nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
forty papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Mapping innovation in the global photovoltaic industry: a bibliometric approach to cluster identification and analysis By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
  2. Knowledge spillovers from foreign direct invesments ? Czech case study By Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
  3. R&D efficiency of Mexican regions ? an output DEA approach- By Igone Porto Gomez; Jose Ramón Otegi; José Ricardo Lopez Robles
  5. Role of SMEs in regional innovation systems in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
  6. Entrepreneurship Education in Ethiopian universities: Institutional assessment Synthesis Report By Huub Mudde; Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
  7. Firm Performance in the Periphery: On the Relation between Firm-Internal Knowledge and Local Knowledge Spillovers By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson, Magnus
  8. SME?s cluster identification in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
  9. Determinants of new business formation in China: Regional evidence from a panel data model By Martin Borowiecki; Karl-Heinz Leitner
  10. The Effects of Interlocal Collaboration on Local Economic Performance: Investigation of Korean Cases By Eunok Im
  11. Toward a pecking order theory of strategic resource deployment By Schulze, William; Deeds, David; Wuebker, Robert; Kräussl, Roman
  12. FDI Spatial Spillovers in China By Lin, Mi; Kwan, Yum K.
  13. An analysis of the characteristics of firms and universities in shaping geographical distance of university-industry linkages By Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
  14. Environmental Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-level evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing (Japanese) By JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
  15. University spin-off firms? internationalization: Importance of skills By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
  16. The effects of knowledge and innovation on regional growth: Nonparametric evidence By Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
  17. Analysing spatial concentration of Hungarian knowledge intensive manufacturing sectors on city-region level 1996-2012 By Izabella Szakálné Kanó
  19. Features of the European Maritime Clusters By Regina Salvador; Abel Simões; Carlos Guedes Soares
  20. Internal structures and external connectedness: towards a typology of French clusters By Caroline Hussler; Paul Muller; Patrick Rondé
  21. Industry Structure, Entrepreneurship, and Culture: An Empirical Analysis Using Historical Coalfields By Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Audretsch, David B.; Wyrwich, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Coombes, Mike; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max
  22. Internationalization choices and Italian firm performance during the crisis By Stefano Costa; Carmine Pappalardo; Claudio Vicarelli
  23. The firm's evaluation of local research institutes and universities - an empirical analysis for Germany By Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
  24. On the spatial scale of industrial agglomerations By Tomoya Mori; Tony Smith
  25. A Dynamic Spatial Model of Rural-Urban Transformation with Public Goods By Dan Biller; Luis Andres; David Cuberes
  26. Economic crisis and innovation: Do regions matter? By Adelheid Holl; Ruth Rama
  27. Territorial clusters of economic cooperation: a new attempt to build entrepreneurial and institutional partnerships within a social economy? By Myriam Matray; Jacques Poisat
  28. Industrial policy under Neo-Schumpeterian concept of structural technological dynamics: Case of Ukraine By BAZHAL, IURII
  29. The strategic importance of Cooperation in the development of the economy of the sea By Miguel Marques
  30. Regional Convergence and R&D Investment: Applied investigation in Portugal By Gertrudes Guerreiro; António Guerreiro
  31. Agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance By Balázs Páger; Éva Komlósi
  32. The Formation of Local Culture and its Implications for Entrepreneurship By Fredin , Sabrina; Jogmark , Marina
  33. Geography of Regional Imbalance: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil By Mauricio Serra; Louise Kempton; Paul Vallance; Ana Paula Bastos; Cassio Rolim
  34. Demand Determinants of Cruise Tourism in Competitive Markets: Motivation, Preference, and Intention By Jamie Chen
  35. Design of an organizational capacity assessment tool for enhanced leadership and management in Ethiopian new public universities By Rita van Deuren; Tsegazeab Kashu Abay; Seid Mohammed
  36. Entrepreneurship and transition in the European transition countries By László Szerb; William Trumbull
  37. Regional dynamics of growth in the European Union: To what extent spatial spillovers matter? By Selin Ozyurt; Stephane Dees
  38. Strategic Alliances: An Introductory Framework By Link, Albert N.; Antonelli, Cristiano
  39. Competition Between and Within Universities: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Group Identity and the Desire to Win By Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman

  1. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
    Abstract: The photovoltaic industry acts as a key force in the transition toward a sustainable energy production model. Only a niche market a few years ago, photovoltaic panels and installations are now becoming a mainstream electricity provider. As a highly dynamic, multi-technology and globally distributed industry it is a challenge to identify and quantify its appearance in regional clusters. This challenge is even greater for its critically important innovation activities, including reaching higher efficiency of the cells, and increasing (other) functional and design qualities, like flexibility and color, as well as developing cheaper production methods. Yet because of the industry?s important role in securing a sustainable energy supply and in contributing to the regional economies in which it is established, a deeper understanding of the its global presence and activities is of significant scientific importance and policy relevance. This research follows the approach of 'paper trail' of the industry's innovation process as revealed in patents and scientific publications. By using these documents as sources from which to extract indicators for innovative activity, inputs, outputs and collaboration networks, a detailed picture of the photovoltaic industry innovation and its constituent regional clusters is constructed. This allows not only for the identification and analysis of major regional changes and global shifts of the industry and variation in cluster types, but also enables the estimation of models to identify at least some of the critical factors in photovoltaic clusters' innovation growth pattern, in so far as they can be revealed by bibliometric indicators. In order to select the relevant documents, we first determine which technologies are involved in the photovoltaic industry, like concerning the materials of the cells and shape of the panels, and derive this from expert opinion. We use the USPTO patent database and the Scopus database to retrieve relevant data published between 2005 and 2014. This data is used to carry out a multiple regression model estimation. Providing an understanding of the global location changes and growth and underlying factors in photovoltaic cluster's innovation development is new. The analysis exemplifies the currently increasing scientific attention to the role of cities and regions in transitions of socio-technical systems towards higher levels of sustainability, while referring to local seedbed conditions, including knowledge spillovers, and to networking power of technology actors like multinational companies and universities. The results offer insights to policy makers who aim to avoid barriers to innovation arising from global shifts.
    Keywords: photovoltaic industry; global shift; clusters; innovation; bibliometric approach
    JEL: F23 O14 O33 Q42
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
    Abstract: The foreign direct investments (FDI) spillovers are probably the most extensively analyzed channel of knowledge spillovers (the most important channel for the transfer of knowledge and technology to firms of the host country). Scholars as well as policy makers increasingly treat FDI spillovers as very or the most important development effect for host country. However, whether this knowledge and technology are hypothesized to spill over depends on the absorptive capacity of the host country which stems from well-equipped human resources such as scientists and cumulative expenditure in research and development (R&D). In this paper, we examine for the single time the extent of knowledge spillovers and the absorptive capacity of the Czech Republic regions. Our empirical analysis is based on two main sources. First, the confidential micro-data derived from an annual census of R&D collected by the Czech statistical office with the collaboration of the Czech industrial property office. The data measures inputs in R&D such as the financial means and human resources in the entire entities that carry out R&D and their primary and secondary activities. The mico-data includes also indicators about the R&D outputs in the form of new knowledge used in several practical applications such as patents and utility models. The second source of Data consists on the inflow of FDI at the regional level. The data is collected and published by the Czech National bank according to the international standards adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD), European commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) data compilation of balance of payments. The paper finds that there is a significant knowledge inflow from the FDI to local firms. Our results state that coefficient of FDI inflows is always positive for both models so that the empirical evidence supports that FDI generates spillover effects on the domestic regional innovation capability of the Czech Republic. As advised by the literature, the spillover effects occur through the absorptive capacity such as the skilled labor turnovers and the R&D expenditure in both entrepreneurial and public sector. In this context, our two models suggest a positive impact of labor in private sector and even significant in both models for the public sector which highlights the important role played by universities, scientific institutes and NGO´s. On the other hand, the correlation matrix of both patents application and utility models show a negative relation between two independent variables; FDI inflows and R&D government expenditure that fosters the assumption that the government expenditure in R&D crowds out the FDI inflow and hinder the beneficial effects of the latter.
    Keywords: foreign Direct Investment; knowledge spillovers; absorptive capacity; patent app
    JEL: D83 D92 O11
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Igone Porto Gomez; Jose Ramón Otegi; José Ricardo Lopez Robles
    Abstract: Introduction: Performance of regions is commonly based on the comparison of economic indicators. This may help to understand particular situations and identify optimization alternatives. In order to adopt the most effective technological research, development and innovation policies there is a need to measure the results that firms obtain and the impact of performed projects in regional economy. The results of R&D projects of the productive subsystem impact the productive subsystem itself and also other stakeholders in the region, including the knowledge subsystem. This paper contributes to the debate on how to measure regional R&D performance. Different research lines argue about choosing global regions´ measures or firms´ ones. In this analysis, we compare both alternatives. Methods: The study applies a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to the evaluation of the Innovation, Research and Development efficiency of regions, by comparing the innovation results of the firms, with the economic results of the regions they are located in. A 2 stages analysis is proposed, focusing firstly on the productive subsystems´ efficiency and then on the comparison between the efficiency of the regions. The analysis is performed for Mexico federal regions, considering the ESIDET 2011 survey. This survey measures the behavior of Mexico as a whole, in R&D projects. The 2010 and 2011 edition of the survey include the results obtain in each region. Taking into account the variables analyzed in other R&D DEA studies, and keeping in mind the available indicators of the ESIDET survey, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) will be performed, in order to identify the significant variables, which will turn into the DEA Input and Output variables. The objective of the analysis is to identify the most efficient federal region, according to the maximization or augmentation of the obtained benefits. The output DEA orientation aims to identify the factors that maximize the benefits of the R&D and innovation projects for the regions. Results: The main conclusion is that the most R&D involved regions - more R&D dedicated firms, higher R&D profits ? are not the more R&D efficient regions. Less R&D devoted regions result in more efficient ones eventually due to a better use of R&D resources by the few R&D firms located in those regions. Particular region analysis allow to identify how regions could maximize their results.
    Keywords: Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); region; Innovation; R&D
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Komlan Gbongli (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Peng Yi (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Owusu Ackah (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)
    Abstract: Industrial clusters over the years has being the engine for growth in most economies accounting for most of national manufacturing sector. This sector turns to be the source of innovation and competitive advantage. It is further responsible for the establishing of new startups and social poverty alleviation in most countries especially in South East Asia but this happens not to be the case in sub-Saharan Africa. Indigenous cluster turns to be less innovative as compared with others in developing countries such as China and others. Therefore this study examines the current state of innovation capabilities of SME cluster and propose a conceptual framework that can aid in how information and technology is diffused. It further investigate the influence of both interaction of various stakeholders and the clustering environment on innovation performance. In addition this study provides a platform for government and major stakeholders to implement and evaluate cluster strategy.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  5. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
    Abstract: SMEs play an important role in the development of regional innovative systems because of their potential to accept new technologies and show fast growing rates. There is an interdependence between emergence of fast growing SMEs (?gazelles?) and innovative development of regions. High level of regional innovative development creates a fertile environment for increasing the number of fast growing companies, while we assume that large number of ?gazelles? creates a favourable environment for the dissemination of innovations in regions via spillover effect (NESTA Business growth and innovation, 2009). Fast-growing companies may contribute more than 50% to GDP growth (Europe INNOVA Gazelles Innovation Panel, 2008). There are several works, that explain growth of firms as a stochastic phenomenon (Gibrat, 1929), or as a combination of endogenous (Penrose, 1955) and exogenous factors (Delmar, Davidsson, Gartner, 2003). In our work we assume that regional innovation performance (as a share of RnD personnel in employment, share RnD expenditures in gross regional product, etc.) may be a significant factor because of knowledge spillover effects (Audretsch, Feldman, 2004), affecting more competitive firms. There were no works on Russian regional data that could prove it. The article analyses a variety of endogenous (intra-firm) and exogenous (regional) factors, which determine the share of fast-growing firms in Russian regions. The analysed firms were fast-growing manufacturing SMEs during post-crisis period (2009-2012), the main focus was on the determinants of the companies? share in total number of manufacturing firms in a region. The dataset was collected from SPARK (Professional market and company analysis system), and consists of information about income, owners, location, industry and several financial indicators. Regional factors, according to Russian Federal State Statistical service, include research and development indicators (such as RnD expenditures, RnD employees, etc.), urbanization rate, human capital, investment climate, etc. There are 419 manufacturing fast-growing companies (?gazelles?) from 9220 companies in database, which is approximately 5%. Econometric analyses demonstrates a strong correlation between the share of high-growth companies in regions and indicators of regional innovation performance: number of researchers per 10 000 people, the number of PCT applications per economically active population, the share of employees with higher education in the total number of population in economically active age, and the number of applications for inventions submitted to the Russian Patent Bureau by national applicants per the economically active population. Determined factors could be used for elaborating recommendations for implementation of industrial policy in Russia.
    Keywords: SME; Russian regions; regional innovation systems
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Huub Mudde (Maastricht School of Management); Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
    Abstract: PThis report presents the findings of an entrepreneurship assessment of universities in Ethiopia, carried out within the context of the University Leadership and Management Capacity Development (ULMCD) project that has been implemented and coordinated by Maastricht School of Management (MSM), and funded by EP-Nuffic. Ethiopia is at the start of its second five year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) which aspires to make Ethiopia a middle income county by 2025. As a result, the government of Ethiopia had been pursuing, as one of its strategies, measures to promote small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to spur the economies’ growth and to increase youth employability (64.1% of the population is below 25 years of age). Universities play a significant role in the production of human resources the economy demands; education including entrepreneurship is critical as it contributes to job creation and leads to considerable reduction of poverty. Equally, universities have an important role to play in regional innovation systems. In Ethiopia, the number of graduates is growing fast and institutional challenges of universities are large because more than 20 new universities have been established in the last decade and the foundation of another 11 universities announced in 2015. It is this pertinent challenge of capacitating the growing number of students put upon the (mostly very young) Ethiopian universities in which this study is framed with the purpose to advise the Ethiopian universities on how to strengthen their entrepreneurial policy, activities, facilities, and educational programs, and to advise the Ethiopian Ministry of Education/Education Strategy Centre (ESC) on how it could support the Ethiopian universities on these matters.
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson, Magnus (Dept. of Business Administration and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper challenges one of the fundamental propositions within economic geography; that location in knowledge regions contributes to firm performance in general and especially for knowledge intensive firms that compete on the basis of knowledge. Our analysis of Swedish micro-data on 32,535 firms from 2004-2011 provides evidence that knowledge intensive firms benefit less from local knowledge spillovers than firms with comparably low in-house knowledge. This suggests that firms with high internal competencies can compensate for a lack of local knowledge spillovers and that negative knowledge externalities may make location outside knowledge centers more beneficial for such firms.
    Keywords: periphery; firm performance; spillovers; agglomeration
    JEL: O30 R10 R11
    Date: 2015–10–23
  8. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
    Abstract: Russia inherited pattern of economic activity location from the Soviet Union, where the main forms of industry organization were territorial-production complexes (TPC) - networks of industrial organizations united by a single technological process or the chain of raw materials processing. In a market economy in the 90s, economic ties within the TPC were destroyed, leading to a drop in the level of production, fragmentation of large enterprises and the formation of a set of independent and often competing firms. Some scientists believe that this situation over the last 20 years could serve as a necessary foundation for the formation of industrial clusters (in interpretation of modern regional science). Today, interest in clusters in Russia rises again due to the need to find new mechanisms to support production and innovation in a stagnant economy. Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has developed a project to support the pilot territorial innovative clusters by providing funding for infrastructure formation. The selection of cluster initiatives was based on applications from regional governments, interested in attracting of additional investment. Most of the clusters, formed in Russia, are not in innovative sectors, as shown by studies of the Russian Cluster Observatory. But a lot of potential clusters in Russia is not formed due to the high level of distrust between firms, due to lack of understanding of the potential benefits, etc., although these clusters can develop due to geographical proximity (high concentration) of firms. The aim of our work is to identify clusters as areas of geographical concentration of small and medium businesses (SME). We also wanted to check whether the existing cluster initiatives correspond to the concentration of economic activity and whether there is potential for increasing the cluster initiatives. In our work, we use the analysis based on the localization index, but on three geographical levels for verification reasons: regions, districts and cities. Most of the data were collected from RUSLANA database, consisting information of Russian firms. After identifying a high degree of localization of a particular industry or a group of industries, we analyze the location of enterprises, based on distance-oriented methods in specific regions or between regions. The result is a map of the high concentration and localization of small and medium businesses in certain areas in a number of industries. The authors confirmed the existence of traditional and well-known clusters and identified previously unknown concentration of firms that did not declare their interaction. In the last step, the authors conducted field research - a survey of firms in areas of concentration, where clusters today are not formed, for determining the reasons for the lack of interaction.
    Keywords: cluster identification; localization; SME; Russian regions
    JEL: C19 L70 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Martin Borowiecki; Karl-Heinz Leitner
    Abstract: Using a panel data model, we study the effects of regional and industry-level traits on new business formation (NBF) for 164 industries across 266 Chinese prefectures between 1998 and 2007. The objective is to provide empirical estimates on effects of prefecture traits on entry rates, and in particular on effects of prefecture knowledge capital stocks on R&D-intensive new business formation. In line with literature on knowledge spillovers, we find extensive evidence of a positive prefecture knowledge capital stock effect on R&D-intensive NBF rates, whereas knowledge capital stocks do not predict non R&D-intensive entry rates. Among regional and industry-level characteristics, we find that prefecture supplier and customer market strength are strongly linked to higher business entry rates. Our results for China contrast with recent findings on the effects of regional traits on firm entry rates in India and the US, indicating distinct regional patterns of Chinese entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; knowledge spillovers; agglomeration; development; China
    JEL: L26 L60 M13 O10 O14 O33 R00 R10 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Eunok Im
    Abstract: Collaboration among regional/local governments becomes more important for successful local economic development. It has emerged as an alternative to traditional competition-based strategies for local economic development. This study explores the degree of collaboration among local governments in the partnership and its impacts on local economic performance, using nation-wide survey results of 112 local government partnerships for economic development in Korea. Factor analysis identifies three key factors for the degree of interlocal collaboration: (1) commitment to mutual relationships and goals, (2) the quality of communication to build consensus among participants, and (3) the effectiveness of formal joint meetings, as a sub-dimension of communication. The multivariate regressions of three factors on contextual attributes (resource dependence on partners and geographical proximity), relational attributes (social/political similarity, perceived competitive relation, and trust in partners), and institutional attribute (the level of institutionalization) report interesting findings. Trust in partners and the level of institutionalization for the partnership turn out to be the most important factors affecting the level of commitment and the quality of communication in collaboration processes. On the other hand, resource dependence on partners and geographical proximity positively affect only formal joint meeting operation. Using the Baron and Kenny?s three-step hierarchical regression analysis, this study finds that the degree of collaboration mediates the relationship between resource dependence, trust, and the level of institutionalization and local governments? strategic performance. However, it does not show any associations with direct economic performance measures?i.e., effectiveness and efficiency of a collaborative project that might be more influenced by, and thus hardly disentangled from, other various external economic/political factors. It implies that although a high quality collaboration process cannot guarantee the success of project itself, it entails participants? learning (i.e., accumulation of knowledge and experience) that may contribute to innovation and better economic performance in subsequent collaborative projects.
    Keywords: degree of collaboration; local economic development; strategic performance
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Schulze, William; Deeds, David; Wuebker, Robert; Kräussl, Roman
    Abstract: A premise of the capabilities perspective in strategy is that firm-specific capabilities allow some firms to be unusually adept at exploiting growth opportunities. Since few firms have the capacity to internally generate the quantity or variety of strategic resources needed to exploit growth opportunities, the ability to externally acquire complementary resources is critical to the acquisition of competitive advantage. However, the external sourcing of resources exposes the firm's strategic resources to risks of expropriation. We argue this threat gives capable firms incentive to use internally generated strategic resources to pursue growth opportunities before turning to external sources. A pecking order theory of strategic resource deployment is implied. Data from a 22-year sample of cross-border investment partnership decisions made by U.S.-based venture capital firms lend support to our theory.
    Keywords: Resource Acquisition,Dynamic Capabilities,Venture Capital
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Lin, Mi; Kwan, Yum K.
    Abstract: This paper studies FDI spatial spillovers in China. Empirical investigation reveals that, along the spatial dimension, FDI presence tends to generate negative intra-regional spillovers that dominate other potential positive externalities. The direction, magnitude and scope of inter-regional spillovers vary, depending on the spillover channels. Our empirical findings call for a rethinking of policy-driven agglomeration among indigenous firms and MNEs in developing countries.
    Keywords: FDI spillovers; Spatial diffusion; Firm Agglomeration; China
    JEL: F2 F4
    Date: 2014–11–24
  13. By: Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
    Abstract: University has being playing an increasing role in supporting innovation. In this way, university-industry linkages has become a growing subject in the literature, in order to understand how these relationships are shaped on space. Recent issue is about the role of geographical distribution of these relations, since geographical proximity can provide important benefits for firms in accessing these sources of information and new knowledge. The aim of this paper is to examine the main factors that affect geographical distance of university-industry linkages, by analysing both sides of collaboration, the characteristics of firms and universities. Several studies show that there are important benefits related to the co-location of firms? R&D staff and academic researchers (Jaffe, 1989; Audrescht & Feldman, 1996; Arundel & Geuna, 2004; D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). However, recent analyses show that, several times, firms prefer to collaborate with geographically distant universities, since there are some factors that stimulate firms to go far to interact with university (D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; Laursen et al, 2011; Muscio, 2013). Hence, the main question that the literature are trying to answer is why firms go far to interact with university. General results points to two main drivers. First, firms look for distant universities when they cannot find local high-performance academic research. Second, firms must have high absorptive capacity in order to be able to search for universities that are able to solve their innovative problems. Previous studies show important evidence to this debate. However, they left an important gap that requires deeper analysis, since evidence presented in previous studies are based only on information about the university (D?Este & Iammarino, 2010; Muscio, 2013) or only of the firm (Laursen et al, 2011; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). Linked to this issue, this paper aims to contribute to this debate not only by presenting new evidence on the main drivers of the pattern of geographical distance of university-industry linkages, but also by presenting a comprehensive analysis of the collaboration by using complete information of both universities and firms. To do that, a wide-ranging database of interactions between university and industry was used in the scientific fields of Engineering and Agrarian Sciences in Brazil. Main results of the empirical analysis show that bigger firms with higher absorptive capacity tend to interact with more distant research groups, which shows the importance of the skills of the firm to find universities, local or distant, that are able to solve their innovative problems. On the side of the university, larger research groups and those who perform higher quality academic research presents higher average geographical distance of interactions, which shows that they are able to attract more distant firms to collaborate.
    Keywords: O18
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate how inward foreign direct investment (FDI) influences the environmental actions of local firms in the host country. We use firm-level data of Vietnam manufacturing firms for the period 2007-2008. Environmental actions are measured in five indexes, including adoption of environmental management system, certification of environmental standards, and application of cleaner production. We estimate the direct effect of foreign ownership share and three types of spillover effects on the environmental behavior of firms. Spillover effects include horizontal, forward, and backward spillovers. We find positive and statistically significant direct effects and negative and significant horizontal spillovers. We also find positive and significant backward spillovers when firms engage in international trade. Moreover, we find heterogeneity in both direct and spillover effects among source countries of FDI.
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
    Abstract: Technical and industrial competences are increasingly dispersed across the globe, urging young high-technology firms in Europe to increase distances in their knowledge relations. However, establishment and maintenance of such relationships tend to be hampered by many barriers following from short in capabilities, particularly various missing skills in the management team. In this paper, we examine the role of capability factors and particular skills among a specific category of firms, university spin-offs, in building knowledge networks abroad, specially, the spatial reach involved. Such a study is not new for (innovative) SMEs, but it is new for university spin-off firms. We use two samples of university spin-off firms (each about 100 cases) in various European countries in order to identify the importance of capabilities and certain skills in internationalization of knowledge collaboration, and to this purpose we apply various regression models. The sampled firms are of different age and find themselves in different stages of born-global development. We observe that 60 to 70 per cent of the firms employ knowledge relationships abroad, almost 35 per cent of them outside of Europe. The main underlying capability factors are a high education level (PhD), participation in market/business-related training, and a larger firm size. Another factor is a relatively low level of innovation, indicating a support structure from practical application and customer relations in an established market position of the firm abroad. Examples of such support structure are found in civil engineering works and consultancy concerning transportation infrastructure, land use/protection and the oil and gas industry. Furthermore, one set of missing skills in the management team stands out in limiting larger distances in knowledge collaboration, and these are internationalization skills, for example, skills in presentation of the firm and negotiation of important agreements with a partner abroad, dealing with uncertainty in certification issues and patent protection, and skills in branding the product abroad. Most missing skills are of the conceptual and relational type. Due to different stages in born-global development, the differentiation in missing skills is remarkably large, indicating that training to improve skills requires a multi-faceted and customized approach, without a one-size-fits-all solution. The paper concludes with a summary and some ideas for improving training.
    Keywords: global knowledge collaboration; capabilities; skills; university spin-off firms
    JEL: D03 M13 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
    Abstract: This paper deals with the relationship between knowledge, innovation and regional growth. The study is carried out through the application of nonparametric estimation methods to European data at NUTS2 level. We provide evidence that the share of innovative ...firms plays a more relevant role in explaining regional growth than R&D expenditures. Further, inward FDI turns out to be a robust growth determinant. Our results also suggest that the effects induced by these variables are of a heterogeneous nature. As a byproduct of the analysis, we show that the estimation results from a local-linear kernel regression can be used for the identi...cation of spatial patterns. In this respect, we ...find a cluster of innovation-driven labour productivity growth in Germany.
    Keywords: Regional growth; knowledge; innovation; nonparametric methods; nonlinearities
    JEL: C14 C20 O18 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Izabella Szakálné Kanó
    Abstract: It seems to be widely accepted that regional development extensively depends on two types of agglomeration economies. On the first hand there are urbanization economies, namely regions with diverse economic environment, these provide firms with opportunities to grow and improve their technologies. On the second hand there are localization economies, which mean regions gaining from specialization because firms enjoy presence of suppliers, specialized labor and knowledge spillover among co-located partners. This is especially important in case of knowledge intensive industries. Knowledge-intensive industries have attracted a great attention nowadays in researches because of its contribution to the development of knowledge driven economy. They generate positive effects on the regional economy and have increasingly high importance in less developed regions, like Hungary. The identification of spatial distribution, the geographical co-location of knowledge-intensive economic activities is substantial to define potential leading industrial branches in regions. Our argument is closely connected to the recent emphasis of European Union on smart specialization. Several different methods can be found in the literature measuring the specialization of regions and the concentration of industries. These two phenomena build two scopes of localization economies, the geographical and the sectorial ones. Our paper addresses the spatial distribution of Hungarian manufacturing industries computing raw concentration index EG G and spatial concentration index EG ?? proposed by Ellison and Glaeser (1994) as measures of internal and external economies of scale. Computations are based on the number of employees for a 17 years period covering early stage of Hungarian transition economy, the EU access and the economic crisis (1996-2012). Our investigation is based on two different types of territorial units: city-regions and subregions (LAU 1 level. In order to apply regional development strategies in regions, one has to consider nodal regions, i.e. functional regions established from labour commuting zones with a powerful centre: the 23 city-regions. Labour commuting zones often extend beyond the borders of subregions (175), but latter are still well applicable for investigation of concentration. Based on our calculations we compared 1. measured spatial concentration of knowledge intensive industries and that of non-knowledge intensive ones. 2. measured spatial concentration based on city regions and subregions. 3. measured spatial concentration of NACE 2-digits and NACE 4digits industries by computation of co-agglomeration index (EG ??) We also investigated change of employment, firms and average firm size of industries over time. Our preliminary results indicate emphasized geographical concentration of knowledge intensive industries compared to non-knowledge intensive ones. The vast majority of cases, this concentration arises from the external economies of scale and it is even more present in case of city-regions than in case of subregions.
    Keywords: specialization; geographic concentration; manufacturing industries; economic crisis
    JEL: O14 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Csaba Debreczeny (Pannon University)
    Abstract: Although Innovation is defined by many classical sources (Schumpeter, Oslo Manual etc.) it is still remains a myth at companies what it really means. It is well understood that sustainable growth is not possible without proper innovation management. Lots of energy is invested to implement and setup well-structured stage gate processes - from idea generation till market launch with state of the art project management, however fundamental question is mostly ignored, neglected: what innovation culture matches to industries, markets certain companies serve. This paper researches the literature of different innovation capability measurement systems Select one which has a fundamental new approach and shows the status of a model validation process at a new industry. The model main claim is that there is no good or bad innovation culture. The main question is how innovation culture/capability is matching to the company current and future targeted strategy and operational of excellence. During the validation process 2 strategic business fields are being selected similar in size and challenges (matured markets with stagnating product lifecycles, still need for 5-10 % of innovative growth within next 5 years which can be only reached via competence enhancement - not to be derived from current markets). These conditions provide excellent opportunity to validate the model at this industry and propose if applicable necessary adjustments.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  19. By: Regina Salvador; Abel Simões; Carlos Guedes Soares
    Abstract: The paper analyses the national and regional European maritime clusters according to the sea basin division proposed by the European Union Integrated Maritime Policy: Atlantic and Arctic oceans; Baltic, Black, Mediterranean and North seas. Besides the identification of all maritime sectors by country ? be it at national and/or regional level - a statistical database is established per each and every of the above referred sea basins, in order that a comparative analysis can be developed. Also in line with Wijnolst, Jensen & Sødal (2003) that propose a maritime sector benchmarking - the ?Global Maritime Benchmarking? ? which should allow evaluating the maritime clusters evolution and strength - the paper estimates nine indicators: structural indicators (no. of clusters, no. of companies; no. of employees; no. of sectors; technological level; location); economic indicators (Gross Added Value, production; productivity; profit and rentability rates), internationalization (exports and imports, major clients and suppliers, international average prices, EU and third countries markets shares); critical mass (agglomerations and scale economies by maritime sector) and leader firms; level playing-field (free-competition, monopolistic, oligopolistic markets); innovation (major universities and R&D centers, no. patents, regional innovation systems); institutional framework (governance, connection with regional and national governments)and business networks; labour market (unemployment rate, average wages) and education (major schools and courses by different grades, training centers); and image and communication. Particular attention is attributed to the Atlantic basin strategy - the largest of all the EU Integrated Maritime Policy Basins ? where besides the Blue growth concerns the authors, develop the result of a group of interviews to experts on Blue Geopolitics and Geostrategic. The above comparison between sea basins will allow characterizing ?maritime Europe?, identifying the location of the main excellence centres and the major beneficiaries of the Integrated Maritime Policy decisions. The paper also suggest public strategies that would support clusters development ? or ?cluster enablers? ? that include, among others, the definition of an industrial policy, strengthening of demand pull sectors or the promotion of innovation, R&D and leader firms. The needed conditions in order that Europe could organise itself has a ?vast continental maritime cluster? are also under scrutiny.
    Keywords: Maritime Clusters; Maritime Economy; EU Sea Basin Strategies
    JEL: E20 F43 R10
    Date: 2015–10
  20. By: Caroline Hussler; Paul Muller; Patrick Rondé
    Abstract: In this explorative study, we adopt a knowledge-centred perspective on clusters and investigate whether clusters? internal structure explains clusters? external (knowledge) collaborative strategies. All in all, the main analytical issue underlying this paper is the following: do internal characteristics of clusters vary (among them), and do they have any influence on the characteristics of clusters? external relationships? Our analysis focuses on the 71 French Competitiveness clusters. First, thanks to data analysis techniques, we identify 4 ideal types of clusters according to their internal characteristics. We then pinpoint variety in clusters? relational behaviours using network analysis. In a final step, we confront internal characteristics and the relational patterns of French clusters. Our data analysis combined to a network analysis on French Pôles de compétitivité allows us to highlight several results concerning clusters? cooperation practices and to link them with internal characteristics. First, even though clusters tend to favour cooperation with a given partnering cluster, they try to diversify as much as possible their cooperation with different clusters. They thus try to strike a balance between deepened, more enduring cooperations with a one or a couple of other clusters and the search for novelty variety by initiating cooperations with new partnering clusters. Our results also suggest a significant variety in the cooperation practices among French clusters. Some of them do not play any significant role in the global network, whereas others are associated with high levels of centrality. This suggests that not all clusters implement (or are capable of implementing) similar cooperation practices. This is coherent with our first argument that clusters may not be equally endowed with the same networking capabilities. Investigating further the factors underlying clusters? cooperation practices and trying to bind them with internal characteristics, we confronted the results obtained out of our network analysis based on R&D collaborative projects. Our first results show that French Pôles de compétitivité indeed differ according to their internal characteristics, the most discriminating factors being linked to the complexity level of clusters and their ownership structure while absorptive capacity and the nature of knowledge bases appear to be less discriminating. Considering both Pôles' internal characteristics and cooperation practices, the internal factors determining most of their cooperation practices lie in their levels of internal complexity and their absorptive capacities. Our analysis shows that the dominant ownership structure in a Pôle and the nature of its dominant knowledge base have less influence.
    Keywords: clusters; internal structures; collaborative network; cluster typology
    JEL: D83 D85 L14 O30
    Date: 2015–10
  21. By: Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Audretsch, David B.; Wyrwich, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Coombes, Mike; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max
    Abstract: There is mounting evidence demonstrating that entrepreneurship is spatially clustered and that these spatial differences are quite persistent over long periods of time. However, especially the sources of that persistence are not yet well-understood, and it is largely unclear whether persistent differences in entrepreneurship are reflected in differences in entrepreneurship culture across space as it is often argued in the literature. We approach the cluster phenomenon by theorizing that a historically high regional presence of large-scale firms negatively affects entrepreneurship, due to low levels of human capital and entrepreneurial skills, fewer opportunities for entry and entrepreneurship inhibiting formal and informal institutions. These effects can become self-perpetuating over time, ultimately resulting in persistent low levels of entrepreneurship activity and entrepreneurship culture. Using data from Great Britain, we analyze this long-term imprinting effect by using the distance to coalfields as an exogenous instrument for the regional presence of large-scale industries. IV regressions show that British regions with high employment shares of large-scale industries in the 19th century, due to spatial proximity to coalfields, have lower entrepreneurship rates and weaker entrepreneurship culture today. We control for an array of competing hypotheses like agglomeration forces, the regional knowledge stock, climate, and soil quality. Our main results are robust with respect to inclusion of these control variables and various other modifications which demonstrates the credibility of our empirical identification strategy. A mediation analysis reveals that a substantial part of the impact of large-scale industries on entrepreneurship is through human capital.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship culture; Industrial Revolution; industry structure; personality
    JEL: L26 L64 N13 N53 N94
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Stefano Costa (ISTAT); Carmine Pappalardo (ISTAT); Claudio Vicarelli (ISTAT)
    Abstract: In this paper we focus on the relationship between internationalization choices and performance of Italian firms during the first period of the financial crisis (2007-2010). Making use of a new database matching four firm-level datasets provided by the Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT), we firstly build a 6-class taxonomy of firms’ internationalization activities. Secondly, we estimate firms’ performance – in terms of employment and value added dynamics – as a function of internationalization forms. In particular, we assess the effects of the shifts across the taxonomy classes on firms’ performance, also estimating Propensity score and Heckman selection models in order to control for endogeneity and sample selection problems. Descriptive analyses confirm that firms adopting more complex forms of internationalization (e.g. offshoring, or exporting worldwide) are more efficient and export a wider range of goods than traditional exporters. Indeed, over the period 2007-2010, Italian firms moved (on average) towards more complex forms of internationalization. Empirical analysis found that these upward changes are associated to positive employment and value added dynamics at firm level, also in a period characterised by the 2009 trade collapse. These findings put additional emphasis on the issue of the diversification of both products and markets as a goal to be pursued by firms even in times of crisis, as the current ones, to remain competitive and make profits.
    Keywords: heterogeneous firms, internationalization, financial crisis.
    JEL: F10 F14 F23
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
    Abstract: Spatial proximity facilitates transfer of knowledge and technology between research institutes or universities (RIU) and firms. Against this background the location of research institutions and universities is often seen as an instrument of regional policy to promote knowledge flows and R&D activity of firms. One major practical challenge is, however, to bring together both actors. The matching process is often hindered by prejudices and lacking information about the capabilities and requirements on both sides. This study contributes to the spare empirical literature on this topic by analyzing the firms? attitudes towards proximate RIU. We make use of differentiated data on firm characteristics and their evaluation of certain location factors in the years 2006 and 2009 provided by the IAB establishment panel. Several research questions are investigated by applying ordered probit regression models. How are non-innovating firms or firms with low R&D activities rating their local RIU? Are there important differences between urban and rural regions or between large firms and SMEs? Do objective information such as size and specialization of the local universities affect the firm?s evaluation? How far is ?local? (distinguishing data at the NUTS3 and NUTS2 level)? Does a successful participation of local universities in the German ?Excellence Initiative? change the firms? attitude? The results indicate that firms which are expected to be open to collaboration with RIU (in terms of R&D, human capital, knowledge-intensive industries) are rating their local RIU higher than other firms. We suppose that firms are already self-selected to places where they find their suitable collaboration partners. Objective information about the universities such as specialization on STEM fields positively affects the evaluation of proximate RIU. Especially the universities? focus on mathematics and natural sciences (slightly surprisingly rather than engineering) makes them better off from the perspective of the individual firm. Furthermore, information about universities in the remaining NUTS 2 region exhibit larger effects than information on the NUTS 3 region. This indicates that firms have a larger distance in mind when thinking of their ?location? and ?proximity to RIU?. Another finding is that the announcement of the winning universities in the ?Excellence Initiative? which additionally funds scientifically excellent concepts does not affect the firms? view on the local RIU.
    Keywords: proximity; university-industry linkages; universities of excellence; location fa
    JEL: I23 I28 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  24. By: Tomoya Mori; Tony Smith
    Abstract: Standard approaches to studying industrial agglomeration have been in terms of scalar measures of agglomeration within each industry. But such measures often fail to distinguish spatial scales of agglomeration. In a previ- ous paper, Mori and Smith (2014) proposed a pair of quantitative measures for distinguishing both the scale and degree of industrial agglomeration based on an explicit method for detecting spatial clusters. The first, designated as the global extent of industrial clusters, measures the spatial spread of these clusters in terms of the areal size of their essential containment, defined to be the (convex-solid) region containing the most significant subset of these clusters. The second, designated as the local density of industrial clusters, measures the spatial extent of individual clusters within their essential con- tainment in terms of the areal share of that containment occupied by clusters. The present paper applies this pair of measures to manufacturing industries in Japan, and the results obtained are systematically compared to those of the most prominent scalar measures currently in use. Finally, these mea- sures are shown to support certain predictions of new economic geography models concerning the relationship between shipment distances and spatial scales of agglomeration for individual industries.
    Keywords: Industrial agglomeration; spatial scale of agglomeration; shipment distance
    JEL: C49 L60 R12 R14
    Date: 2015–10
  25. By: Dan Biller; Luis Andres; David Cuberes
    Abstract: In this paper we develop a dynamic model that explains the pattern of population and production allocation in an economy with an urban location and a rural one. Agglomeration economies make urban dwellers benefit from a larger population living in the city and urban firms become more productive when they operate in locations with a larger labor force. However, congestion costs associated with a too large population size limit the process of urban-rural transformation. Firms in the urban location also benefit from a public good that enhances their productivity. The model predicts that in the competitive equilibrium the urban location is inefficiently small because households fail to internalize the agglomeration economies and the positive effect of public goods in urban production.
    Keywords: rural-urban transformation; agglomeration economies; congestion costs; public
    JEL: H40 R1 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  26. By: Adelheid Holl; Ruth Rama
    Abstract: There is broad agreement among economists and policy makers that economic growth is nowadays largely driven by the capacity of firms to innovate. The financial and economic crisis that started in late 2007 has had a far reaching impact on countries around the world. Spain has been one of the countries worst affected. As a result, the government has reduced public funding in R&D. At the same time, the continued credit crunch has dramatically worsened the possibilities for financing new ideas and projects. One of the consequences of the economic crisis is that many companies have reduced their innovation-related activities; however, some firms have been more resilient than others and recent studies also show that there are important differences across countries regarding the degree to which the economic crisis has affected firms? innovation investment. It has been argued that national institutional settings and the structural characteristics of national innovation systems have played an important role in shaping how firms have responded to the crisis. However, within a country, regions may also matter. Learning processes underlying innovation are localised and locally embedded, and regional innovation systems (hereafter, RISs) may play a role too. Spain provides an interesting setting for analysing the role of regions, as it is a country with a highly decentralized unitary state with a unique framework of territorial administration. Spanish regions have very diverse economies and also different degrees of fiscal and political autonomy. They vary greatly in terms of their innovation performance as well as regarding their regional innovation and technology policies. Moreover, their responses to the economic crisis in terms of regional policies have not been the same. A focus on regional difference can contribute to a better understanding of the innovation strategies employed by firms during the crisis. To date, we still know very little about regional differences and the degree to which regions have shaped firms' innovation behaviour in response to the economic crisis. Our analysis contributes to this literature by drawing on a large national sample of micro-data for Spanish manufacturing and service sector firms. Our results show that the crisis has discouraged a significant number of firms from engaging in innovation. These have been mainly small firms and occasional R&D performers. Significant regional differences are also found in the degree to which the crisis has affected firms? innovation expenditures, even after controlling for sectoral differences and firms? structural characteristics. The Basque Country stands out in our analysis. Firms with R&D employment in this region show a significantly lower probability of having abandoned innovation activities and a somewhat higher probability of even having increased their innovation effort. This regional effect has been especially important for small and medium sized companies.
    Keywords: innovation investment; economic crisis; resilience
    JEL: R1 O3
    Date: 2015–10
  27. By: Myriam Matray (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Jacques Poisat (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Coming from the civil society and entrepreneurial processes in a bottom-up strategy, territorial clusters of economic cooperation (inspired by French economic clusters) could not emerge and develop without support from public institutions. Indeed, jointly developed local strategies by groups of citizens and institutions tend to foster the emergence of groups of social actors. The study of TCEC in the Rhone-Alps Region highlights the many practical forms that the involvement of public institutions can take in the development of a social cluster, and shows the strategic importance of reaching an agreement, both from the social economy and local public institutions point of views. However the forms of public-civil society governance differ according to the types of clusters and their evolution. As the political approach to economic problems shows (Ostrom, 1990), local development projects are partly based on the ability of social actors to create collective intelligence (Heurgon, 2006) through deliberation in public spaces (Habermas, 1978), involving all stakeholders, including Universities (Goujon, Goyet, Poisat, 2011). However, local democracy cannot be imposed and collective intelligence requires broad mobilization. Consequently, the questions of the actors' coordination and of the emergence of new forms of regulations in territories become strategic, including in the social sector. Thus, after a long period of social innovations, the organizations in social and solidarity economy (SSE) experiment new forms of coordination between actors, companies and local authorities to pool resources and develop cooperative projects in territories. For example, the concept of "territorial clusters of economic cooperation" (TCEC), which was inspired by the French competitiveness clusters launched in 2005, has recently emerged under the influence of the main networks of SSE. This approach was backed by public authorities.
    Keywords: deliberation,entrepreneurship,governance,local authorities,social innovation,TCEC
    Date: 2015–07–15
    Abstract: In nowadays the conception of “Industrial Modernization” has become a popular in many countries, especial amongst those that have weaknesses of the innovation development potential. In Ukraine also many experts suggest to build a strategy of economic development on a base of supporting the traditional industrial enterprises through their modernization. This point of view has limitation due to the modern traditional industrial markets become mature very quickly, and their profitability decreasing. The current economic crisis has confirmed this finding. In controversy to “Industrial Modernization” approach this paper examines the Neo-Schumpeterian “Technological Paradigms” concept according to which the wealth growth of country or region depends first of all on development of a new high technology sectors. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles to ensure economic development and sets new requirements to the state economic policy. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles of economic policy where the evaluation the structure of national economy is measured by proportion of sectors that belong to the different technological paradigms. Neo-Schumpeterian approach has been used to calculate indicators of the corresponding structural dynamics of Ukrainian industrial sectors for the country and regions. It is proposed the classification of statistics indicators in order to estimate the industrial structure by technological levels of different sectors according to "technological paradigms" concept. The corresponding policy recommendations are offered.
    Keywords: Neo-Schumpeterian concept; technological paradigms; innovation development; industrial structural policy; economy of Ukraine
    JEL: O14 O33 O38 O57
    Date: 2014–10–01
  29. By: Miguel Marques
    Abstract: The strategic importance of Cooperation in the development of the economy of the sea Abstract As the need for growth and development increases, due to the necessary search for more new job opportunities for layers of society that are struggling to find work, greater attention has been placed on the level of added value generated by internal resources. In the case of Portugal, one of the most important internal resources that has been looked at with greater attention is the sea. For the past 10 years, there has been greater awareness about activities associated with the sea; however, the implementation of new projects in the field has been considered slow. In this context, the aim of this document is to analyse the status of cooperation in the Portuguese Economy of the Sea, including the breakdown of cooperation levels by each sea sector (Universities/Investigation Centers, Public Administration, Shipbuilding and Ship Repair/ Naval Maintenance industries, Maritime Transports, Ports, Logistics and Shipping industries, Fishing, Aquaculture and Fisheries industry, Entertainement, Sports, Tourism and Culture industries, Financial Entities , Municipalities) and the links between cooperation and the evolution of the sector. The methodology followed is the description the results of inquiries to top managers of the economy of the sea and compilation of numeric data, based in the author? professional experience in maritime economy and entrepreneurship, namely in the production of HELM ? PwC Economy of the Sea Barometer (Portugal).
    Keywords: sea economy; cooperation; Portugal
    Date: 2015–10
  30. By: Gertrudes Guerreiro; António Guerreiro
    Abstract: R&D investments are seen has having an enormous potential impact on the competitive position of regions and perhaps on regional convergence (or divergence) too. The aim of the paper is to study both the localization of R&D investments and regional income distribution among the NUTs 3 regions of Portugal to conclude if these variables are related or not. We intend to answer questions like if geography influences the pattern of R&D investments and inequality, and if these ones reveal the presence of spatial correlation. Furthermore, we evaluate convergence or divergence in income growth and if it is related with R&D investments. After a brief introduction we evaluate the inequalities among regions using information about per capita GDP and per capita R&D investment. It follows the convergence analysis and conclusions. To study the spatial convergence (approximation) of per capita income (GDPpc) and R&D investments in the regions of Portugal, we use a standard methodology of spatial econometrics. We compared the values of each geographical unit with the values calculated to the neighboring geographic units, in the first and last year of the period under review. We conclude that regions with higher GDPpc are not the same with the highest concentration of R&D investments, with the exception of the northern coastline. The R&D investments are geographically linked to the network of higher education institutions, especially in the interior regions of the country. The northern regions reveal more dynamic in terms of R&D, which apparently is not felt in the population's standard of living measured by GDPpc. Our challenge for the future of this work is to understand and to explain this data evidence.
    Keywords: R&D Investment; Income Distribution; Regional Inequality; Regional Convergence;
    JEL: C23 O30 R11 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  31. By: Balázs Páger; Éva Komlósi
    Abstract: This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating together of people and firms across different industries. It has recently become an axiom that the better performance of global cities, as important nodes of innovation and creativity, is derived from agglomeration effects. This general assumption follows that the more concentrated an urban system of a country, the more competitive and better its entrepreneurial performance. Even though this notion has gained quick and ardent acceptance from practitioners, the related literature shows contradictory results and it has induced a heated debate in academic circles, because it has raised serious doubts about the "bigger is better" theory. We hope to contribute to this debate with our detailed analysis. In order to test our hypothesis empirically, we selected 70 countries and calculated the so called ROXY Index measuring the degree of agglomeration or deglomeration in their urban system. To exemplify country level competitiveness we applied the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), while the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) was used to demonstrate country level entrepreneurial performance. Our results affirmed that high concentration of population is only one important factor of competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance while other effects may exist. On the other hand, over- or under-concentration of the population within an urban system does not necessary result in a better outcome.
    Keywords: urbanization economies; entrepreneurship; competitiveness; spatial cycles
    JEL: O18 L26
    Date: 2015–10
  32. By: Fredin , Sabrina (CIRCLE, Lund University and Department of Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology); Jogmark , Marina (Centre for Business Studies, Kristianstad University and Department of Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper examines how industrial legacy leads to the formation of a distinct local culture and how the culture’s survival influences subsequent entrepreneurial activities in new local industries. The discussion about culture as a key driver of entrepreneurship and regional economic growth is well established in the academic debate. However, we know little about how an entrepreneurial culture is formed. Through a qualitative case study of two polar Swedish cities, the study highlights four key factors which are instrumental in the formation of local culture: initial conditions, characteristics of key players, network activities and composition of newcomers. Drawing on in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs and other local actors, we show how the local entrepreneurs responded to the underlying assumptions of the two different cultures. The study also highlights how two distinct culture did emerge in neighbouring cities within the same region and suggests that further insights might be gained through an additional new level of analysis when studying entrepreneurial culture.
    Keywords: culture; entrepreneurship; economic development; social networks; regions
    JEL: A13 O18
    Date: 2015–10–22
  33. By: Mauricio Serra; Louise Kempton; Paul Vallance; Ana Paula Bastos; Cassio Rolim
    Abstract: By looking at the official data, it is impossible not to notice that Brazil has undergone profound social and economic transformation. In fact, Brazil's GDP grew approximately 157 times since the early twentieth century to the present day, being this economic performance responsible for placing the country as an important player in South America and in the world as well. This deep transformation also affected the Brazilian higher education system, which has experienced considerable changes over the last decades, most of them driven by two interrelated factors: (a) an intense process of globalization that offers new opportunities as well as imposes new demands for universities; and (b) the perception ? largely influenced by the vast literature on Regional Innovation Systems - that regions are important actors in the development process insofar as they can meet their own and national development goals by supporting innovation, contributing to an increase in productivity as well as in living standards. Despite its successful economic trajectory, Brazil continues to be a highly unequal country in social and economic terms. This inequality can be seen not only within the regions, but principally among them. In this sense, the North region is the poorest Brazilian region, whose share of Brazil?s GDP is very low (only 5.4% in 2013) and whose social indicators are far below the national average. However, it is worth noting that this region has a tremendous potential insofar as it is the country's largest region (it covers roughly 60% of the national territory, comprising Amazonia with its extraordinary biodiversity and natural wealth), its growth rates has been higher than the national average over the last three decades, and has important universities and research institutions. On the other hand, the Southeast is the country?s richest and most dynamic region, its share of Brazil?s GDP is very high (55.4% in 2013), its social indicators are far above the Brazilian average, and its universities are among the highest quality in Brazil and South America as well. This paper focuses on two contrasting Brazilian regions, not only in social and economic terms, but also in terms of innovation and entrepreneurship: the state of Para in the northern region, and the state of São Paulo in the southeastern region. Based on regional innovation system, regional triple helix spaces and entrepreneurial region concepts and also on the recent growing body of literature on the pivotal role of universities in regional development process, this paper can shed light on how universities operate in different contexts within a peripheral country, what kind of interaction they have with the regional actors, to what extent the surrounding environment influences their performance, and what has been their role in the developmental trajectory of their regions.
    Keywords: regional imbalance; higher education institutions; Brazil
    JEL: R1
    Date: 2015–10
  34. By: Jamie Chen
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate an integrated structural path model of the determinants of cruise demand, based on the nexus of motivation, preference, and intention of cruise tourists. The paper aims to identify the drivers of this demand in a growing competitive world market. Our model results show that different cruise motives have significant positive or negative effect on specific customer preferences and intentions, while some significant relationships between specific cruise preferences and intentions are also found. Based on our structural path model, a T-test is applied to compare the differences of cruise motivations and cruise preferences between the growing Asian market and the global cruise market, in order to trace the instrumental determinants of cruise passengers, leading to a new understanding of cruise competitiveness in different regional markets.
    Keywords: cruise; competitiveness; motivation; preference; intention
    Date: 2015–10
  35. By: Rita van Deuren (Maastricht School of Management, PO Box 1203, 6201 BE Maastricht, Netherlands. +31 43 38 70 808, E-mail:; Tsegazeab Kashu Abay; Seid Mohammed
    Abstract: Design of an organisational capacity assessment tool for enhanced leadership and management in Ethiopian new public universities The Ethiopian higher education system has realized enormous growth in the recent years and its future ambitions require additional capacity development in quality and in quantity. In planning and monitoring capacity development, organisational assessment plays a major role. This paper outlines the design of on organisational capacity assessment tool for Ethiopian new public universities following a six-step design oriented research approach in which empirical research contributes to decision making in the design process.
    Date: 2015–10
  36. By: László Szerb; William Trumbull
    Abstract: Objectives: This paper aims to examine the transition process from the development and state of entrepreneurship in 15 former European socialist countries during 2006-2012. Our focus here is not on the full but on just one dimension of transition, entrepreneurship. While it is surely the case that certain transition tasks, like privatizing state-owned enterprises, remain unfinished, a perhaps more interesting question is whether the fundamental characteristics of these economies has changed to the point where starting and growing a new business in the former socialist countries is substantively different from starting and growing a new business elsewhere. Thus, we ask whether it is possible to discern differences with respect to entrepreneurship between the post-socialist countries of Europe and the non-post-socialist countries, controlling for level of economic development. Methodology: Unlike previous analyses that applied single activity related entrepreneurship measures like self-employment, or the GEM's TEA rate, we use a complex entrepreneurship measure, the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI). GEDI incorporates both individual and institutional factors of entrepreneurship in order to explain the role of entrepreneurship in economic development. The GEDI, with its three sub-indexes and fourteen pillars, is a particularly suitable tool for examining the level, the components, and the configuration of the National System of Entrepreneurship. Findings: Investigating the former transition countries, we can conclude that the overall level of entrepreneurship in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries fits their level of economic development. While the examined CEE countries have lower GEDI scores as well as institutional development than developed European innovation-driven economies; they possess slightly higher institutional and individual level of development than similarly developed efficiency-driven economies. We anticipated some kinds of characteristic differences between the former socialist and the efficiency-driven countries that would reveal that transition has not been completed. However, our results are more consistent with the conclusions that, while the post-socialist economies were qualitatively different twenty some years ago, those differences have vanished today with the exception of only one of the countries included in our analysis: Russia. Thus, these post-socialist countries (excepting Russia) are on a normal capitalist path with any differences being due to different levels of economic development rather than to having a different economic system. Originality/value: While our results imply that transition is over, there are some shared characteristics of the former socialist countries that most likely stem from their socialist heritage, such as the relatively low level of opportunity perception or cultural support. The results have important implications as they reinforce our argument that, rather than homogeneous entrepreneurship support policies, effective implementation of policies in CEE should fit the profile of the targeted territory.
    Keywords: Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor;
    JEL: M13 O10 P20
    Date: 2015–10
  37. By: Selin Ozyurt; Stephane Dees
    Abstract: This paper investigates the main determinants of economic growth in the European Union from a regional perspective. The analysis is based on a recently available dataset from the European Cluster Observatory covering 253 European regions over the period 2002-2008. In addition to the traditional determinants of regional growth (such as investment, human capital developments, innovation and infrastructure endowment), the growth analysis accounts for spatial effects related to the existence of externalities from neighbouring regions. The spatial Durbin fixed-effect panel specification captures spatial feedback effects from the neighbours through spatially lagged dependent and independent variables. Social-economic environment and traditional determinants of growth are found to be significant. In particular, investment, infrastructure and human capital endowment, accessibility and innovation capacity explain both growth dynamics and cross regional differences. We do not find evidence of convergence among regions over the study period. By contrast, we detect a regional cluster in the core of Europe specialised in activities with high growth potential. Our findings confirm the significance of spatial spillovers. Specifically, business investment and skilled workforce migration have a positive ? direct and indirect ? impact on economic growth of the European regions.
    Keywords: Spatial Durbin Panel Models; Economic Growth; Cluster Analysis; European Union;
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2015–10
  38. By: Link, Albert N.; Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Date: 2015–10
  39. By: Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman
    Abstract: We study how salient group identity, created through competition between students from different universities, as well as differences in the value of winning impact competitive behavior. Our experiment employs a simple all-pay auction within and between two university subject pools. We find that when competing against their peers, students within the lower tier university bid more aggressively than students within the top-tier university. Also, students from the lower tier university, in particular women, bid more aggressively when competing against students from the top-tier university. These findings, interpreted through a theoretical model incorporating both group identity and differential value of winning, suggest that students at the lower tier university have a stronger group identity as well as higher desire to win.
    Keywords: experiments, all-pay auction, competitiveness, group identity
    JEL: C91 D03 J7 Z13
    Date: 2015–10–21
  40. By: Péter Szmodics (Corvinus University of Budapest)
    Date: 2015–10–15

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