nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2016‒01‒18
thirteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Various approaches to measuring business innovation: their relevance for capturing social innovation By Attila Havas
  2. Multinationals and the Globalization of R&D By María García-Vega; Patricia Hofmann; Richard Kneller
  3. Financing Constraints, Radical versus Incremental Innovation, and Aggregate Productivity By Andrea Caggese
  4. The Roles of Emerging Multinational Companies’ Technology-driven FDIs in their Learning Processes for Innovation: A dynamic and contextual perspective By Liu , Ju; Lema , Rasmus
  5. Exporting firms and retail internationalization. Evidence from France By Angela Cheptea; Charlotte Emlinger; Karine Latouche
  6. Something New: Where do new industries come from? By Feldman , Maryann P.; Tavassoli , Sam
  7. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology Adoption on Multinational Firm Boundary Decisions By Wenjie Chen; Fariha Kamal
  8. The effects of innovation policies on firm level patenting By Marit E. Klemetsen
  11. Learning or Leaning: Persistent and Transitory Spillovers from FDI By Ronald B. Davies; Michael J. Lamla; Marc Schiffbauer
  12. Entrepreneurial intention in the time of crisis: a field study By A. Arrighetti; F. Landini; L. Caricati; N. Monacelli

  1. By: Attila Havas (Institute of Economics - Centre for Economic and Regional Studies - Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper reviews various approaches to measuring business innovation from the angle of capturing social innovations and offers several methodological and policy conclusions. First, the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS) indicators in principle could be useful in settings where the dominant mode of innovation is based on R&D activities. In practice, however, both R&D and non-R&D-based modes of innovation are fairly important. IUS, therefore, only provides a partial picture. Social innovations can certainly rely on R&D-based technological innovations. Their essence, however, tends to be organisational, managerial and behavioural changes. The IUS indicators do not capture these types of changes. Second, an assessment of the 81 indicators used to compile the Global Innovation Index reveals that it would neither be a fruitful effort to rely on those indicators to capture social innovations. Third, given the diversity among innovation systems, a poor performance signalled by a composite indicator does'nt automatically identify the area(s) necessitating the most urgent policy actions. Only tailored, thorough comparative analyses can do so. Fourth, analysts and policy-makers need to be aware of the differences between measuring (i) social innovation activities (efforts) themselves, (ii) the framework conditions (pre-requisites, available inputs, skills, norms, values, behavioural patterns, etc.) of being socially innovative, and (iii) the economic, societal or environmental impacts of social innovations.
    Keywords: Evolutionary economics of innovation; Business innovation; Social innovation; Measurement of innovation; Composite indicators; Scoreboards, league tables; Unit of analysis
    JEL: B52 C80 O31 O38 Y10
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: María García-Vega; Patricia Hofmann; Richard Kneller
    Abstract: We consider theoretically and empirically how the location and organization of knowledge production evolve within domestic firms during the period of their acquisition by foreign multinationals. Acquisitions do not increase the risk of closure of the subsidiary’s research labs unless acquired by MNEs at the technological frontier. Conditional on keeping research in the subsidiary, there is a large decrease of innovation expenditures, transfer of knowledge and reorganization towards high-skilled workers. We show that innovations increase, which is a consequence of the complementarity between foreign technology transfers and skilled-workers in the subsidiary.
    Keywords: MNE, Knowledge Production Function, Acquisition FDI, Knowledge Complementarities, R&D innovation.
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Andrea Caggese
    Abstract: I provide new empirical evidence on a negative relation between financial frictions and productivity growth over firms’ life cycle. I show that a model of firm dynamics with incremental innovation cannot explain such evidence. However also including radical innovation, which is very risky but potentially very productive, allows for joint replication of several stylized facts about the dynamics of young and old firms and of the differences in productivity growth in industries with different degrees of financing frictions. These frictions matter because they act as a barrier to entry that reduces competition and the risk taking of young firms.
    Date: 2015–11
  4. By: Liu , Ju (CIRCLE, Lund University); Lema , Rasmus (Department of Business and Management, Aalborg University)
    Abstract: This paper is a comparative case study investigating the roles of TFDIs in the learning processes for innovation in two leading Chinese wind turbine companies. It develops a dynamic and contextual analytical framework from a learning-based view to understand the firms’ learning processes for innovation. Based on the analysis and a comparison of the learning dynamics and learning contexts of the two case firms’ learning processes for innovation, the paper contextually theorises the different roles of the case firms’ TFDIs in their learning processes for innovation. The paper identifies two different roles of the TFDIs – the accelerator and the starter – in different contexts of the learning processes. We argue that for developing countries that have the ambition of tapping into the global knowledge and technology pool, domestic industrial capability-building should not be overlooked.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment; Emerging multinational companies; Technology; Innovation; Wind energy; China; Europe
    JEL: D22 F23 O32
    Date: 2015–12–30
  5. By: Angela Cheptea; Charlotte Emlinger; Karine Latouche
    Abstract: This paper questions the impact of the globalization of the retail sector on the export activity of origin country agri-food firms. In a previous paper (Cheptea et al., 2015), we showed that the overseas expansion of a country’s retailers fostered its exports to foreign markets. This effect can be explained by a reduction in trade costs for retailers’ supplying firms in the origin country, or to a change in consumer preferences in the host country that benefits all origin country firms. In this paper, we evaluate which of the two mechanisms dominates. For that, we use an original firm-level database of French agri-food exports, identifying the domestic suppliers of French retailers through certification with the private IFS standard. We find that IFS certified French firms are more likely to export and export larger volumes than noncertified firms to markets where French retailers established outlets. We also show that when French retailers close down their activities in a market, IFS firms face a drop in exports to this market in the subsequent years. The results are robust to the use of different sets of firm- and country-specific fixed effects, are unaffected by possible selection and endogeneity biases, and by the presence in export markets of other retailers. The difference in behavior for certified and non-certified exporting firms on markets where French retailers operate confirms the trade cost advantage of retailers’ suppliers, which is lost when French retailers exit from the destination country.
    Keywords: multinational retailers, firm-level exports, private standards
    JEL: F12 F14 F23
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Feldman , Maryann P. (Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.); Tavassoli , Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Emerging industries have great potential for both entrepreneurship and regional transformation. The emergent earliest stage of the industry lifecycle is when there is the greatest potential and when local factors matter most however we typically can only identify new industries in retrospect. This chapter provides an overview of the transformative potential of emerging industries and considers the challenges associated with studying emerging industries in real time. The chapter considers the regional context for studying new industries and offers a set of regional factors that might promote the emergence of new industries.
    Keywords: emerging industries; geography of innovation; market-pull; science-push; local economic development
    JEL: N90 O18 O33 R12
    Date: 2015–12–30
  7. By: Wenjie Chen; Fariha Kamal
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of adopting internet-enabled information and communication technology (ICT) adoption on the decision to reorganize production across national borders (foreign boundary decision) by multinational enterprises (MNE). Using a transaction cost framework, we argue that ICT adoption influences foreign boundary decisions by lowering coordination costs both internally and externally for the firm. We propose that the heterogeneity in the technology’s characteristics, namely complexity and the production processes’ degree of codifiability, moderate this influence. Using a difference-in-differences methodology and exploiting the richness of confidential U.S. Census Bureau microdata, we find that overall ICT adoption is positively associated with greater likelihood of in-house production, as measured by increases in intra-firm trade shares. Furthermore, we find that more complex forms of ICT are associated with larger increases in intra-firm trade shares. Finally, our results indicate that MNEs in industries in which production specifications are more easily codified in an electronic format are less likely to engage in intra-firm relative to arms-length trade following ICT adoption.
    Date: 2016–01
  8. By: Marit E. Klemetsen (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of R&D tax credits and direct R&D subsidies on Norwegian firms' patenting, with a particular focus on environmental patenting. Whereas direct subsidies are aimed at projects with low private and high social return, tax credits do not discriminate between projects or technologies. We find that both direct subsidies and tax credits have significant positive effects on patenting in general. Although direct subsidies have triggered more patents, tax credits are more efficient in the sense that they have triggered more patents relative to the typical subsidy amount received. With regard to environmental patenting, we find no significant effects of tax credits, whereas the effects of direct subsidies are large and significant. A possible explanation is that environmental innovations face the environmental externality, greater knowledge externalities and require funding that is willing to take more risks and allow more patience. Tax credits currently favor small and medium sized firms and firms with relatively low R&D investments. For large firms, we find large and significant effects of direct subsidies, but no significant effects of tax credits.
    Keywords: R&D tax credits; SkatteFUNN; direct R&D subsidies; environmental innovation; SMEs; Poission count model; fixed effects
    JEL: C54 D22 O31 O38 Q55
    Date: 2015–12
  9. By: Vidhu Mohan; Dharna Sharma
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of organizational climate with work motivation and organizational commitment of employees. The sample consisted of 313 middle and high rank managers from different private sector organizations (manufacturing and IT service) located in Punjab, Delhi, Gurgaon and Noida. Organizational climate measure (Patterson et al., 2005), Work motivation questionnaire (Dr. K.G.Aggarwal, 1988) and Organizational commitment questionnaire (Meyer and Allen, 1993) were used to measure organizational climate, work motivation and organizational commitment respectively. It was hypothesized that organizational climate (human relation model and open system model) would be positively associated with work motivation and organizational commitment. Both Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results of correlation revealed that there is a positive relationship between organizational climate (human relation model and open system model) and work motivation & organizational commitment. Multiple regression also proved that organizational climate (human relation model and open system model) plays an important role in work motivation and organizational commitment. Implications of the findings have been discussed. Key words: Organizational climate, work motivation, organizational commitment, employees
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Bharti Venkatesh; Cao Chenrui
    Abstract: In today’s fast-paced, information-rich, and quickly expanding landscape, organizations face a monumental task. Building and maintaining solid foundations to support adaptable, positive cultures is difficult in the face of a shifting economy, physically separated workplaces, and increasing diversity in the workforce. These changes in the landscape are forcing organization leaders to think about organizational sustainability in new and different ways. The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept, processes and functionality of an organization’s DNA and how organization DNA helps in developing “simple rules” as a key to establish the adaptability and flexibility that is necessary in complex organizational environments. Key words: Organizational Development, Organizational Structure, Motivators, Strategic
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Ronald B. Davies (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Michael J. Lamla (University of Essex, United Kingdom); Marc Schiffbauer (World Bank)
    Abstract: Using firm-level data for Jordan, we estimate the extent to which growth spillovers from foreign direct investment (FDI) to local firms stem from persistent learning ex- ternalities (i.e., they endure even after foreign investment leaves as knowledge has been transferred to local firms) or from transitory effects (e.g., demand increases which evap- orate following disinvestment). We find that they have a significant transitory nature, with employment and capital growth declining when FDI falls, particularly in down- stream industries supplied by locals. This suggests that if FDI-attracting policies are intended to promote sustainable growth, it may be more effective to attract and retain FDI via long-term structural policies, for instance, through low corporate tax rates rather than temporary tax holidays or through policies that strengthen the domestic absorptive capacity and linkages between foreign and local firms. It also suggests that FDI-led growth can increase a country's vulnerability to adverse global shocks in that the productivity gains of domestic firms will be partly reversed with the disinvestment of multinational firms.
    Keywords: FDI, Spillovers
    JEL: F23 F16
    Date: 2016–01
  12. By: A. Arrighetti; F. Landini; L. Caricati; N. Monacelli
    Abstract: The aim of the work is to investigate the impact of a prolonged economic recession on the entrepreneurial intentions of young people (university students) distinguishing between propensity to start a new business (i.e. degree of interest in entrepreneurship) and perceived likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur (i.e. probability to succeed). Furthermore we verify if the recession strengthens the orientation to exploit new market opportunities, or simply supports self-employment objectives.Design/methodology/approach–Entrepreneurial intent and feasibility and psycho-social and economic variables concerning a sample of 3684 Italian university students enrolled in 12 different faculties. Information was gathered through questionnaires distributed in both electronic and paper-and-pencil form. Findings–Firstly, we found that while the perceived strength of the economic crisis does not impact on the propensity towards entrepreneurship, it has a negative and highly significant impact on the likelihood to start a business. Secondly, when we distinguished between opportunity-based and necessity-based types, we found that while for the latter the crisis impacts only on the perceived likelihood to become an entrepreneur, for the former it affects both dimensions of entrepreneurship, i.e., both propensity and perceived likelihood. Moreover, neither family support nor economic institutions are perceived as relevant in sustaining entrepreneurial intentions. On the contrary, the university is considered as a key support entity. Originality/value–The present paper is one of the few studies concerning the influence of rapid worsening of external economic context (severe recession) on the entrepreneurial intent. Research limitations–Reliance on cross-sectional questionnaires instead of an experimental design imposes caution about the causal relationships between predictors and entrepreneurial intent
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; university students; Italy; economic crisis; opportunity; necessity
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Thakkar Mahesh
    Abstract: It is important to study learning styles because recent studies have shown that a match between teaching and learning styles helps to motivate students´ process of learning. That is why teachers should identify their own teaching styles as well as their learning styles to obtain better results in the classroom. The aim is to have a balanced teaching style and to adapt activities to meet students´ style and to involve teachers in this type of research to assure the results found in this research study. Over 100 students complete a questionnaire to determine if their learning styles are auditory, visual, or kinesthetic. Discovering these learning styles will allow the students to determine their own personal strengths and weaknesses and learn from them. Teachers can incorporate learning styles into their classroom by identifying the learning styles of each of their students, matching teaching styles to learning styles for difficult tasks, strengthening weaker learning styles. The purpose of this study is to explain learning styles, teaching styles match or mismatch between learning and teaching styles, visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles among learners. Key words: Learning Style, Teaching Style, Age Group
    Date: 2015–09

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