nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
34 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Knowledge economy determined by cultural dimensions By Markéta Adamová; R Krninská
  3. The antecedents of corporate sustainability performance By Salina Daud
  4. Does Foreign Entry Spur Innovation? By Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
  5. Responding to complexity : A systems approach to strategy and interorganizational networks in the context of third sector organizations By Madureira Simaens, Ana
  6. Does EMAS foster innovation in European firms? An empirical investigation By Fabio Montobbio; Ilaria Solito
  7. Service innovation for sustainability: paths for greening through service innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  8. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  9. Developing Danube R&I Projects across Borders – How to Make the Joint Use of EU-Funds a Reality? By Ales Gnamus; Fatime Barbara Hegyi; Susana Elena Pérez
  10. Exploring universities’ efficiency differentials between countries in a multi-year perspective: an application of bootstrap DEA and Malmquist index to Italy and Poland, 2001-2011 By Agasisti, Tommaso; Wolszczak-Derlacz, Joana
  11. What do Exporters Know? By Michael J. Dickstein; Eduardo Morales
  12. Contract Size and Small Firm Competition in Public Procurement By Strömbäck, Elon
  13. Agri-food logistics as a determinant of the competitiveness of SME's enterprises in the food industry By Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt
  14. Why space matters for collaborative innovation networks. On designing enabling spaces for collaborative knowledge creation By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  15. Combining Knowledge and Capabilities across Borders and Nationalities: Evidence from the inventions applied through PCT By TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao
  16. Understanding Competitiveness By Crespo, Aranzazu; Segura-Cayuela, Ruben
  17. Public enterprises’ organizational effectiveness By Sun Hyoung Kim; . .
  18. Task Performance Fraud Risk Assessment on Forensic Accountant and Auditor Knowledge and Mindset in Nigerian Public Sector By Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
  19. Understanding energy politics: from geopolitics to market explanations By Filippos Proedrou
  20. Long-run processes of geographical concentration and dispersion : evidence from Germany By Dauth, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Michaela; Otto, Anne
  21. Global Dynamics, Capabilities and the Crisis By Fagerberg, Jan; Srholec, Martin
  22. Regional Business Climate and Interstate Manufacturing Relocation Decisions By Conroy, Tessa; Deller, Steven; Tsvetkova, Alexandra
  23. Coordination of Spatial and Sectoral Development within Clusters. International Experience By Alla Sorokina
  24. Multinational firms and the internationalization of green R&D: A review of the evidence and policy implications By Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
  25. Forensic Accountant and Auditor Knowledge and Skills Requirements for Task Performance Fraud Risk Assessment in the Nigerian Public Sector By Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
  26. Green Management Indicators & Environmental Sustainability: hAn ISM based approach By SAAD BIN AZHAR; PARVAIZ TALIB
  27. Cultural communication breakdowns: case studies from the field of intercultural management By Lívia Ablonczy-Mihalyka
  28. Pacts for Employment and Competitiveness as a Role Model? Their Effects on Firm Performance By Addison, John T.; Teixeira, Paulino; Evers, Katalin; Bellmann, Lutz
  29. Managing radical innovation as an innovative design process: generative constraints and cumulative sets of rules By Pierre-Antoine Arrighi; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  30. Understanding the technology receptivity in higher education students in the UAE context By Fauzia Jabeen; Mehmood Khan; Syed Zamberi Ahmad
  31. A Study of the Efficacy of Service Learning on Students’ Learning Outcome By Li-Chu Chen
  32. Culture-based products: integrating cultural and commercial strategies. Cases from the luxury perfumery industry By Chiara Isadora Artico; Michele Tamma
  33. Internalizing Global Value Chains: A Firm-Level Analysis By Alfaro, Laura; Antràs, Pol; Chor, Davin; Conconi, Paola
  34. Information Spillovers in Asset Markets with Correlated Values By Vladimir Asriyan

  1. By: Markéta Adamová (University of South Bohemia in); R Krninská (University of South Bohemia in)
    Abstract: The forthcoming transformation of the materialistically based paradigm, which is growing into post-materialistic paradigm, is associated with new approaches to economy and management. Enterprises must deal with new problems and challenges in the global environment. The globalization may be characterized by global flows of capital, goods, discontinuous changes and particularly information in the economic environment. In these conditions it begins to talk about a "new" economy - a knowledge economy.The paper is based on the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia „Human Resource management of small and medium-sized enterprises“[039/2013/S] and also on data, which was gained from cooperation with students.The knowledge economy has recently been increasingly discussed topic and it can be defined in many precise and exhaustive definitions. One of the new approaches may be its defining via cultural dimensions of G. Hofstede. These cultural dimensions also determine the status of the corporate culture. The corporate culture (together with an atmosphere, which it creates) can have a positive or a negative impact on all the activities in the enterprise. It may therefore contribute to maintenance the competitiveness and better efficiency. Among the desirable cultural dimensions of knowledge economy are the small power distance supporting the transfer of knowledge. Collectivism, which is related to synergies of leading teams as well as to use of tacit knowledge. Femininity with its atmosphere of trust, allowing the development of human potential and care for the quality of life and the environment which leads to the corporate social responsibility. And the acceptance of changes arising from discontinuous flows of the globalization. And the long-term orientation, which is associated with the investment in human capital.The aim of the paper is finding out the state of transformation of surveyed enterprises into the knowledge economy.
    Keywords: corporate culture, cultural dimensions, knowledge economy, new economy
    JEL: M14 M12 M10
  2. By: BELDERBOS, René; GILSING, Victor; SUZUKI, Shinya
    Abstract: Extant literature on firm-university collaboration has emphasized two different strategies that firms in science based industries adopt in order to source scientific knowledge and expertise. On the one hand, firms engage in direct research collaborations with universities. On the other hand, firms establish indirect, mediated, ties to universities by engaging in research collaborations with dedicated biotech firms (DBFs) that are themselves strongly linked to universities - with the DBF taking the role of ‘broker’. We argue that the relative benefits of direct and mediated ties depend on the extent to which firms have organized their R&D to facilitate the absorption, assimilation, transformation and exploitation of scientific knowledge, which we coin ‘scientific absorptive capacity’. Drawing on patent and publication data in a panel of 33 vertically integrated pharmaceutical firms, we find that direct university collaboration is more beneficial for firms with relatively high scientific absorptive capacity, while only mediated ties are associated with greater innovative performance for firms with relatively low scientific absorptive capacity. The latter association is reduced if the mediated ties are with top universities. Our findings are suggestive of the importance of a ‘fit’ between the nature of a firm’s R&D organization and its strategy to access scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: R&D collaboration, alliance portfolios, industry-science linkages, scientific absorptive capacity
    Date: 2015–08
  3. By: Salina Daud (Universiti Tenaga Nasional)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming are major challenges for Malaysia as well as for companies. Companies are fronting growing pressure to become greener or more environmentally friendly. Due to pressure from consumers and government, companies need to review their production processes. Consequently, they have to apply the concept of sustainable development in their policies and plans. The objective of this study is to examine three dimensions, mainly, knowledge management, eco-innovation and corporate sustainability performance to support sustainability environment. Creating sustainability environment is one of the main agendas in Malaysia Plan. The study focuses on examining the effect of knowledge management strategy on eco-innovation; the effect of knowledge management strategy on corporate sustainability performance; the effect of eco-innovation on corporate sustainability performance; and the mediating effect of eco-innovation on knowledge management strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Halal pharmaceutical companies were chosen as a sample in the study. Data were collected using survey questions and were analysed using Smart PLS. Results show that strategic KM contributes significantly to eco-innovation but does not contribute significantly to corporate sustainability performance. Eco-innovation significantly affects corporate sustainability performance and it mediates the relationship between strategic knowledge management and corporate sustainability performance. It is suggested that pharmaceutical companies in the study need to enhance the creating, sharing and utilizing of implicit and explicit knowledge in order to enhance companies’ corporate sustainability performance.
    Keywords: Knowledge management, codification, personalization, eco-innovation, corporate sustainability performance.
    JEL: M20
  4. By: Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
    Abstract: Our estimates, based on large firm-level and industry-level data sets from eighteen countries, suggest that FDI and trade have strong positive spillover effects on product and technology innovation by domestic firms in emerging markets. The FDI effect is more pronounced for firms from advanced economies. Moreover, our results indicate that the spillover effects can be detected with micro data at the firm-level, but that using linkage variables computed from input-output tables at the industry level yields much weaker, and usually insignificant, estimated effects. These patterns are consistent with spillover effects being rather proximate and localized.
    JEL: F2 M16 O16 P23
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Madureira Simaens, Ana (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: Third sector organizations (TSOs), particularly those providing social services, operate in arenas of policy, practice, and need, where there is a high degree of complexity arising from multiple sources. Not only are the problems addressed by TSOs often connected at the level of the clients or communities they serve, but TSOs are also subject to various institutional logics; and their strategies, interests, goals, and actions interact with those of other organizations in the field. The literature on complexity suggests that interorganizational networks can constitute an appropriate organizational response to different types of complexity. Indeed, the activities of TSOs are developed in a system of increasingly networked organizations from both the public and the private sectors. This dissertation discusses the implications of such complexity and interorganizational network responses for strategy making by TSOs. A theoretical chapter revisits the literature on strategic management in TSOs, and discusses the different approaches to strategy adopted by these organizations in the context of complexity. This is followed by three empirical studies in the context of third sector organizations in Portugal and the networks within which they operate. Findings from these studies provide support for the adequateness of a systems approach to strategy and interorganizational networks in the context of third sector organizations.
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Fabio Montobbio (Università di Torino (Italy), CRIOS – Università L. Bocconi, Milano (Italy)); Ilaria Solito (Laboratoire RITM, Université Paris Sud, Faculté Jean Monnet (France))
    Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing whether environmental management systems can spur innovation at firm level, by providing new empirical evidence on the relationship between EMAS (Eco Management and Audit Scheme) and patented innovation. In applying a Negative Binomial model with Fixed Effect, we estimate the number of granted patents using EMAS as key explanatory variable. The relationship between EMAS and innovation is studied by using an original panel database composed by 30439 European firms belonging to all sectors and size. Moreover, we use an original instrumental variable to control for potential endogeneity. The analysis reveals that EMAS is positively correlated with innovation at firm level, although the results vary across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: Innovation; Environmental management systems; Patents; Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
    Date: 2015–09
  7. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to examine the extent to which services and service innovation can contribute to sustainable development in its environmental dimension. The supposed immateriality of services seems to argue in favour of their natural sustainability. This is actually just a myth – one we examine the roots of, and which we refute. This calling into question of the naturally-green-servicesmyth does not, however, mean that the greening of the economy cannot rely on services. On the contrary, greening also fundamentally depends on innovation dynamics being implemented in or by services.
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: Ales Gnamus (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Susana Elena Pérez (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief analyses the opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed and handled with an integrated approach in order to assure a well-supported and effective transnational cooperation in the Danube macro-region. Cooperation among Danube countries has particular importance as regards to coordination of Research and Innovation (R&I) activities since they contribute significantly to competitiveness and economic growth of the macro-region and are at the same time the areas where cooperation and knowledge sharing across borders may crucially contribute to achieving best results. The purpose of this Policy Brief is to identify and examine the key issues that can contribute to the enhanced R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region. On the other hand the report also briefly summarizes discussions among the experts at the workshop organised by DG REGIO and DG JRC in Brussels in April 2014. The report thus aims to take a stock of the state-of-the art of the current Danube cooperation activities and provide some guidance to the stakeholders on how to best enhance R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region. The guide attempts to highlight some concrete suggestions on how to better implement governance mechanisms of transnational R&I cooperation, to revise the existing financing tools of cross-border and transnational cooperation in support of the project holders, and points out some synergies between EU funding sources that may be exploited to facilitate transnational R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region.
    Keywords: Danube region, research and innovation, synergies, transnational cooperation, EU funds
    Date: 2014–07
  10. By: Agasisti, Tommaso; Wolszczak-Derlacz, Joana
    Abstract: This study employs data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate relative efficiency of a sample of 54 Italian and 30 Polish public universities for the period between 2001 and 2011. The examination is conducted in two steps: first unbiased DEA efficiency scores are estimated and then are regressed on external variables to quantitatively asses the direction and magnitude of the impact of potential determinants. The analysis shows the strong heterogeneity in the efficiency scores within each country, more pronounced than the difference in average efficiency scores between countries. There is evidence that efficiency is determined by revenues’ and academic staff’s structure: competitive versus non-competitive resources, and the number of professors among academic staff. The study also explores the variation of efficiency and productivity over time, and reveals that while pure efficiency change was similar between the two countries, the efficiency frontier improved more in Italy than in Poland.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, efficiency, productivity, two-stage DEA, higher education institutions
    Date: 2014–06–01
  11. By: Michael J. Dickstein (Stanford University and NBER); Eduardo Morales (Princeton University and NBER)
    Abstract: Much of the variation in international trade volume is driven by firms’ extensive margin decision to participate in export markets. To understand this decision and predict the sensitivity of export flows to changes in trade costs, we estimate a standard model of firms’ export participation. In choosing whether to export, firms weigh the fixed costs of exporting against the forecasted profits from serving a foreign market. We show that the estimated parameters and counterfactual predictions from the model depend heavily on how the researcher specifies firms’ expectations over these profits. We therefore develop a novel moment inequality approach with weaker assumptions on firms’ expectations. Our approach introduces a new set of moment inequalities—odds-based inequalities—and applies the revealed preference in- equalities introduced in Pakes (2010) to a new setting. We use data from Chilean exporters to show that, relative to methods that require specifying firms’ information sets, our approach generates estimates of fixed export costs that are 65-85% smaller. Counterfactual reductions in fixed costs generate gains in export participation that are 30% smaller, on average, than those predicted by existing approaches.
    Keywords: Export participation, demand under uncertainty, discrete choice methods, moment inequalities
    Date: 2015–06
  12. By: Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: The European Commission encourages public authorities to split procurement contracts into multiple contracts in order to increase the competiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper, I use data from Swedish public procurement auctions for internal regular cleaning service contracts to study the effect of contract size and number of contracts on SME participation and the probability of submitting the winning bid. I found that SME participation is negatively related to both contract size and the number of contracts in the procurement. A possible interpretation is that reduced contract size in order to stimulate SME participation is counteracted by reduced incentives for them to enter into procurements with multiple contracts. Medium-sized firms are also more successful when bidding for smaller contracts relative to large firms. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the SMEs’ award rate is positively correlated with the number of contracts in the procurement.
    Keywords: Procurement design; Split-award; Endogenous entry; Small and medium sized enterprises
    JEL: D44 H11 H57 L23
    Date: 2015–09–15
  13. By: Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt (Czestochowa University of Technology)
    Abstract: In the article were tested small and medium-sized enterprises in the food industry which exporting and importing to the EU market looking for opportunities to make a profit and market advantage. They indicated on the relationship that exist between the adopted strategy in the field of logistics and efficiency of the actions of various cells of food chains . The article presents also cases of companies that have achieved market success through synergies in logistics. Intense competition in food markets requires , especially from small and medium-sized enterprises to seek solutions that will allow the use of occurring in logistics principles 7R. the use of physical flows in coordinating logistics operators necessitates the application of uniform procedures for the various elements of logistics , such as packaging , delivery system and handling , etc . Is becoming an important issue as food security, which requires companies need to closely monitor the flow processes .
    Keywords: agri-food logistics, physical flows, synergy
    JEL: A19
  14. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: As opposed to managing or controlling innovation processes, this paper proposes the notion of enabling as a more suitable approach to innovation. As a consequence, the concept of Enabling Spaces is introduced as a space that is designed in such a way that it enables and facilitates processes of collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. In that context a rather broad notion of space is applied: It goes far beyond architectural/physical space by integrating social, cognitive, emotional, organizational, and epistemological dimensions in an interdisciplinary manner. Both the theoretical background and the methodological approach and design process will be presented. Furthermore, we will discuss a case for an Enabling Space which functions as a collaborative innovation network. It will turn out that Enabling Spaces and Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) share a lot of characteristics, attitudes, and values.
    Keywords: cognition, collaboration, design, Enabling Space, extended cognition, innovation, knowledge creation, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  15. By: TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how co-inventions with foreign residents and/or foreign-born inventors contribute to the inventive performance, using the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. We find that combining inventors across borders and nationalities have become important in major industrialized countries, especially in the sectors where science is important for inventions. Both inventions with foreign-born inventors and those with foreign resident inventors have high science linkages, controlling for the sectors. We also find that the inventions based on such collaborations have high performance in terms of forward citations (but not in terms of the geographic scope of patent protection), relative to the inventions by the purely domestic team. These effects diminish but remain significant even if we control for firm fixed effects. However, these effects disappear once we control for the first inventor fixed effects, indicating the possibility that the matching between the high performing domestic inventors and the foreign resident and/or foreign-born inventors plays an important role.
    Date: 2015–09
  16. By: Crespo, Aranzazu; Segura-Cayuela, Ruben
    Abstract: Using firm level data, we analyse the factors that drive the evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Costs – the main European competitiveness indicator – in France, Germany, Italy and Spain. The evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Cost is not driven by the evolution of the firm level Unit Labor Costs, but rather by an important factor for the competitiveness of a country: the reallocation of resources among the firms of the economy. Using the methodology of Hsieh and Klenow (2009), we show the importance of an efficient allocation of resources for productivity gains.
    Keywords: Unit labour costs, Competitiveness, Misallocation, European Union
    JEL: F02 F15 J30 O47 O57
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Sun Hyoung Kim (Yonsei University); . . (.)
    Abstract: New Public Management from 1970s have impacted Korea to enhance the number of public institutions. Approximately, the government facilitates more than 300 public institutions and their budgets are 31% of GDP, which surpasses the government allocated budget (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2007). According to Public Institution Management Information System (ALIO), the total number of employees of public enterprises, quasi-government institutions, and public institutions have exceeded 260,000 as of April of 2015, illustrating the continual growth. Therefore, general interest on public institutions climbed significantly while its achievement and management are critically profusely analyzed (DakungKim, 2014; DakungKim
    Keywords: Public enterprise, Organizational effectiveness, Stakeholder
  18. By: Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
    Abstract: This paper discusses task performance fraud risk assessment and forensic accountant and auditor knowledge and mindset in the Nigerian public sector. The aim of the study is to examine the fraud risk assessment in the Nigerian public sector through the efficient utilisation of forensic accountant and auditor knowledge and mindset. The effect will enhance the corporate governance and accountability practices among public sector accountants and auditors in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Fraud Forensics; Accounting; Accountability; Forensic Accounting; Auditing; Assurance; Corporate Governance; Risk Management; Investigation;Risk Assessment; Task Performance; Problem Representation; Skills; Mindset; Knowledge; Values; Ethics; Fraud Risk Assessment; Financial Criminology; Fraud; Fraud Related Problem Representation; Fraud Prevention; Fraud Detection; Fraud Response; Fraud Specialist; Auditor; Forensic Accountant; Fraud Examiner.
    JEL: M4 M40 M41 M42 M48 M49
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Filippos Proedrou (American College of Thessaloniki, Greece)
    Abstract: Energy politics is very often analyzed as a fundamentally geopolitical scramble. Accordingly, the states are viewed as the main actors in the energy field; their motives as essentially political; and the outcomes of their decisions and actions as pivotal to the overall geopolitical reordering of the world. While there is definitely some truth in these patterns of analysis, it is hard to sideline both other actors, such as energy corporations and institutions with a clear economic mindset, as well as motives of profitability and parameters of competitiveness. This paper aims to demonstrate that since the outbreak of the global financial crisis, it is essentially market parameters that discipline state actors and render the geopolitically-centered analyses problematic and inadequate. To the contrary, the finalization of the single EU energy market, the shale gas revolution, the globalization of LNG markets, and the interests of rising economic actors within Russia frame increasingly the gas field in Eurasia. The evolution of the gas field is hence determined to a significant extent by economic(-minded) actors, and on the basis of motives of profitability and parameters of competitiveness. Geopolitical aspirations and perspectives should be integral in the analysis, but kept at bay so that rather frequent exaggerations are avoided.
    Keywords: Russia, EU, supply and demand, LNG, shale gas, competitiveness
    JEL: Q40 Q41 Q48
  20. By: Dauth, Wolfgang (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Fuchs, Michaela (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Otto, Anne (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This paper analyzes the evolution of geographical concentration in the West German manufacturing, service, and knowledge-intensive sectors over a time period of 30 years. Drawing on detailed plant data of 187 industries from 1980 to 2010, we observe substantial concentration that is highest in manufacturing. Over time, there is a trend of deconcentration encompassing all economic activity. These patterns remain stable when accounting for both various sectoral and regional levels of aggregation and spatial dependencies between neighbouring regions. Investigating the role of plant births, expansions, contractions, and closures for the decline of concentration, we show that the underlying mechanisms differ across sectors. The dispersion of manufacturing industries is driven by contracting and closing plants within industrial agglomerations, whereas the dispersion of the service sector is fostered by the creation of new plants outside industrial agglomerations." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Date: 2015–09–15
  21. By: Fagerberg, Jan (IKE, University of Aalborg; TIK, University of Oslo; CIRCLE, Lund University); Srholec, Martin (CIRCLE, Lund University and CERGE-EI, Charles University and Economics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The financial crisis started in 2007-8, initially in the US, but its consequences have been felt throughout the global economy. However, its effects were far from uniform. While parts of Asia and Africa continued to grow fast, Europe experienced a large set back. This paper emphasizes three important factors: differences across countries in technological development; in capacities to exploit the opportunities offered by technology; and in the ability to compete in international market. A formal model, based on this approach, is developed and applied to data for 100 countries in the period 1997-2012. Empirical indicators reflecting the various factors are developed, a dataset constructed and econometric estimates of the model performed. The results are used to explore the factors behind the slowdown in economic growth, with a particular emphasis on the continuing stagnation in Europe, and discuss the implications for the future research in this area.
    Keywords: Technological capabilities; social capabilities; competitiveness; economic growth; crisis
    JEL: E11 F43 O30
    Date: 2015–09–11
  22. By: Conroy, Tessa; Deller, Steven; Tsvetkova, Alexandra
    Abstract: Using a panel (2000-2011) of cross-state relocation patterns of manufacturing firms from the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database we estimate a state-to-state relocation model for all manufacturers and separately for three groups of industries defined by knowledge intensity. The analysis of the data suggests that very few manufacturing firms relocate across state lines in any given year and the vast majority of those that do are small in size and move to adjoining states. Econometric results reveal that regional determinants of relocation decisions vary by type of manufacturing firm. Whereas a number of factors considered in this study are significant in the models, estimated marginal effects at the mean are infinitesimal. This implies that states attempting to encourage manufacturing firms to relocate from other states via traditional perspectives on business climate are unlikely to be successful.
    Keywords: business climate, manufacturing, firm relocation
    JEL: L6 O25 R3
    Date: 2015–09–16
  23. By: Alla Sorokina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper features synopsis of main approaches to the coordination of sectoral and spatial development overseas. Analysis of the documents related to the strategic planning demonstrates that recently in the majority of countries cluster initiatives are aimed at the resolution of multiple tasks of economic development: fostering of the innovative activity, creation of new employment, starting small businesses, attraction of investment, creation of positive image and promotion of the territory's brand. All this allows to implement cluster approach for the coordinating resolution of the issues of sectoral and spatial development.
    Keywords: Russian economy, sectoral development, spatial development, clusters,
    JEL: A1 R1 R12
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the internationalization of green R&D by multinational firms (MNCs), as measured by patents data. Using data on inventors’ addresses for the set of 1,200 MNCs firms patenting in green technologies over the 2004-2009 period, we find that about 17% of green patents result from MNCs R&D investments conducted outside their home countries. MNCs tend to locate their foreign green R&D activities in other OECD markets and in China, in particular in lightings and solar technologies. The empirical analysis reveals that the probability of conducting green R&D abroad increases with the host country’s stringency of environmental regulation, market size and (green) R&D intensity. Also, relatively lower wages for scientists and engineers, and stronger protection for intellectual property rights in the host country increase the likelihood for MNCs to offshore green R&D. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of this changing global innovation landscape.
    Keywords: Energy; R&D; Multinationals; Globalization.
    JEL: Q4 Q55 O33
    Date: 2014–02–19
  25. By: Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
    Abstract: Despite the Nigerian government efforts at reducing the incidence of fraud and corruption through measures, such as establishing and strengthening organs of accountability and promoting the global best corporate practices, fraud and financial crimes in the public sector continue to be on the increase. This paper examines the capability and competence requirements – Knowledge (KR), Skills (SR) and Task performance fraud risk assessment (TPFRA) of a forensic accountant and auditor in the Nigerian public sector. Also, this study determines whether the forensic accountant has higher levels of SR, KR and TPFRA requirements than the auditor in an emergent area of fraud prevention, detection and response. The study employed cross-sectional design and a survey method. Of the 550 questionnaires distributed, 422 questionnaires were returned and out of which 328 questionnaires retained for analysis. The variables are considered a between-subject factor and measured at two levels with a total of 29 observable items (including demography information). The study used PLS-SEM (SmartPLS 2.0 M3) and IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 as the primary statistical analysis tools. The results of the study confirm the significant positive relationship of SR on TPFRA and KR on TPFRA. Also, the findings revealed that the forensic accountant has significant higher levels of KR, SR and TPFRA than auditor in respect of fraud prevention, detection and response. The implication of this study might result in the overall reduction of fraud and fraudulent acts, promote institutional, regulatory and legal framework, and create awareness amongst the accounting and auditing institutions in the Nigerian public sector.
    Keywords: Fraud Forensics; Accounting; Accountability; Forensic Accounting; Auditing; Assurance; Corporate Governance; Risk Management; Investigation; Risk Assessment; Task Performance; Problem Representation; Skills; Mindset; Knowledge; Values; Ethics; Fraud Risk Assessment; Financial Criminology; Fraud; Fraud Related Problem Representation; Fraud Prevention; Fraud Detection; Fraud Response; Fraud Specialist; Auditor; Forensic Accountant; Fraud Examiner.
    JEL: M4 M40 M41 M42 M48 M49
    Date: 2015–02–10
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify indicators (Barriers and Enablers) for green management practices in manufacturing organizations and to understand their relationship with environmental sustainability. By using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach, the paper presents a hierarchy based model and the contextual relationships among these indicators. The research shows that there exists a group of indicators having low dependence and high driving power and are of strategic importance for the companies. The proposed model provides a useful tool for companies. By focusing on specific green indicators, environmental performance can be significantly improved leading to environmental sustainability. This study further augments the academic literature on green management.
    Keywords: Green Management; Indicators; Environmental Sustainability; Interpretive Structural Modeling
    JEL: Q56
  27. By: Lívia Ablonczy-Mihalyka (Széchenyi István University)
    Abstract: Today’s business environment has become highly complex, dynamic and globalised. In today’s global world an understanding of what happens when people from different cultures meet and work together is quite essential for managers and leaders.This paper employs a qualitative approach to case studies collected from Hungarian managers who are in business contact with people belonging to various cultures. Over the last decade, research in intercultural management topics has received increased attention in literature. After reviewing the previous studies regarding cross-cultural misunderstandings, the author presents case-studies focusing on intercultural interaction issues in workplaces in Hungary. The paper summarises the differences in (1) management style, (2) staff behaviour and (3) attitudes and values. The findings of this study prove that the barriers of communication come from the national culture’s influence in the workplace on the behaviours of people with different identities. Moreover, culture also influences people’s way of thinking and results in different understanding toward the vision and the purposes of enterprises. The findings show that the current challenges caused by the globalisation pressures in the realm of economics result in the need to review leaders’ management practices. The findings also indicate that further research is needed to support work communities in order to successfully copel with increasing cultural diversity.
    Keywords: international business setting, cultural diversity, intercultural misunderstanding, critical incidents
    JEL: F23 J24 D22
  28. By: Addison, John T. (University of South Carolina); Teixeira, Paulino (University of Coimbra); Evers, Katalin (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Bellmann, Lutz (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg)
    Abstract: Pacts for employment and competitiveness are an integral component of the ongoing process of decentralization of collective bargaining in Germany, a phenomenon that has been hailed as key to that nation's economic resurgence. Yet little is known about the effects of pacts on firm performance. The evidence largely pertains to employment and is decidedly mixed. The present paper investigates the association between pacts and a wider set of outcomes – wages, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, and survivability – in a RDD framework where the controls comprise establishments that negotiated over pacts but failed to reach agreement on their implementation. An extensive set of simulations are run to test for robustness of the key findings of the model. There is no evidence of pacts negatively impacting any of the selected measures of establishment performance. Indeed, the positive effects reported for wages, productivity, and innovation are sustained in simulations.
    Keywords: firm performance, concession bargaining, opening clauses decentralization, pacts for employment and competitiveness, regression discontinuity design, Germany
    JEL: D22 J3 J41 J50 J53
    Date: 2015–09
  29. By: Pierre-Antoine Arrighi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the organization of design processes and the difficulty of simultaneously achieving control and exploration while aiming to achieve radical innovation. After a first generation of works that tended to oppose NPD processes (with controlled convergence and very limited exploration) to Innovation processes (with poorly controlled convergence and random (uncontrolled) exploration, the new generation of works proposed ways to combine control and convergence either through concept shift or through stable architectures. Relying a generic analytical framework (design space / value management) it appears that each model makes restrictive hypotheses (respectively smart leadership or stable architecture) to address two critical questions: Q1. How can one increase the efficiency of exploration? Q2. How can one ensure forms of cumulative convergence? Relying on the ame analytical framework we analyze two cases that explore the unknown in a controlled way and still don't correspond two either of the two models. We show that these two anomalies and the two models actually have two critical features in common: a focus on generative constraint and a logic of cumulative design rules. As a consequence these two features might generic to several processes where teams have to explore the unknown and still have to keep a rigorous control of exploration and convergence.
    Keywords: concept shift,modular innovation,Radical innovation,design process,design theory
    Date: 2015–08–31
  30. By: Fauzia Jabeen (Abu Dhabi University); Mehmood Khan (College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University); Syed Zamberi Ahmad (College of Business Administration, Abu Dhabi University)
    Abstract: In contemporary society, the learning process is becoming a vital factor in business and socioeconomic growth. Education can play its role effectively if it is managed properly and is supported by technology. This study adopts the Technology Acceptance Model to investigate the acceptance and perception of technology usage amongst the local and expatriate students in the UAE context. The methodology used in this research is quantitative in nature. A survey study was conducted, which involved students from various faculties at one of the private university in United Arab Emirates. Purposive sampling technique was used to determine the sample size used for the study. Data were collected from a sample of students (n=236) who use blackboard system. A hypothesized model was developed through technology acceptance theory of Davis, from where hypotheses were postulated for the study. Regression and Structural equation modeling was used to ascertain the goodness of fit of the model of the study and to analyze all the hypotheses postulated therein. The findings follow the intuition that most of the factors studied affect students’ satisfaction and retention positively and significantly. Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) comes out to be the strongest contributor of students’ satisfaction. The analysis also shows that the level of satisfaction among students significantly impacts their retention to Blackboard and PeopleSoft. It was noticed that nationality does not impact students’ satisfaction with this software. This paper emphasizes technology implementation and receptivity in higher education students. It makes tentative suggestions and recommendations on how policy makers might respond to current and future technology needs. Using the TAM model to predict satisfaction and retention rates within UAE education system, rather than using the regular quality factors, will contribute toward further understanding of how to build quality education. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there has been a great emphasis on utilizing e-learning to complement traditional methods of teaching in universities, but with very little empirical research that examines students’ attitudes toward the use of blackboard. This study provides an understanding of the technology receptivity in higher education students and can serve as a basis to encourage University management and its stakeholders for further improvement in this region.
    Keywords: Technology Acceptance, Higher Education, United Arab Emirates
    JEL: I29
  31. By: Li-Chu Chen (Shu Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management)
    Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to explore how service learning involvement affects students’ learning outcome. Subjects were students who took the course of English Teaching for Children for 1 year and were required to take at least one module test of TKT(Teaching Knowledge Test). The results indicate that those who participated in service-learning programs and fulfilled one or more service hours had better performance on the test. 46 students took the test of Module 1, and 40 of them have been involved in service-learning program, with 42% reaching band 3 and 58% reaching band 2. In addition, attendance and participation in group work, discussion and personal reflection are also taken into account to evaluate students’ performance. The results shows that not only do students who devoted time to service learning get acquainted with teaching process but they also obtain hands-on experience and show positive career development. It is concluded that service learning helps contribute to students’ positive attitudinal outcome and better preparation for tests ant that service learning integrated into teaching course is increasingly important
    Keywords: service learning, learning outcome
    JEL: Z00
  32. By: Chiara Isadora Artico (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Michele Tamma (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice)
    Abstract: Today it is customary to speak of the collaborative potential of culture and business to achieve benefits in both cultural and business life. Making sense of the involvement of firms in culture, however, requires a better understanding of the link between cultural practices and projects and the development of business models.The aim of this paper is to focus on those companies that put culture at the core of their offering, with particular reference to those that can be defined as culture-based products. For these kinds of products, the creation, preservation, enhancement and transmission of a specific culture play a vital role of embedding a particular aesthetic and symbolic content in the cultural and consumption experience they offer. In order to explore the integration of cultural and commercial strategies that culture-based products seem to drive, we propose a framework of analysis, followed by an early comparative study through the investigation of a set of brands competing in the same field.
    Keywords: Integrated commercial and cultural strategies; Culture-based products; Cultural activities; Retail; Luxury Perfumery Industry
    Date: 2015–09
  33. By: Alfaro, Laura; Antràs, Pol; Chor, Davin; Conconi, Paola
    Abstract: In recent decades, technological progress in information and communication technology and falling trade barriers have led firms to retain within their boundaries and in their domestic economies only a subset of their production stages. A key decision facing firms worldwide is the extent of control to exert over the different segments of their production processes. Building on Antras and Chor (2013), we describe a property-rights model of firm boundary choices along the value chain. To assess the evidence, we construct firm-level measures of the upstreamness of integrated and non-integrated inputs by combining information on the production activities of firms operating in more than 100 countries with Input-Output tables. In line with the model’s predictions, we find that whether a firm integrates upstream or downstream suppliers depends crucially on the elasticity of demand for its final product. Moreover, a firm’s propensity to integrate a given stage of the value chain is shaped by the relative contractibility of the stages located upstream versus downstream from that stage. Our results suggests that contractual frictions play an important role in shaping the integration choices of firms around the world.
    Keywords: global value chains; incomplete contracts; sequential production
    JEL: D23 F14 F23 L20
    Date: 2015–09
  34. By: Vladimir Asriyan (CREi, UPF, and Barcelona GSE)
    Abstract: We study the effect of information spillovers and transparency in a dynamic setting with adverse selection and correlated asset values. A trade (or lack thereof) by one seller can provide information about the quality of other assets in the market. In equilibrium, the information content of this trading behavior is endogenously determined. We show that this endogeneity of information leads to multiple equilibria when the correlation between asset values is sufficiently high. That is, if buyers expect "bad" assets to trade quickly, then a seller with a bad asset has reason to be concerned about negative information being revealed, which induces her to trade quickly. Conversely, if buyers do not expect bad assets to trade quickly, then the seller has less to be concerned about and is more willing to wait. We study the implications of the theory for policies that target market transparency (e.g., TRACE). We show that total welfare is higher when markets are fully transparent than when the market is fully opaque. However, both welfare and trading activity can decrease in the degree of market transparency.
    Date: 2015

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