s internal market By Joanna Kuczewska; Joanna Stefaniak-Kopoboru
  21. Developing a Robust Self Evaluation Framework for Active Learning: The First Stage of an Erasmus+ Project (QAEMarketPlace4HEI) . By Robin Clark; Jens Bennedsen; Siegfried Rouvrais; Juha Kontio; Krista Heikkenen; Fredrik Georgsson; Asrun Matthiasdottir; Ingunn Soemundsdottir; Markku Karhu; Katriina Schrey-Niemenmaa; Paul Hermon
  22. Assessment of Cooperation between Institutions of Science and the Business Sector in Poland and in the USA By Joanna Kuczewska; Renata Or³owska
  23. Growth or stagnation in pre-industrial Britain? A revealed income growth approach By Groth, Christian; Persson, Karl Gunnar
  24. “Tourism and high speed rail in Spain: Does the AVE increase local visitors?” By Daniel Albalate; Javier Campos; Juan Luis Jiménez
  25. Why does birthplace matter so much? Sorting, learning and geography By Bosquet, Clément; Overman, Henry G
  26. Technological Progress and Ownership Structure By Geng, Heng; Hau, Harald; Lai, Sandy
  27. Investing in Human Capital for Inclusive Growth: Focus on Higher Education By Canlas, Dante B.
  28. Same Place, Same Knowledge – Same People? The Geography of Non-Patent Citations in Dutch Polymer Patents By Dominik Heinisch; Önder Nomaler; Guido Buenstorf; Koen Frenken; Harry Lintsen
  29. Technology Transfer in the Market with Heterogeneous Consumers By Shohei Yoshida; Cong Pan
  30. Structural change and the ability to sustain growth By Foster-McGregor, Neil; Kaba, Ibrahima; Szirmai, Adam
  31. What drives inflation expectations in Brazil? Public versus private information By Waldyr D. Areosa
  32. The crisis and regional employment in Europe: what role for sheltered economies? By Ugo Fratesi; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  33. Competing For Loyalty: The Dynamics of Rallying Support By Iaryczower, Matias; Oliveros, Santiago

  1. By: Stefano Bianchini; Gabriele Pellegrino; Federico Tamagni
    Abstract: In this work, we explore the relations between sales growth and a set of innovation indicators that capture the different sources, modes and results of the innovative activity undertaken within firms. We exploit a rich panel on innovation activity of Spanish manufacturing firms, reporting detailed CIS-type information continuously over the period 2004-2011. Standard GMM-panel estimates of the average effect of innovation activities reveal significant and positive effect for internal R&D, while no effect is found for external sourcing of knowledge (external R&D, acquisition of embodied and disembodied technologies) as well as for output of innovation (process and product innovation). However, fixed-effects quantile regressions reveal that innovation activities, apart from process innovation and disembodied technical change, display a positive effect on high-growth performance. Finally, we find evidence of super-modularity of the growth function, revealing complementarities of internal R&D with product innovation, and between product and process innovation.
    Keywords: firm growth, product and process innovation, internal and external R&D, embodied and disembodied technical change, fixed-effects quantile regressions, complementarity
    Date: 2016–03–02
  2. By: Erkan Erdil (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); H. Tolga Göksidan
    Abstract: This study focuses on how Turkey’s small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can participate in global markets. In fact, developing countries provide a means for accelerating the development of enterprises and countries, providing openings that developing country enterprises can exploit to upgrade their capabilities. For such enterprises, or local clusters of enterprises, the task is to insert themselves into the wider networks. This may be regarded as the main achievement for sustaining competitiveness, in similarities with the re-structuring of regional networks in developing countries that often compete by participating in extensive inter-firm networks. As another dimension in our study, we will investigate and argue whether if it is possible to increase and improve the participation of Turkish’s SMEs in the global economy, which is explicitly the baseline hypothesis of this study. The literature on regional networks and global value chain (GVC) will provide us some new insights to show the international linkages of Turkish SMEs, which often lack the capabilities to participate effectively in global markets.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains, GVC, Turkey, regional networks
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: Paola Cardamone; Valeria Pupo; Fernanda Ricotta (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This study provides empirical evidence on the role of universities’ Technological Transfer (TT) activities in the Italian manufacturing sector, with particular attention to the food industry. By using the UniCredit-Capitalia database (2008) for firms and data from the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) to obtain the university TT indicator, we estimate a probit model to assess the effect of universities’ TT activities on a firm’s likelihood to innovate. Results show that university TT activities seem to stimulate food industry firms innovation and the impact appears significantly higher than for the manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Universities, Technology transfer, Food firms, Innovation, Spillovers
    JEL: O30 C25 D22
    Date: 2016–02
  4. By: Elif Dayar (Department of Economics, Atilim University); Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: In this paper we are investigating the following question for Turkey: “How does the increase in R&D capital stock and how do foreign knowledge spillovers affect labor productivity?” Our sample is composed of R&D performers only, hence the Heckman two stage procedure with the instrumental variables technique for panel data is implemented (Semykina and Wooldridge, 2010). Appropriate instruments are used in regressions for the endogenous variables. Our findings signal that the indigenous efforts of R&D performers and their physical capital stock intensity exert a positive effect on firm-level labor productivity. However, neither foreign ownership nor foreign knowledge spillovers are found to affect R&D performers’ labor productivity positively. On the other hand, skill exerts a strong positive impact on productivity, pointing to the significant role of educated staff in R&D performing firms. We can conclude that Turkish R&D performers are dependent on their accumulated physical capital stock intensity and their own R&D efforts when it comes to increasing labor productivity.
    Keywords: R&D
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Erika Raquel Badillo (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study to what extent participating in technological cooperation agreements can be a useful mechanism for improving the innovative capacity of Spanish firms, specially in the context of the economic recession. We analyse if there are differences in the returns obtained from cooperation alliances according to the firm’s size as well as different geographical scopes of such alliances. In addition, we want to study to what extent innovation cooperation may have a different effect on incremental innovations than on radical/breakthrough innovations. We use the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel from 2004 to 2012 to provide evidence on the above issues.
    Keywords: Innovation cooperation; Technological partners; Performance; Spanish firms JEL classification:L25; O31; O33; R1
    Date: 2016–01
  6. By: Verba, M. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This article develops a model of growth and innovation in which accumulation dynamics of knowledge and R&D are explicitly considered. The model is based on a more general knowledge production process than commonly used in Endogenous Growth Theory and R&D productivity literatures, reconciling as special cases of a broader framework disparate analytical approaches. The model of knowledge dynamics highlights the role of human capital, physical capital, and accumulation in the creation of innovations and establishes the theoretical possibility of long-run idea-driven growth without the razor-edge assumption of Romer (1990) and in the absence of growth in R&D employment stipulated by Jones (1995). This analysis also predicts the structure of estimation biases that can result from omission of relevant factors and failure to take into account the accumulation dynamics of knowledge and R&D. Empirical estimation supports these predictions. Findings provide recommendations for future empirical studies aiming to explain innovation.
    Keywords: Growth theory, innovation, R&D, productivity, knowledge, production function, accumulation
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O40
    Date: 2015–12–04
  7. By: Catrinel COTAE (PhD student, „Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urban Planning, Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: Given the controversial discourse characterising competitiveness, the article aims to present a different perspective regarding the quantification of regional performances. The challenge addressed here is that of a too extensive conceptual background that although characterised by pluri-perspectivism in approached, it is still not providing consistent evidence to define a clear connection between competitiveness levels and risk factors. Existing literature focuses on presenting complicated taxonomies for environmental risks, mitigation mechanisms partly addressing the worrisome trends of resource depletion and ecosystem erosion. In search for a method to include a new set of risk factors and in an attempt to identify which of those account for the economic stagnation or decline of a region in terms of competitiveness level, a conceptual clarification is needed. After reflecting on the existing perspectives in the field, a couple of prerequisites for a conceptual framework are provided, positing that environmental risk for the business level can be better understood conceptually at firm level and approached for operational purposes on a regional level. The study henceforth coagulates the conceptual links between environmental risks [ER] and the overall level of regional competitiveness providing insight on the corporate strategy dimensionality of sustainability and productive dependence. Subsequently, on one hand, it is possible to provide a set of key principles acting as building blocks for assessment purposes and on the other, to present an alternative conceptual construct.
    Keywords: environmental risks; regional performance; competitiveness; operational; mitigation.
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Tony Irawan (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: The analysis explains innovations in EU25 for the period 2006-2012, namely through R&D (relative to GDP), cumulated FDI inflows – relative to the host country capital stock - , joint internet intensity, broadband intensity and potential competition. For the first time we can offer a broad analysis of innovation dynamics in Europe that should be the basis not only for better supply-side policy in EU countries and growth policy, respectively, it also suggests a strong role of international digital communication for innovation dynamics. Moreover, the approach gives new important arguments in favor of the TTIP negotiations between the US and the EU.
    Keywords: Innovation, TTIP, Foreign Direct Investment, EU, Internet
    JEL: O11 O32 F40 F10 F15
    Date: 2015–06
  9. By: Umut Yilmaz Cetinkaya (YNR Consulting); Erkan Erdil (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the innovativeness of European Union in the context of European Research Area. Literature related with the Systems of Innovation, network studies, Framework Programmes and European Research Area will be used to establish a theoretical framework for a policy analysis. It forms a database from three different resources to establish a European Research and Innovation Network, appearing as a result of policy and programme implementations at the European level. The innovativeness of European Union is discussed for developing policy recommendations, benefiting from the theoretical arguments as well as from analytical studies, derived from network analysis and notion of entropy. It is observed that implementation of a relatively simple rule by European Commission, in addition to policies focusing on development of diversity and absorptive capacity of countries, which are structural holes, may make important contribution to improve the cohesion and competitiveness of European Research Area, as well as the innovativeness of European Union.
    Keywords: Systems of Innovation, Networks, Innovation Union, Entropy, STI Policy
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Maurice Baslé (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - Université de Caen Basse-Normandie - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: 1 Gouvernance publique libre et ouverte versus simple réduction des coûts : comment mieux agir collectivement en connaissance de(s) cause(s) de l'impact sociétal. Passer au stade du post-bureaucratique et du post-compétitif grâce à la co-innovation ouverte avec un management public vraiment responsable fondé sur des équipes professionnelles apprenantes et outillées par des plateformes coopératives à la recherche du meilleur impact économique et sociétal. Maurice Baslé, emeritus professeur CREM-CNRS-Université de Rennes 1. Chaire Jean Monnet ad personam, Chaire Connaissance et action territoriale. Maurice.basle(a) Mots-clés : performance publique en économie mixte ou en économie sociale de marché, bonne gouvernance, innovation ouverte, données ouvertes, gouvernement ouvert, communautés apprenantes, plateformes coopératives de données, conférences de consensus sur l'impact économique et social des politiques publiques et des programmes et sur les chaines de valeurs et réseaux de valeurs publiques. Keywords : public performance in a public-private economy, good governance, open innovation, open data, open gov, learning professional communities, cooperative data platforms, consensus conferences on the impact factor of Public policies and programs, public value chains and networks.
    Keywords: learning professional communities, consensus conferences on the impact factor of Public policies and programs, cooperative data platforms,public performance in a public-private economy, good governance, open innovation, open data, open gov, public value chains and networks,performance publique en économie mixte ou en économie sociale de marché,bonne gouvernance,innovation ouverte,données ouvertes,gouvernement ouvert,communautés apprenantes,plateformes coopératives de données,conférences de consensus sur l'impact économique et social des politiques publiques et des programmes et sur les chaines de valeurs et réseaux de valeurs publiques.,chaines de valeur publique,réseaux de valeur publique
    Date: 2016–01
  11. By: Silvia Cruz (UNICAMP - University of Campinas [Campinas] - University of Campinas); Sônia Paulino (University of Sao Paolo); Faïz Gallouj (Clersé - UMR CNRS 8019 - Institut de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: This paper is devoted to public services innovation in the municipal solid waste sector. It analyses the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the Bandeirantes and São João landfills in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. The study is based on the concept of Public-Private Innovation Networks in services (ServPPINs). Using the ServPPIN concept it was possible to identify competence gaps affecting the stakeholders involved in these CDM projects. We focus in particular on those organisational and relational competence gaps that are likely to weaken innovation feasibility in services related to solid waste. In fact, innovation is closely linked to the development of new competences among service providers and users. For the most part, these will arise out of changes in interactions between actors-given that the projects in question include the coordination of various actors (public, private, and citizen).
    Keywords: landfill,public service innovation,clean development mechanism,ServPPIN
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Serkan Gürsoy (Beykoz Vocational School of Logistics)
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of information and communication technologies on social capital. It evaluates ICT in terms of “knowledge sharing.” Similarly, social capital is taken into consideration in terms of organizational context. Within such a framework, constructs affiliated with these two concepts have been investigated. This investigation shows that communication technologies and social media technologies do have similar as well as varied impacts on dimensions of social capital. These impacts stem from the developments in the social elements of ICT. Moreover, variations in these elements are reflected as variations in the dimensions of developed social capital between communities with face-to-face interaction and the ones who have not yet achieved face-to-face interaction. This study also reveals that the social capital observed in face-to-face interaction can as well be seen online communities.
    Keywords: Social capital, Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2014–04
  13. By: Jean Bonnet (CREM, UMR CNRS 6211, UFR SEGGAT, University of Caen Normandie, France)
    Abstract: In a market economy, reward structures are more or less favorable to opportunity entrepreneurship, which brings growth and jobs (Schreyer, 2000). Currently the small group of high-growth firms generates a large proportion of permanent jobs (Henrekson and Johansson, 2010; Falkenhall and Junkka, 2009) and new companies are widely represented (Daunfeldt and al, 2014). How to nurture these new companies with high-growth potential in France is a major issue that, we believe, is mainly based on a better functioning of the labor market, and the development of entrepreneurial education and ecosystems favorable to entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship by opportunity, Entrepreneurial Education, Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
    JEL: L26 J24 P16
    Date: 2016–02
  14. By: Francesco Bogliacino; Dario Guarascio; Valeria Cirillo
    Abstract: This article explores the impact of innovation, offshoring and demand on profits and wage dynamics. The growing relevance of functional distribution in terms of explaining personal distribution underscores the importance of our results for understanding recent increases in inequality. The empirical analysis performed herein involves a panel of 38 manufacturing and service sectors over four time periods (1995 to 2010) across five European countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom). Our identification strategy relies on instrumental variables and recently proposed heteroskedasticity-based instruments (Lewbel, 2012). Additionally, we perform sensitivity analysis to account for omitted variables bias, following the recent theoretical results of Oster (2015). The main results of our study can be summed up in three points. First, it highlights the contrasting effects of R&D and offshoring as wage determinants: the former exerts a positive effect while the latter exert a negative effect. Second, it shows that external demand is a key variable driving profits growth. Third. it provides evidence of noteworthy results stemming from the categorization of workers according to skill level, such as: high-skilled workers are favored by both innovation and offshoring, offshoring exerts downward pressure primarily on low-skilled wages (not on mediumskilled wages as predicted by SBTC) and profits are positively correlated with high-skill wages, negatively correlated with medium-skill wages and not correlated with low-skill wages.
    Keywords: rent; surplus; distribution; inequality; skills; offshoring; R&D
    Date: 2016–03–02
  15. By: Mazzanti, M. (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara); Nicolli, F. (IRCrES-CNR, Milano); Marin, G. (IRCrES-CNR, Milano); Gilli, M. (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the environmental performances of manufacturing sectors and their main drivers, (economic factors, technology, trade). We analyse the dynamic development of environmental performances, in absolute terms and in 'productivity' terms, through both decomposition and econometric analyses. The analysis aims to highlight differences over time, across geographical areas, by country income categories and by sector technological classes. Strong emphasis is assigned to the comparison of consumption and production perspectives.
    Keywords: Environmental Performance, Sustainability, Consumption, Production
    JEL: E21 O11 Q56
    Date: 2015–12–01
  16. By: Michele Cincera; Pierre De Clercq; Thomas Gillet
    JEL: O31 O32 L23
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Massa, Isabella (Overseas Development Institute)
    Abstract: Over the past years, the manufacturing sector has gone through a period of significant technological change. Technological innovation may bring significant socio-economic benefits and improve the environmental prospects, but it may also pose severe challenges to the economy, human well-being, and the environment. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the existing literature on the economic/social, social/environmental, and environmental/economic trade-offs stemming from technological change in the manufacturing sector, with a focus on developing countries. The policy designs proposed in the literature to minimise the trade-offs arising from technological innovation and to achieve technology-driven sustained economic growth, social inclusiveness and environmental sustainability are also examined.
    Keywords: technological change, developing countries, manufacturing, trade-offs, growth, inclusiveness, social inclusion, social exclusion, environmental sustainability
    JEL: O11 O13 O14 O15 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–12–01
  18. By: Gries, T. (University of Paderborn); Grundmann, R. (University of Paderborn); Palnau, I. (University of Paderborn); Redlin, M. (University of Paderborn)
    Abstract: Technical change is a major driving force for economic growth and development, thus, technological change and innovations could be a powerful process that opens-up opportunities to increase social welfare and social benefits for societies. Whether in reality opportunities from the process of technical change turn into real and inclusive benefits for a society depends on a number of facts. Hence, in this contribution we focus on the question of inclusiveness for the global process of innovation and technical change. We discuss a number of questions such as: Does technical change in DCs show specific characteristics that affect different groups of labour asymmetrically? Further, for the transfer of technologies to LDCs we ask: What are the channels of technological transfer from DCs to LDCs that allow developing economies to participate in benefits of technical change? How can a transfer of technologies affect economic and social development? After identifying such elements that link technical change to the question of inclusiveness we describe the effects of technical change on inclusiveness in DCs and LDCs. We try to answer questions like: Which groups benefit more or less from gains of technical change? Were benefits inclusive for a major share of the population or could basically small groups take advantage? Which are the reasons that led to non-inclusive growth for a larger share of the population.
    Keywords: innovation, technological change, global technological transfer, structural transformation, industrial development, development, inclusiveness
    JEL: F15 F16 I24 J31 O14 O15 O33
    Date: 2015–11–18
  19. By: Joanna Kuczewska (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk); Joanna Stefaniak-Kopoboru (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk)
    Abstract: The internal market is the project that has been implemented in the European Union member countries since 1992. However, 20 years of its functioning does not mean that it has been fully implemented and is functioning without any obstacles and barriers. Furthermore, the changing economic, political and social reality raises new challenges to the effectiveness of the Single Market. After the first period of high interest put in this project, the following years were a period of passivity of the EU member states and the European institutions. Since 2010, the internal market project has been again recognized as one of the main interest of the European Commission. Innovative new business models based on digital technologies, improved production efficiency, increasing the degree of fusion of services and production and the emergence of global value chains create new economic reality. As a result, there was the need to modernize the internal market and to take actions initiating processes leading to the elimination of economic barriers, as well as more effective implementation of rules and regulations governing the functioning of the internal market, leading to strengthening the competitiveness of the European economy. Therefore in 2015 the European Commission has presented a new “Strategy for the upgrading the Single Market” with a comprehensive approach to create a deeper and more equitable European internal market with a strong industrial base. The new strategy shall be implemented in years 2016-2018. The aim of the paper is to present the evolution of actions undertaken by the European Commission since the implementation of a Single Market and the guidelines and priority areas of the new Single Market strategy in the context of the effectiveness of the internal market.
    Keywords: European internal market, strategy of EU and internal market
    JEL: O52 L51
    Date: 2016–01
  20. By: Bruno Marques (CEREGMIA - Centre de Recherche en Economie, Gestion, Modélisation et Informatique Appliquée - UAG - Université des Antilles et de la Guyane)
    Abstract: Two major findings emerge from the theoretical analysis of Transport-Tourism link via a game theory type model of capacity coordination. Firstly the model explains the optimal capacities ratio of Transport and Tourism by the quotient of the ratio of tourism type (ratio of the length of stay in the destination and of transport duration) divided by the installation costs ratio (of transport and tourism).The corollary of this first finding gives the second outcome: The optimal transport and Tourism profit ratio is the product of the ratio of the type of tourism by the index of overcapacity conditions (a non linear combination of installation costs, and durations). From these results, it follows an interpretive grid that allows, according to tourism types, firstly to identify the optimal overcapacities by the difference between installation costs; and secondly the equilibrium ratio of profits according to the overcapacity direction and the tourism types.
    Abstract: Deux résultats ressortent de l’analyse théorique du lien Transport-tourisme via un modèle de coordination des capacités : l’expression et les déterminants des capacités et des profits optimaux relatifs du Transport et du Tourisme. L’article démontre que le rapport des capacités optimales de transport et de tourisme dépend du ratio comparatif de leurs coûts d’installation à celui inversé de leur poids relatif. Ce premier résultat a pour corollaire le second : le rapport d’équilibre des profits est le produit des indicateurs du type de tourisme (le ration des temps respectifs dans le transport et dans la destination) de la destination par celui identifiant les conditions de surcapacité relative. De ces résultats généraux, il suit une grille d’interprétation qui permet d’identifier d’abord le rapport optimal des capacités selon l’écart entre les coûts d’installation et le type de tourisme ; et ensuite le rapport d’équilibre des profits selon les sens des surcapacités relatives et le types de tourisme.
    Keywords: coordination,capacity,profit,tourism type,installation costs.
    Date: 2016–02–01
  21. By: Robin Clark (School of Engineering and Applied Science (Aston University)); Jens Bennedsen (School of engineering Aarhus University (Aahus University)); Siegfried Rouvrais (TELECOM - IRISA - PASS - IRISA - Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systèmes Aléatoires - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Télécom Bretagne - SUPELEC - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - INRIA - ENS Rennes - École normale supérieure - Rennes - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - Télécom Bretagne, INFO - Département informatique - UEB - Université européenne de Bretagne - Télécom Bretagne - Institut Mines-Télécom); Juha Kontio (Turku PET Centre (Turku University Hospital)); Krista Heikkenen (Turku PET Centre (Turku University Hospital)); Fredrik Georgsson (Umea Institute of Technology (Umea University)); Asrun Matthiasdottir (Reykjavik University (Reykjavik University)); Ingunn Soemundsdottir (Reykjavik University (Reykjavik University)); Markku Karhu (Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (.)); Katriina Schrey-Niemenmaa (Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (.)); Paul Hermon (School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Queens University Belfast))
    Abstract: In modern Higher Education, quality assurance is an important consideration. Across the world there are a range of institutional, national and global processes that institutions work with in order to ensure the quality of learning and teaching at the university level. In many cases, the focus is on assurance and compliance rather than the more forward looking element of quality enhancement. This paper explores the initial phase of an EU funded ERASMUS+ project to explore the enhancement element of the quality process. The initial focus of the work is on the partners' mutual interest in active learning, in particular the application of the CDIO (Conceive Design Implement Operate) framework in the field of engineering education. The eight European universities are Reykjavik University, Iceland; Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland; Aarhus University, Denmark; Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland; Umeå University, Sweden; Telecom Bretagne, France; Aston University, United Kingdom; Queens University Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Keywords: ISO/IEC 15504,Standard,TREE,Model-based improvement,Process improvement,Process Reference Model,Engineering education,CDIO,Educational Framework,Quality Assurance,Higher Education,Model,Assurance qualité,Qualité,Quality,Processus,Amelioration,Education,Enseignement,EFQM,Formation,Apprentissage
    Date: 2015–06–29
  22. By: Joanna Kuczewska (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk); Renata Or³owska (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk)
    Abstract: The report was prepared during the implementation process of the international project „The University of Tomorrow: internationalization of the educational process at the University of Gdansk via cooperation with the University of Houston-Downtown”. The project was conducted by the University of Gdañsk in the years 2014-2015 and it was cofinanced by the European Social Fund. The main objective of the project was: increasing of the educational potential of the University of Gdansk by adapting the partner’s solutions in terms of education quality and adaptation of the educational offer to the requirements of the international labour market. The analysis below refers to activities implemented within the Taks 2: enhancement of students’ qualifications (internships organization) and conducting the surveys among enterprises in the USA and Poland. The main objective of the surveys was to investigate the relationship between business and science (universities).
    Keywords: science – business cooperation, comparision of science – business relations in the USA and Poland
    JEL: I25 O57
    Date: 2016–01
  23. By: Groth, Christian (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Persson, Karl Gunnar (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The extent of growth in pre-industrial Europe in general and in Britain in particular has attracted intense scholarly focus. Growth or Malthusian stagnation? No consensus has evolved. Reconstructions of national income from 1300 and up to the Industrial Revolution come to opposing conclusions and so do econometric studies. Applying Engels’ law, we suggest a new approach in which income growth is revealed by changes in occupational structure. Data needed for this approach are less contested than the wage and output series used in the existing literature. We find that pre-industrial Britain exhibited secular rise in the standard of living.
    Keywords: Malthusian stagnation; Engel’s law; Revealed income growth; Pre-industrial productivity growth; Structural change. JEL Classification: E24, N13, O11, O41, O47
    Date: 2016
  24. By: Daniel Albalate (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Javier Campos (Faculty of Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria); Juan Luis Jiménez (Faculty of Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria)
    Abstract: This paper analyses from an empirical point of view the relationship between the provision of high-speed rail services (HSR) and the evolution of tourism at the local level in Spain. We have built a database of 124 municipalities during the 2005-2012 period to study the effects of the introduction of new HSR corridors on the number of visitors and their total and average stay at several end-line and intermediate cities as compared to similar counterparts not having such an infrastructure. We combine both difference-in-difference and panel data techniques to find that these effects are, in general, extremely weak or just restricted to larger cities, once other determining factors are controlled for.
    Keywords: High speed rail, local tourism, difference y difference, panel data. JEL classification:R42; R53;L83
    Date: 2015–12
  25. By: Bosquet, Clément; Overman, Henry G
    Abstract: We consider the link between birthplace and wages. Using a unique panel dataset we estimate a raw elasticity of wage with respect to birthplace size of 4.6%, two thirds of the 6.8% raw elasticity with respect to city size. We consider a number of mechanisms through which this birthplace effect could arise. Our results suggest that inter-generational transmission (sorting) and the effect of birthplace on current location (geography) both play a role in explaining the effect of birthplace. We find no role for human capital formation at least in terms of educational outcomes (learning). Our results highlight the importance of intergenerational sorting in helping explain the persistence of spatial disparities.
    Keywords: lifetime mobility; place of birth; spatial sorting
    JEL: J31 J61 J62 R23
    Date: 2016–01
  26. By: Geng, Heng; Hau, Harald; Lai, Sandy
    Abstract: Innovation processes under patent protection generate hold-up problems if complementary patents are owned by different firms. We show that in line with Hart and Moore (1990), shareholder ownership overlap across firms with patent complementarities helps mitigate such hold-up problems and correlates significantly with higher patent investment and more patent success as measured by future citations. The positive innovation effect is strongest for concentrated overlapping ownership and for the cases when the overlapping shareholders are dedicated investors.
    Keywords: hold-up problems; innovation; institutional ownership; patents
    JEL: G31 G32 L22
    Date: 2016–01
  27. By: Canlas, Dante B.
    Abstract: What does the Philippines need to do to transform its economy into a high middle-income economy and ensure that the benefits from such a transformation are within reach of every Filipino? Investment in human capital, especially higher education, is one instrument that serves the twin goals of boosting economic growth with broad-based rewards, that is, inclusive growth. Currently, the Philippines is confronted by a low proportion of enrollees and graduates in higher and scientific education, and needs to raise its stock of labor with higher and scientific education amid rising demand for skilled workers and widening gaps in lifetime earnings between college and high school graduates. Several policies are indicated, but priority must be accorded to instituting loan programs for higher education, accelerating rationalization of the state university and college sector based on instituting regional university systems and centers of excellence, and devising grant programs for content standards for subjects and courses and formulating standardized tests for measuring and monitoring compliance with those standards applied to both public and private institutions of higher learning.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education institutions (HEIs), higher education, inclusive growth, human capital, student loans
    Date: 2016
  28. By: Dominik Heinisch (University of Kassel); Önder Nomaler (Eindhoven University of Technology); Guido Buenstorf (University of Kassel); Koen Frenken (Utrecht University); Harry Lintsen (Eindhoven University of Technology)
    Abstract: It has long been argued that geographic co-location supports knowledge spillovers. More recently, this argument has been challenged by showing that knowledge spillovers mainly flow through social networks, which may or may not be localized at various geographic scales. We further scrutinize the conjecture of geographically bounded knowledge spillovers by focusing on knowledge flows between academia and industry. Looking into citations to non-patent literature (NPL) in 2,385 Dutch polymer patents, we find that citation lags are shorter on average if Dutch rather than foreign NPLs are cited. However, when excluding individual and organizational self-citations, geographically proximate NPLs no longer diffuse faster than foreign NPLs. This suggests that knowledge is not “in the air” but transferred by mobile individuals and/or direct university-industry collaboration. Our findings moreover suggest an important role of international conferences in the diffusion of recent scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: Non-patent literature, citation lags, knowledge spillovers, university-industry interaction, polymer industry
    JEL: O33 R10 L65
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Shohei Yoshida; Cong Pan
    Abstract: The paper explains why some firms transfer their technology to competitors without direct compensation. We consider a Hotelling market where duopolists sell products with different qualities. This market consists of heterogeneous consumers, comprising two groups in terms of their valuations of product quality. We show that when consumers’ preferences for product quality are sufficiently heterogeneous, a high-quality firm benefits from quality-enhancing technology transfer without payment. Furthermore, we extend the model to a circular city with four firms and show that a firm can benefit from a technology transfer to direct competitors rather than to an indirect competitor.
    Date: 2015–12
  30. By: Foster-McGregor, Neil (UNU-MERIT); Kaba, Ibrahima (UNU-MERIT); Szirmai, Adam (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationships between structural characteristics and the ability to sustain growth. The analysis is based on a novel dataset of sectoral shares in GDP and growth rates for 108 countries from 1960 to 2010. Rather than focusing exclusively on average growth rates, the paper examines the characteristics of positive growth episodes. Dependent variables include the duration of positive growth episodes and the risk that such growth episodes come to an end. Structural characteristics include the degree of sectoral specialisation, the share of manufacturing and the share of the modern sector in GDP. We find that higher shares of manufacturing, high and increasing shares of the modern sector and a more diversified structure of production contribute to longer duration of growth episodes and reduced volatility of growth patterns. The effects of these same variables on average growth rates are much more ambiguous.
    Keywords: economic growth, sustainable growth, growth rate, duration of growth, duration, volatility, specialisation, diversification, structure, structural change, structural transformation
    JEL: O40 O14 L16
    Date: 2015–12–01
  31. By: Waldyr D. Areosa
    Abstract: This article applies a noisy information model with strategic interactions à la Morris and Shin (2002) to a panel from the Central Bank of Brazil Market Expectations System to provide evidence of how professional forecasters weight private and public information when building inflation expectations in Brazil. The main results are: (i) forecasters attach more weight to public information than private information because (ii) public information is more precise than private information. Nevertheless, (iii) forecasters overweight private information in order to (iv) differentiate themselves from each other (strategic substitutability)
    Date: 2016–02
  32. By: Ugo Fratesi; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: This paper examines how the evolution of employment trends in the regions of Europe since the outbreak of the crisis may have been shaped by the emergence of sheltered economies in certain regions of Europe in the pre-crisis period. The paper uses descriptive and econometric analysis to determine the relationship between the level of protection from the market of regional economies in the years of economic boom between 1995 and 2007 and employment trends in the first four years of the crisis (2008-2012). The analysis covers 272 NUTS2-level regions in 27 EU countries. The results of the analysis show that regions which had developed more sheltered economies during the boom years have not weathered the employment shock associated with the crisis well, while pre-crisis dynamism in employment generation has been connected to lower post-crisis employment destruction. The only exception are the most highly sheltered economies in the pre-crisis period, which have endured a lower level of job destruction than any other type of region. The question is whether this early resistance to job destruction can be maintained once the recovery starts.
    Keywords: economic crisis, employment, sheltered economies, regions, Europe
    JEL: R11 R58
    Date: 2016–02
  33. By: Iaryczower, Matias; Oliveros, Santiago
    Abstract: We consider a class of dynamic collective action problems in which either a single principal or two competing principals vie for the support of members of a group. We focus on the dynamic problem that emerges when agents negotiate and commit their support to principals sequentially. A danger for the agents in this context is that a principal may be able to succeed by exploiting competition among members of the group. Would agents benefit from introducing competition between opposing principals? We show that when principals’ policies provide value to the agents, competition actually reduces agents’ welfare.
    Date: 2015

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