nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒09‒18
twenty-one papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The impact of host-country environment and home-host country distance on the configuration of international service activities By Julien Gooris
  2. Enhancing Dynamism and Innovation in Japan's Business Sector By Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
  3. The role of geographical proximity in the international knowledge flows of European firms: an overview of different knowledge transfer mechanisms By Chaminade , Cristina; Plechero , Monica
  4. How do Native and Migrant Workers Contribute to Innovation? A Study on France, Germany and the UK By Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
  5. Relatedness through experience: On the importance of collected worker experiences for plant performance By Lisa Östbring, Rikard Eriksson, Urban Lindgren; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
  6. Does Foreign Entry Spur Innovation? By Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
  7. International Competitiveness of China’s Construction Firms By P. Li; S. Huston
  8. Location Determinants of high Growth Firms By Li, Minghao; Goetz, Stephan J.; Partridge, Mark; Fleming, David A.
  9. Knowledge Spillovers in Cities: The Creation and Transmission of Knowledge By J. Stiller; D. Assmann
  10. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Yu-Chieh Wu
  11. Designing and enabling interfaces for collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. From managing to enabling innovation as socio-epistemological technology By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  12. The Geography and Structure of Global Innovation Networks: Global Scope and Regional Embeddedness By Chaminade , Cristina; De Fuentes , Claudia; Harirchi , Gouya; Plechero , Monica
  13. An Integrative Conceptual Framework for Stakeholder Collaboration in Maximizing Port Industry Performance – the Case of the NY/NJ Region By Boile, Maria; Theofanis, Sotirios; Baveja, Alok
  14. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  15. Technological Relatedness and Firm Productivity: Do low and high performing firms benefit equally from agglomeration economies in China? By Anthony J. Howell, Canfei He, Rudai Yang, Cindy Fan; Canfei He; Rudai Yang; Cindy Fan
  16. Tourism clusters in Russia: a network perspective By Aleksandrova Anna; Sheresheva Marina; Natalya Egorova
  17. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Informal Entrepreneurship By Marco Marchese
  18. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Expanding Networks for Inclusive Entrepreneurship By David Halabisky
  19. Service innovation for sustainability: paths for greening through service innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  20. Social Entrepreneurship - Social Impact Measurement for Social Enterprises By Antonella Noya
  21. Strategic asset allocation for institutional investors and real estate By U. Pomante

  1. By: Julien Gooris
    Abstract: In the realm of globalization, international sourcing of services contributes to reshape firm’s value chains as the physical dispersion of these activities increases. This reorganization does not simply lead to the replication of domestic activities in a destination providing resource advantages, but, in most cases, it implies profound modifications of the flows of activities, including the reconsideration of the boundaries of the firm. Global sourcing strategies, also called offshoring, seek to increase firm’s efficiency by combining the exploitation of foreign locational advantages with process redesign. When aggregated, these firm-level strategies translate into considerable international exchanges to a point that flows of intermediate services represent about 73% of the total of international trade in services for 2005 (OECD, 2009). These activities present a high degree of heterogeneity in terms of functions concerned, the related domestic industries, motivations, destinations, organizational structure or scope. This wave of internationalization, because of its relative novelty, growth and rapid diversification, draws the interest from the public, political and academic spheres but the comprehension of the determinants shaping the configuration and organization of these activities still remain largely unknown. Based on four essays, this PhD thesis addresses the impact of host-country characteristics and distance factors on the configuration of international sourcing activities in the dimensions of location, governance model and scope of activities.<p><p>The first paper studies the country-specific determinants of the interdependent choices of destination and governance model in the global sourcing of services. I explore the simultaneity of these decisions and I jointly estimate their determinants using implementation-level data. Derived from comparative advantages, host-country uncertainty and the global dispersion of tasks, I present three classes of factors driving global sourcing configurations: resource arbitrages, host-country risk and communication barriers. Empirical results confirm that locations with resource or capabilities advantages specific to services – low labour cost, education and labour supply – attract more offshoring activities. However the pursued resource advantages differ depending on the governance model. Country attractiveness for captive implementations presents a higher positive sensitivity to the education-intensive resources, while outsourcing strategies have a greater cost-cutting orientation coming from labour cost arbitrages. Furthermore, the risks inherent to the host-country, in the form of weak formal institutions and inexperience in the destination, have the dual effect of deterring location attractiveness, while they foster the adoption of the outsourcing model compared to the captive one. Communication barriers coming from geographic distance, cultural and linguistic differences have the simultaneous effect of discouraging global sourcing in those locations while, to overcome these constraints, firms favor higher integration with the use of captive models. <p><p>This second paper further explores the mechanisms through which home-host country distances affect the choice of governance mode in service offshoring. Using a Transaction Cost Economics approach, I explore the comparative costs of the hierarchical and contractual models to show that different dimensions of distance (geographic, cultural and institutional), because they generate different types of uncertainties, impact offshore governance choices in different ways. Empirical results confirm that, on the one hand, firms are more likely to respond to internal uncertainties resulting from geographic and cultural distance by leveraging the internal controls and collaboration mechanisms of a captive offshore service center. On the other hand, they tend to respond to external uncertainties resulting from institutional distance by limiting their foreign commitment and leveraging the resources and local experience of third party service providers. Finally, I find that the temporal distance component (time zone difference) of geographical dispersion between onshore and offshore countries plays a dominant role over the spatial distance component.<p><p>The third section then concentrates on the impact of the institutional environment (regulative) on international sourcing activities. To exploit country-specific advantages, firms that source activities from abroad are forced to integrate the institutional environment into the choice not only of host-country, but also of governance model for their offshore activities. Considering inefficient institutions as drivers of transaction costs, this conceptual paper explores the impact of the host-country regulative environment in the interdependent decisions of country selection and governance model (captive or outsourcing) in firms’ global sourcing strategies. I consider two classes of assets: transferred assets for knowledge/information flows, and local assets sourced from the host location. I show that each class involves specific institutional risks for offshoring practices. In turn, because of the different institutional exposures of the captive model and the outsourced one, the institutional risks associated with transferred and local assets have different implications for the choice of governance model. Firms react to institutional risks relative to transferred assets by internalizing their activity, but they bypass inefficient institutions for local assets using outsourcing. Based on the interaction of the institutional risks relative to each class of assets, I then obtain sufficient conditions that give the firm-optimal combinations of country selection and governance model.<p><p>The last section studies how firm-level and country-level risks affect the scope of the process operated in the foreign unit. To prevent appropriation hazard for proprietary content, firms choose a particular disaggregation of the value chain. We argue that, in response to the lack of control offered by internalization and the lack of protection provided by host-country institutions for protecting proprietary content, firms reduce the scope of their activities. In other words, they exploit existing complementarities between the tasks of their value chain using a higher disaggregation of their process and therefore reducing appropriation value for outsiders. Based on a sample of 750 international sourcing projects, regression results on the scope of offshore activities confirm that firms prefer to source discrete tasks rather than entire processes when they lack the protection of internalization and external institutions. In addition, experience modifies these relationships. On the one hand, inexperienced firms do not rely on this slicing mechanism to prevent the loss of control implied by an outsourcing model. On the other hand, the effect of weak institutional protection is perceived as more stringent for inexperienced firms. When host-country institutions are deficient, these firms, compared to the experienced ones, have a higher propensity to operate discrete tasks rather than entire processes.<p>
    Keywords: Offshore outsourcing; Business relocation; Impartition à l'étranger; Délocalisations (Economie); cultural distance; institutions; distance; governance mode; location; Service; offshoring; outsourcing; internationalization
    Date: 2013–09–24
  2. By: Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
    Abstract: Innovation is key to boosting economic growth in the face of a rapidly ageing population. While Japan spends heavily on education and R&D, appropriate framework conditions are essential to increase the return on such investments by strengthening competition, both domestic and international, and improving resource allocation. Upgrading corporate governance would encourage firms to maximise profits and invest their large cash reserves. To promote open innovation in a global framework, it is necessary to improve universities and expand their role in business R&D, while increasing international collaboration in R&D from its current low level. Venture capital-backed firms and start-ups should play a key role in commercialising innovation. To make venture investment a growth driver, it is important to expand the role of business angels and foster entrepreneurship. SMEs, which account for 70% of employment, should contribute more to innovation.
    Keywords: product market regulation, venture capital, Japan, innovation, Abenomics
    JEL: O13 O38 O53
    Date: 2015–09–02
  3. By: Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University); Plechero , Monica (DEAMS – University of Trieste, Italy & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The paper provides an overview of the international knowledge flows in Europe particularly looking at the drivers and consequences of such flows as well as the general trend. It distinguishes between different types of mechanisms for the acquisition and transfer of knowledge from trade to research and technological collaboration, mobility of human capital and FDI. The paper is empirical in nature and targeted to a wider audience. The analysis reveals that proximity matters significantly for the mobility of human capital as well as for the establishment of collaborative networks. In both cases, intra-Europe knowledge flows are more important that extra-Europe knowledge flows, thus pointing to the role of the European market facilitating these forms of exchange. The patterns of offshoring of R&D as well as trade networks are rather different- more global than intra-European. In other words, trade and investment networks are more dispersed globally than mobility of human capital and research and technological networks.
    Keywords: Exports of high tech products; international research collaboration; international mobility of researchers; offshoring of R&D; Europe
    JEL: F20 O30
    Date: 2015–09–08
  4. By: Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
    Abstract: This paper uses the French and the UK Labour Force Surveys and the German Microcensus to estimate the effects of different components of the labour force on innovation at the sectoral level between 1994 and 2005. The authors focus, in particular, on the contribution of migrant workers. We adopt a production function approach in which we control for the usual determinants of innovations, such as R&D investments, stock of patents and openness to trade. To address possible endogeneity of migrants we implement instrumental variables strategies using both two-stage least squares with external instruments and GMM-SYS with internal ones. In addition we also account for the possible endogeneity of native workers and instrument them accordingly. Our results show that highly-educated migrants have a positive effect on innovation even if the effect is smaller relative to the positive effect of educated natives. Moreover, this positive effect seems to be confined to the high-tech sectors and among highly-educated migrants from other European countries.
    Keywords: innovation, migration, skills, human capital
    JEL: O31 O33 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–07–31
  5. By: Lisa Östbring, Rikard Eriksson, Urban Lindgren; Rikard Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
    Abstract: The present article aims to show that multiple cognitive dimensions exist between employees in plants and that these multiple forms of potential cognitive relatedness interact in their influence on learning and plant performance. Because the success of a firm has come to be strongly associated with its ability to use the available resources (Penrose 1959), it has become increasingly important for firms to have just the right mix of competences. In the article, the knowledge and cognitive distance between employees in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) is measured in multiple ways – as formal knowledge, industry experience and past knowledge exposure. The different forms of cognitive distance are entered into pooled OLS regressions with year-, industry-, region-fixed effects and interaction terms to estimate the effects of various forms of cognition on plant performance. The results suggest that past knowledge experiences and formal education offer multiple channels for knowledge integration at the workplace and that the specific labor force knowledge characteristics present at a plant condition learning. It has been further shown that the organizational structure and flexibility associated with single-plant and multi-plant firms, respectively, generate different plant performance outcomes of knowledge variety. Moreover, we conclude that the commonly found negative effects of similarity in formal education on plant performance may be reduced by high levels of similarity in historical knowledge exposure or industry experience. These effects are stronger in multi-plant firms than in single-plant firms. We also find that high levels of human capital exert a reducing influence on the negative effects of high levels of cognitive similarity.
    Keywords: Cognitive proximity, plant performance, KIBS, human capital, proximity dimensions
    Date: 2015–09
  6. By: Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
    Abstract: Our estimates, based on large firm-level and industry-level data sets from eighteen countries, suggest that FDI and trade have strong positive spillover effects on product and technology innovation by domestic firms in emerging markets. The FDI effect is more pronounced for firms from advanced economies. Moreover, our results indicate that the spillover effects can be detected with micro data at the firm-level, but that using linkage variables computed from input-output tables at the industry level yields much weaker, and usually insignificant, estimated effects. These patterns are consistent with spillover effects being rather proximate and localized.
    JEL: F2 M16 O16 P23
    Date: 2015–09
  7. By: P. Li; S. Huston
    Abstract: The purpose of this Ph.D. research is to systematically investigate the factors which influence the international competitiveness of Chinese Construction Firms (CCFs). The research is conducted in conceptual, empirical, corroboratory and reflexive phases using a combination of secondary and primary sources. Secondary data and questionnaire responses are analysed statistically but case study observations and corroboratory interviews are handled qualitatively. To address the research aim, specific research objectives are set: 1. Identify the Chinese construction firms’ problem and outline a pathway for a complete answer to it. 2. Undertake a systematic literature review of notions of competitiveness in various fields to develop a conceptual framework of CCFs. 3. Conduct a preliminary desktop review of global construction firm best practices, comparing successful with unsuccessful firms. 4. Describe the methodology for a complete answer to the Chinese construction firm question. 5. Analyse CCFs’ Key Performance of Indicators (KPIs). 6. Apply the exploratory knowledge to fine-tune the preliminary model of international competitiveness of CCFs. 7. Operationally test the refined CCFs’ international competitiveness model against a combination of quantitative and qualitative research evidence. 8. Conduct focus group meeting to consider institutional, cultural, geographical, political and religious issues which could moderate CCFs’ international competitiveness._9.Distil research findings and make key policy recommendations. The combination of desktop secondary research, analysis of KPIs, case studies, surveys and interviews will provide a complete answer to the research question of what factors influence the international competitiveness of Chinese construction firms.
    Keywords: Construction Firm; Construction Market; International Competitiveness; Kpis; Performance
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  8. By: Li, Minghao; Goetz, Stephan J.; Partridge, Mark; Fleming, David A.
    Abstract: County-level location patterns of INC5000 companies provide one map of American entrepreneurship and innovativeness, and understanding the local factors associated with these firms' emergence is important for stimulating regional economic growth and innovation. We draw on the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship to motivate our regression model, and augment this theory with additional regional features that have been found to be important in the firm-location literature. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions indicate that these firms exist in counties with larger average establishment size, higher educational attainment, and more natural amenities. Income growth, a mix of higher-paying industries, and more banks per capita are associated with a smaller presence of these types of firms, all else equal. We conclude that the local conditions favoring high growth firms are likely to be different from those favoring new firms in general, and that these conditions differ significantly in urban and rural areas and by industrial sectors.
    Keywords: Firm location, Firm revenues, High growth firms, INC5000 firms, Negative Binomial regression
    JEL: L26 R1
    Date: 2015–08–25
  9. By: J. Stiller; D. Assmann
    Abstract: We analyze knowledge spillovers in a search-theoretic spatial equilibrium framework with workers who are heterogeneous in knowledge type. Knowledge spillovers result from random face-to-face interactions between workers in the city. The outcome of those interactions crucially depends on the combination of the interacting individuals' knowledge types. In contrast to previous work, we explicitly model knowledge spillovers as the interplay of two channels: knowledge transmission (imitation) and knowledge creation (innovation). Our results show that if the role of innovation is sufficiently important, individuals choose an excessively narrow range of partners to interact with, leading to lower than socially optimal creation of new ideas, which results in socially inefficient city sizes.
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Innovation; Knowledge; Learning; Matching
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  10. By: Chia-Lin Chang (Department of Applied Economics, Department of Finance, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands, Department of Quantitative Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, and Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University.); Yu-Chieh Wu (Department of Applied Economics. National Chung Hsing University Taichung, Taiwan)
    Abstract: Taiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships between industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage for industries are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 2-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman selection model is used to adjust for sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from two-stage estimation show that: (1) for the industry overall, a higher degree of industrial agglomeration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but will affect the total expenditure on internet usage; and (2) for 2-digit industries, industrial agglomeration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet usage, which suggests that industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage are substitutes.
    Keywords: Industrial agglomeration and clusters, Global innovation, Internet penetration, Manufacturing firms, Sample selection, Incidental truncation.
    JEL: D22 L60
    Date: 2015–08
  11. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: knowledge creation and innovation. We refer to these artifacts as Enabling Spaces, and they comprise architectural, technological (ICT), social, cognitive, organizational, cultural, as well as emotional dimensions. The paper claims that innovation is a highly challenging social and epistemological process which needs to be facilitated and enabled through supporting (infra-)structures. Our starting point is that innovation can no longer be understood as a mechanistic knowledge creation process. The process of enabling is introduced as an alternative to such traditional approaches of innovation. Enabling is the main design principle that underpins Enabling Spaces and ICT plays an important role in it. These concepts will be illustrated by a case study and concrete examples. The paper culminates in the derivation of a set of design principles, ICT based and otherwise, for Enabling Spaces.
    Keywords: artifact, design, enabling space, extended cognition, innovation, meaning, situated cognition, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University and INGENIO, CSIC, Spain); De Fuentes , Claudia (Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary’s University, Canada); Harirchi , Gouya (DEAMS, University of Trieste, Italy); Plechero , Monica (DEAMS – University of Trieste, Italy & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The increasing de-localization of innovation activities to and from emerging economies has triggered a growing interest among scholars of diverse disciplines in understanding the drivers and consequences of the increased globalization of innovation activities; In doing so, a variety of concepts have been used, from global value chain to global production networks and global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of what we know about the structure and the geography of these global innovation networks, by looking, in particular, at the geographic concepts that underpin current work on global innovation networks as well as the spatial implications of the increased globalization of innovation activities.
    Keywords: global innovation networks; regional embeddedness; network structure; network geography
    JEL: O19 O33 R11
    Date: 2015–09–08
  13. By: Boile, Maria; Theofanis, Sotirios; Baveja, Alok
    Abstract: The paper presents a conceptual framework for developing regional partnerships and stakeholder collaborations to maximize port industry performance, improving port competitiveness and advancing the regional economy. A unique simulation tool is proposed as a core aspect of this framework. This tool will have the ability to quantify benefits of other projects, evaluate the impact of suggested policies and alternative business or operational strategies, and identify potential bottlenecks in the existing infrastructure under anticipated future conditions. In turn, all these will facilitate informed decision-making and increase the probability of consensus building. Example applications of the proposed tool in the NY/NJ region are presented. Further, two other important aspects of the framework, the outreach and educational components are discussed in this paper. The important role that academic institutions can play in developing and implementing the components of the proposed framework and a review of initiatives currently under way at Rutgers University, are also presented in this work.
    Keywords: Political Economy, Public Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
  14. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  15. By: Anthony J. Howell, Canfei He, Rudai Yang, Cindy Fan; Canfei He; Rudai Yang; Cindy Fan
    Abstract: Building on the evolutionary economic geography literature, we employ the density measure introduced by ? to dynamically track the impact of technological relatedness on firm productivity. We rely on advanced quantile regression techniques to determine whether technological relatedness stimulates productivity and whether the size of the effect varies for low and high performing firms. Lastly, taking China’s economic transition into account, we test whether changes in the local industrial mix brought about by China’s market reforms enable or inhibit performance-enhancing spillovers. We show that a dynamic tradeoff exists between agglomeration costs and benefits that depends, in part, on the firm’s placement along the productivity distribution: the effect of technological relatedness reduces productivity for the least performing firms, but enhances it for better performing firms. As a result, spillovers via technological relatedness lead to improvements in the geographical welfare by intensifying the learning effect for the vast majority of co-located firms, in spite of increasing productivity disparities between the bottom and top performing firms.
    Keywords: Firm Productivity, Relatedness, Agglomeration Economies, Firm Heterogeneity
    Date: 2015–09
  16. By: Aleksandrova Anna (Department of Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University); Sheresheva Marina (Department of Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University); Natalya Egorova (National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Nizhny Novgorod))
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to discuss problems and prospects of tourism clusters development in Russia. The Russian tourism market has huge potential, due to its history, culture, extremely diverse landscapes, rivers, lakes, mountains, flora and fauna, “hidden gems” of small towns with their ancient churches, original local museums and unique sights. In the last decade Russia has witnessed rapid quantitative growth as well as significant changes in strategic development of the tourism industry. Russian Government initiated a number of Federal target programs important for tourism and hotel industry development. In particular, tourism clusters are now in the focus of interest. In 2008, the Russian Government adopted the Concept of cluster policy in the Russian Federation, laying the cluster approach in the basis of the strategy of socio-economic development and considering it as a tool to raise competitiveness of industries and territories. However, the formation of clusters in Russia faces a number of problems due to the peculiarities of the Russian institutional environment. The main challenges facing tourism clusters development in Russia are described. The importance of development joint marketing strategy is underlined. The case of "Big Volga" tourism cluster in the Nizhny Novgorod region is presented.
    Keywords: tourism clusters, networks, regions, Russia
    JEL: L83 R12 L50 M21
    Date: 2015–08
  17. By: Marco Marchese
    Abstract: This policy brief was produced by the OECD and the European Commission. This policy brief focuses on the informal self-employed and informal entrepreneurs, which together comprise what we define as “informal entrepreneurship”. The policy brief provides estimates of the size of the informal economy and informal entrepreneurship in the EU, investigates its main causes and impacts on the economy, and finally presents a policy framework for formalisation strategies based on the distinction between deterrence, incentives and persuasion measures.
    Date: 2015–07
  18. By: David Halabisky
    Abstract: This Policy Brief explains what entrepreneurial networks are, and how disadvantaged or under-represented groups can join them. Online networks in particular offer the added advantage of removing physical distances. The document also shows that by linking target groups with the business community, and helping the networks set up and widen their scope, the policy can provide real support.
    Date: 2015–03
  19. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to examine the extent to which services and service innovation can contribute to sustainable development in its environmental dimension. The supposed immateriality of services seems to argue in favour of their natural sustainability. This is actually just a myth – one we examine the roots of, and which we refute. This calling into question of the naturally-green-servicesmyth does not, however, mean that the greening of the economy cannot rely on services. On the contrary, greening also fundamentally depends on innovation dynamics being implemented in or by services.
    Date: 2015–05
  20. By: Antonella Noya
    Abstract: This policy paper on social impact measurement for social enterprises was produced by the OECD and the European Commission. It presents the issues and ongoing debates surrounding social impact measurement and provides concrete examples of measurement methods. It highlights the concept of proportional measurement, in other words balancing up the costs and benefits of the measuring process. The policy brief also looks at guidance and resources for use by social enterprises and how to create a more widespread culture of measurement among stakeholders despite their often limited human and financial resources.
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: U. Pomante
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2013–10–01

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