nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒01‒29
thirteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Leading R&D Investors for the Dynamics of Innovation Ecosystems By Mafini Dosso; Fernando Hervas; Antonio Vezzani
  2. Technological drivers of R&D location By Mafini Dosso; Antonio Vezzani
  3. Are clusters more resilient in crises? Evidence from French exporters in 2008-2009 By Philippe Martin; Thierry Mayer; Florian Mayneris
  4. Should everybody be in services? The effect of servitization on manufacturing firm performance By Matthieu Crozet; Emmanuel Milet
  5. ICT For Development Forum 2013: Session on ICT for Education By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. Latecomer challenge: African Multinationals from the periphery By Grietjie Verhoef
  7. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology Adoption on Multinational Firm Boundary Decisions By Wenjie Chen; Fariha Kamal
  8. Innovation & the professional service firm: Insights into the Locus, Patterns, and Tensions of Innovation in a Fast-Growing Information Technology Consultancy in New Zealand By Lee, Darren
  9. Digital Entrepreneurship Barriers and Drivers - The need for a specific measurement framework By Marc Bogdanowicz
  11. The impact of post-IPO changes in corporate governance mechanisms on firm performance: evidence from young Australian firms By Chowdhury, Biplob; Dungey, Mardi; Pham, Thu Phuong
  12. Long tails in the tourism industry : towards knowledge intensive service suppliers By Christian Longhi; Sylvie Rochhia
  13. Competitiveness: A Blessing or a Curse for Gender Equality? By Rodgers, Yana van der Muelen

  1. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fernando Hervas (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Policy brief discusses the key role of large R&D investors in the dynamics of innovation ecosystems. In a context of accelerated technological change and increasing global competition, firms should develop complex innovative solutions requiring the interaction of multiple-players. Therefore, knowledge integration becomes a key strategic dimension to keep the edge in the global competition and ecosystems of innovation are privileged ‘places’ where it can be organised in a way that ensures the creation of a higher collective value. Evidence shows that leading R&D investors can play a pivotal role in the establishment and development of such ecosystems, by bringing the necessary assets (resources, knowledge, capabilities and leadership) to activate their dynamics (along the three dimensions of interdependence, integration and initiative). This brief identifies a number of policy interventions to support the functioning of such innovation ecosystems and calls to tailor the interventions in accordance to the stage of development of the given ecosystem.
    Keywords: ecosystem of innovation, corporate R&D, knowledge integration
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: We discuss the link between corporate R&D internationalization strategies and the countries' technological specialisation. Technological proximity and a country specialisation in emerging technologies are key technological determinants for the location of foreign R&D investments of MNCs. These results imply that countries' technological profiles shape the type of R&D activities they are able to attract. Important policy implications reside in the fact that emerging technologies often derive from the use of existing technologies for new purposes and that radical innovations steam from the (re)combination of mature and emerging technologies from different domains are presented. Accordingly, countries willing to attract R&D-based investments should facilitate the cross-fertilization of existing and new fields and industries.
    Keywords: International Knowledge seeking, Multinational Corporations (MNCs), Patents, Emerging Technologies, Technological Proximity
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Philippe Martin (Département d'économie); Thierry Mayer (Département d'économie); Florian Mayneris (Institut de recherches économiques et sociales)
    Abstract: Clusters have already been extensively shown to favor firm-level economic performance (productivity, exports, innovation etc.). However, little is known about the capacity of firms in clusters to resist economic shocks. In this paper, we analyze whether firms that agglomerate in clusters and firms that have been selected to benefit from the « competitiveness cluster » industrial policy, implemented in France in 2005, have performed better on export markets during the recent economic turmoil. We show that, on average, both agglomeration and the cluster policy are associated with a higher survival probability of firms on export markets, and conditioning on survival, a higher growth rate of their exports. However, these effects are not stronger during the 2008-2009 crisis; if anything, the opposite is true. We then show that this weaker resilience of competitiveness cluster firms is probably due to the fact that firms in clusters are more dependent on the fate of the « leader », i.e. the largest exporter in the cluster.
    Keywords: Clusters; Competitiveness clusters; Exports; Crisis; Resilience
    JEL: F1 R10 R11 R12 R15
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Matthieu Crozet; Emmanuel Milet
    Abstract: The servitization of the manufacturing sector refers to the evolution of manufacturers' capabilities to o er services as a complement to or a substitute for the goods that they produce. A vast literature has described these strategies and has shown that this phenomenon is widespread and growing in most developed economies. However, very little systematic evidence of the extent or consequences of servitization based on a comprehensive dataset of fi rms exists. In this paper, we provide such evidence using exhaustive data for French manufacturing firms between 1997 and 2007. We fi nd that the vast majority of French manufacturers sell services in addition to producing goods. The shift toward services is growing steadily but at a slow pace. We also provide evidence of a causal impact of servitization on firm performance. Controlling for various sources of endogeneity bias, we find that fi rms that start selling services experience an increase in their profi tability between 3.7% and 5.3%, increase their employment by 30%, increase their total sales by 3.7%, and increase their sales of goods by 3.6%. The results hold for most industries, although some heterogeneity exists.
    Keywords: Servitization, firm-level data
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The ICT for Development Forum is an annual activity focused on knowledge sharing in the area of information and communication technology (ICT). This report, based on the forum held from 28 February to 1 March 2013 at the Asian Development Bank (ADB), attempts to gauge the impact of ICT on today’s learning paradigms. What are the impacts of ICT developments on today’s students and teachers? How is distance education changing the way education is being delivered? How is ADB helping developing members take advantage of ICT for education? How are massively open online courses and other disruptive learning paradigms affecting education? These are some of the questions tackled by experts from different countries and from ADB, and this report is the result of that discussion.
    Keywords: ict, education, students, development operations, online courses, teachers, distance education, learning paradigms, curriculum design, quality education, access to education, open learning, mooc, leapfrogging, e-learning, knowledge sharing
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Grietjie Verhoef
    Abstract: Multinational corporations have commenced foreign direct investment (FDI) activities since the 1960s by moving operations to resource-rich, low-cost labour and capital markets (Wilkins, 1970; 1974; 1988; Jones, 1994; 2005). The first wave of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) during the 1960s and 1970s was motivated by efficiency and market-seeking factors. This wave was dominated by firms from Asia and Latin America. A second wave of OFDI followed in the 1980s, led by strategic asset-seeking enterprises from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea (Dunning et al., 1996; UNCTAD, 2005b: 3s). Since the 1990s China, Brazil, India, Russia (the so-called BRIC countries) Malaysia, Turkey and South Africa are among the countries expected to add significantly to OFDI growth (UNCTAD, 2005c: 4). The emergence of EMTNCs (Emerging Market Transnational Corporations) makes up a growing proportion of outward FDI and they acquire an increasing share in foreign affiliates from developed markets conducting business in their regions. This paper reflects on the transformation of businesses and business practice in Africa, from isolated peripheral actors to global players. A growing number of African multinational corporations extended business operations from behind marginalized peripheral operations to global markets. This paper investigates the history of leading emerging market multinational corporations from Africa since the 1980s.
    Keywords: Globalization, strategy, market seeking, state, change management
    JEL: N17 O55 M16
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Wenjie Chen; Fariha Kamal
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of adopting internet-enabled information and communication technology (ICT) adoption on the decision to reorganize production across national borders (foreign boundary decision) by multinational enterprises (MNE). Using a transaction cost framework, we argue that ICT adoption influences foreign boundary decisions by lowering coordination costs both internally and externally for the firm. We propose that the heterogeneity in the technology’s characteristics, namely complexity and the production processes’ degree of codifiability, moderate this influence. Using a difference-in-differences methodology and exploiting the richness of confidential U.S. Census Bureau microdata, we find that overall ICT adoption is positively associated with greater likelihood of in-house production, as measured by increases in intra-firm trade shares. Furthermore, we find that more complex forms of ICT are associated with larger increases in intra-firm trade shares. Finally, our results indicate that MNEs in industries in which production specifications are more easily codified in an electronic format are less likely to engage in intra-firm relative to arms-length trade following ICT adoption.
    Date: 2016–01
  8. By: Lee, Darren
    Abstract: This research investigated the locus of innovation through a time-frame of ten years for a fast growing, privately-owned New Zealand information technology professional service consultancy firm. Emergent patterns related to the firm’s innovations were analysed along with the classic consultancy conundrum - the management of tension between future-focused innovations or present-day profits. An in-depth single case study approach was employed where the units of analysis were each innovation of the firm. Semi-structured interviews of 23 current employees involved in innovation activities across all levels of the organisation were conducted. This led to the discovery that less innovation occurred at the inception of the firm where the priority was to sustain the business in the short term. As the firm matured, the rate of innovations increased. The locus of innovation shifted from Top-down to Bottom-up as the firm grew. Further analysis showed that Top-down innovations had a higher likelihood of resource allocation and scaling at the firm. The consultancy conundrum is a constant tension that will continue to exist for the firm. The firm employs a number of “semi-structures” both formal and informal in nature to manage that tension. The findings of this research present a case for an inverse pattern of innovation for privately-owned professional service firms – where innovation occurs at the later stages of the firm’s growth life-cycle.
    Keywords: Innovation, Consultancy, New Zealand,
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Marc Bogdanowicz (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report explores the concept of Digital entrepreneurship and 18 current measurement frameworks that support the empirical analysis of entrepreneurship, its determinants, performance and impacts. The report points at the current strengths and weaknesses of the existing measurement frameworks to address the issues of Digital entrepreneurship, and indicates possible ways forward.
    Keywords: ICT, Innovation, ICT Innovation, Entrepreneurship, ICT Entrepreneurship, Digital entrepreneurship, Measurement framework
    JEL: D01 L26 M13 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Krzysztof Leja (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: The prevailing view held at contemporary Polish universities is that their main goal is to achieve effects measured by indicators, which applies to each element of their mission: education, research and the third mission, whereas the means to accomplish this goal consists of increasing the requirements and motivating by the “carrot and stick” approach. That approach discounts the importance of building a positive relationship between members of the staff and undertaking activities intended to create a situation where hedonistic joy of work will dominate in universities. This in turn will promote integration of the academic environment and induce employees to strive for mastery to find pleasure and satisfaction rather than to achieve specific effects of their activity, which eventually will lead to better efficiency. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate that contemporary universities may be improved by synthesis of strategic antinomies, i.e. seeking the possibility of combining opposite approaches to solving problems concerning university organization and management. The motivation method used at universities to date turns out to be ineffective; therefore, following the positive thinking idea formulated by Martin Seligman, the author of the study proposes to apply synthesis of strategic antinomies (paradoxes) observed in universities and use the results to counteract the noticeable trauma of academic communities and replace it with positive thinking, consisting of the aspiration to discover and understand phenomena, the sense of belonging to the academic environment and building positive relationships with that environment. Such an approach is in agreement with the “philosophy” proposing to replace the dictatorial “tyranny of the OR” (either ‘a’ or ‘b’”, but not both at the same time with the genius of the AND (both ‘a’ and ‘b’), applied by visionary organizations, such as universities should strive to become.
    Keywords: strategic paradoxes; university organization and management; resistance to changes; positive management
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2015–11
  11. By: Chowdhury, Biplob (University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics); Dungey, Mardi (University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics); Pham, Thu Phuong (University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential impact of governance mechanisms (top management team structure and board composition) on post-IPO performance of young Australian firms from 2002-2007. We find that change in board of directors and TMT membership significantly affects firm performance. The higher proportion of the IPO original board remains, the better performance. An analogous relationship between the proportion of original TMT members and firm performance is also documented. Our study reveals that both original TMT and board members have a significant effect on both short-term and long-term IPO performance. We conclude that the retention of both the original directors and TMT members is favourable to young IPO firms and their post-IPO performance.
    Keywords: Corporate governance, board composition, top management teams, young firms, post-IPO performance
    JEL: G30 G32 L25
    Date: 2014–10–04
  12. By: Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sylvie Rochhia (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of the Internet on the organizations and the markets in the tourism industry. It enlightens its deepening impact on incumbent organizations and markets from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 though the analysis of the dynamics of the long tail, i.e. of the distribution of activities in tourism. Innovation is gone from exploitation to exploration of the long tail, towards the emergence of non-profit or for-profit Knowledge Intensive Service Suppliers allowing ‘prosumers’ to find solutions to run themselves their activities, through users generated resources. Contrasting results appear, the growing autonomy of the tail from the head of distribution in the tourism industry, i.e. the development of global innovative market places inside the long tail itself, but still the reemergence of power laws, of tails within the tails as the basic shapes of activities in this platform economy. Skewed distributions appear indeed as the ‘normal’ characteristic of the economic activity, the traditional market one as well as the so-called ‘sharing’ one, which stands as a new form of the globalization
    Keywords: Tourism, Knowledge Intensive Service Suppliers, Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Production, Long Tail, Organization of the Industry, Internet
    Date: 2015–12–24
  13. By: Rodgers, Yana van der Muelen
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12

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