nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒08‒30
34 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Impact of R&D Subsidy on Innovation: a Study of New Zealand Firms By Adam B. Jaffe; Trinh Le
  2. Conditions of Diffusion of Competitiveness Clusters' Technologies: a Brief Theoretical Note By Iritié, B. G. Jean-Jacques
  3. Intangible investment and technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
  4. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Yu-Chieh Wu
  5. Foresight for SMEs: How to Overcome the Limitations in Small Firms? By Konstantin Vishnevskiy; Dirk Meissner; Olga Egorova
  6. Impacts of policies on market formation and competitiveness: The case of the PV industry in Germany By Breitschopf, Barbara
  7. The impact of foreign firms on industrial productivity : evidence from Japan By Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
  8. Pre- and post-entrepreneurship labor mobility of entrepreneurs and employees in entrepreneurial firms By Nyström, Kristina
  9. The Relation between Industry and Services in Terms of Productivity and Value Creation By Neil Foster-McGregor; Koenen Johannes; Sandra M. Leitner; Baker Paul; Julia Schricker; Robert Stehrer; Thomas Strobel; Jurgen Vermeulen; Hans-Günther Vieweg; Anastasia Yagafarova
  10. How to Define and Analyze Business Model Innovation in Service By Xavier Pavie; Eva Hsu; Hanns Justus Tillman Rödle; Raquel Orozco Tapia
  11. Location and Productivity of Knowledge- and Information-intensive Services (Japanese) By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  12. Together at Last: The Endogenous Formation of Free Trade Agreements and International R&D Networks By Tran, Tat Thanh; Zikos, Vasileios
  13. Investing in Higher Education, and Its Potential Impact on Research and Development for Technological Upgrading, Innovation, and Competitiveness By Robin SAKAMOTO
  14. The Convergence Paradox: The Global Evolution of National Innovation Systems By Fulvio Castellacci; Jose Miguel Natera
  15. Firm's Evaluation of Location Quality: Evidence from East Germany By Alexander Eickelpasch; Georg Hirte; Andreas Stephan
  16. From innovation to diversification: a simple competitive model By Fabio Saracco; Riccardo Di Clemente; Andrea Gabrielli; Luciano Pietronero
  17. Innovation, Absorptive Capacity and Growth Heterogeneity: Development Paths in Latin America 1970–2010 By Fulvio Castellacci; Jose Miguel Natera
  18. Gender and Constraints to Entrepreneurship in Africa: New Evidence from Swaziland By Brixiova, Zuzana; Kangoye, Thierry
  19. Resources on the Stage: A Firm Level Analysis of the ICT Adoption in Turkey By Derya Findik; Aysit Tansel
  20. Exploring the Role of ICT-enabled Social Innovation for the Active Inclusion of Young People By Joe Cullen; Clare Cullen; Emma Hamilton; Greg Holloway; Gigliola Paviotti; Veronique Maes
  21. Interorganizational linkages in sport industry clusters - types, development, and motives By Anna Gerke
  22. Journeying Toward Business Models for Sustainability: A Conceptual Model Found Inside the Black Box of Organisational Transformation By Nigel Roome; Céline Louche
  23. What is a Complex Innovation System? By J. Sylvan Katz
  24. Competitiveness from Innovation, not Inheritance By Jamal Ibrahim Haidar; Karim Ouled Belayachi
  25. Industrial and innovation policy as drivers of change By David Bailey; Lisa De Propris; Jürgen Janger
  26. Innovation in Local Public Services -the Solid Waste Sector from the perspective of Clean Development Mechanism landfill projects By Silvia Cruz; Faïz Gallouj; Sônia Paulino
  27. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems: the case of offshore wind in Germany By Kristin Reichardt; Karoline S. Rogge; Simona Negro; Marko Hekkert
  28. Network Form and Performance. The Case of Multi-Unit Franchising By Muriel Fadairo; Cintya Lanchimba; Josef Windsperger
  29. Developing an Effective Performance Management System: Lessons for the Implementation of WIOA By Jonathan Ladinsky
  30. Entrepreneurship, human capital, and labor demand: A story of signaling and matching By Bublitz, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Kristian; Noseleit, Florian; Timmermans, Bram
  31. Why Do Firms Engage in Selective Hedging? Evidence from the Gold Mining Industry By Adam, Tim R.; Fernando, Chitru S.; Salas, Jesus M.
  32. Skilled Cities, Regional Disparities, and Efficient Transport: The state of the art and a research agenda By Proost, Stef; Thisse, Jacques-François
  33. Technology Adoption, External Financing Frictions, and the Cross Sectional Returns By Lin, Xiaoji; Palazzo, Berardino
  34. Family Spillovers of Long-Term Care Insurance By Norma B. Coe; Gopi Shah Goda; Courtney Harold Van Houtven

  1. By: Adam B. Jaffe; Trinh Le
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of government assistance through R&D grants on innovation output for firms in New Zealand. Using a large database that links administrative and tax data with survey data, we are able to control for large number of firm characteristics and thus minimise selection bias. We find that receipt of an R&D grant significantly increases the probability that a firm in the manufacturing and service sectors applies for a patent during 2005–2009, but no positive impact is found on the probability of applying for a trademark. Using only firms that participated in the Business Operation Survey, we find that receiving a grant almost doubles the probability that a firm introduces new goods and services to the world while its effects on process innovation and any product innovation are relatively much weaker. Moreover, there is little evidence that grant receipt has differential effects between small to medium (<50 employees) and larger firms. These findings are broadly in line with recent international evidence from Japan, Canada and Italy which found positive impacts of public R&D subsidy on patenting activity and the introduction of new products.
    JEL: O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Iritié, B. G. Jean-Jacques
    Abstract: Competitiveness clusters (or innovation clusters) are the focal point of french new industrial policy. They are based on classical cluster model and its well-known agglomeration positive externalities and on benefits of cooperation. After a brief literature review of cluster theory, we focus on the theoretical conditions under which french innovation clusters can foster production and diffusion of technological innovations. Our critical analysis points out three non-exhaustive conditions: (i) the capacity to coordinate and to incitate cooperation in R\D; (ii) the capacity to favor production and technological knowledge transfer; (iii) the capacity to promote and to keep R\D appropriation by cooperating innovators.
    Keywords: innovation cluster, coordination, cooperation, installed base, organisational absorptive capacity, collective appropriation.
    JEL: O20 O30 R10 R30
    Date: 2015–07–22
  3. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Software investment, Efficiency, Software intensive firms, Stochastic frontier analysis, Production Function, Firms, Turkey.
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013–08–05
  4. By: Chia-Lin Chang (National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain); Yu-Chieh Wu (National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan)
    Abstract: Taiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships between industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage for industries are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 2-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman selection model is used to adjust for sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from two-stage estimation show that: (1) for the industry overall, a higher degree of industrial agglomeration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but will affect the total expenditure on internet usage; and (2) for 2-digit industries, industrial agglomeration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet usage, which suggests that industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage are substitutes.
    Keywords: Industrial agglomeration and clusters; Global innovation; Internet penetration; Manufacturing firms; Sample selection; Incidental truncation
    JEL: D22 L60
    Date: 2015–08–17
  5. By: Konstantin Vishnevskiy (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Olga Egorova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper describes an approach to foresight for SME enterprises. Foresight has become a frequently used tool for technology and innovation management generally limited large corporations. Presumably this is mainly due to the complexity of the corporate foresight concept itself and the need to invest substantial resources. To overcome this challenge and make corporate foresight also applicable for small and medium sized enterprises an adjusted methodological approach is developed taking into account the special requirements and limitations of SMEs. Based on an analysis of best practices for the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to foresight for SMEs an approach is developed taking into account the limitations of financial, human and time resources inherent to SMEs is introduced.
    Keywords: corporate foresight, SMEs, roadmapping, innovation, scenarios
    JEL: O11 O18 O32
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Breitschopf, Barbara
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of German policies promoting PV on industry structures and technological changes in the PV sector. A quantitative analysis is conducted by applying a set of policy variables derived from demand-, supplierand R&D-focused policies. To depict the industry structure, the production volume in MW of German PV module and cell manufacturers offers a good basis to derive structural variables. Patent applications are used to illustrate technological changes and competitiveness. The approach includes a descriptive as well as a multivariate analysis relying on the operationalization of demand policies and a policy mix. The results underpin the significance of demand policies and a policy mix for market formation and knowledge generation. But they also indicate that policies enhancing PV demand induce growth in PV industries abroad as well, which in turn affects domestic industry structures.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
    Abstract: With a newly constructed dataset on foreign firms in Japan for the period 1995-2008 from firm-level surveys, this paper estimates the impact of foreign firms on industrial productivity at the regional level. A Bayesian-model averaging approach is taken to account for model uncertainty resulting from various linkages between foreign firms and domestic industries. The results show that the foreign firms may contribute to industrial efficiency directly through their above-average productivity and indirectly through positive spillovers in intra-industry and local backward linkages. Forward linkages with foreign firms may have a negative impact on industrial productivity. However, these impacts depend on the nationality and entry mode of foreign investors. Aggregating foreign firms may mask their distinctive impacts on productivity.
    Keywords: Japan, Foreign Affiliated Firm, Productivity, Econometric Model, Foreign Firm, Industrial Productivity, Bayesian Model Averaging
    JEL: C11 F21 F23
    Date: 2015–08
  8. By: Nyström, Kristina (Centre of Excellence in Science & Innovation Studies (CESIS), Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), and The Ratio Institute.)
    Abstract: This chapter provides a literature review of existing research and identifies research gaps related to the labor mobility of both entrepreneurs and employees in entrepreneurial firms. Regarding entrepreneurs, there is a lot of research on their individual characteristics, including prior experience, and how the individual characteristics and experiences influence the performance of the firm. However, less is known on the post-entrepreneurship employment activity of entrepreneurs and how their prior experiences influence their future labor market careers. Regarding the labor mobility of employees in entrepreneurial firms, there is an emerging stream of literature on the individual characteristics of these employees. However, many issues related to their prior experience remain unexplored. Furthermore, labor mobility after working with an entrepreneurial firm is relatively less explored at this point. Accordingly, this chapter intends to summarize current research and outline avenues for future research regarding a) pre-entrepreneurship labor mobility of entrepreneurs and b) post-entrepreneurship labor mobility of entrepreneurs, as well as c) pre-entrepreneurship labor mobility of employees in entrepreneurial firms and d) post-entrepreneurship labor mobility of employees in entrepreneurial firms. In addition, the role of institutions and, in particular, employment protection laws (EPLs) for labor mobility of entrepreneurs and employees in entrepreneurial firms are discussed.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; labor mobility; employees in entrepreneurial firms
    JEL: J21 J62 L26
    Date: 2015–08–21
  9. By: Neil Foster-McGregor (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Koenen Johannes; Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Baker Paul; Julia Schricker; Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Thomas Strobel; Jurgen Vermeulen; Hans-Günther Vieweg; Anastasia Yagafarova
    Abstract: Summary The share of manufacturing in GDP is declining, whereas the share of services – and business-related services in particular – is rising in almost all advanced economies. However, as these industries are mutually dependent in various ways this study focuses on the manufacturing sector as a user of activities provided by the services industries and – in particular – the way the latter contributes to productivity and value creation in the former. To the extent that this is the case, manufacturing industries benefit from a vibrant business-services industry and themselves play an important ‘carrier function’ of services – issues which are addressed by considering manufacturing activities in a value chain approach. As a consequence, EU Member States facing a declining share of manufacturing might still be part of the manufacturing value chain via the provision of services whereas other countries benefit from services provided by other countries. The role of cross-border flows of services and the patterns of outsourcing and offshoring of such activities across Europe is therefore gaining importance. It is argued that a differentiated pattern of specialisation emerged within Europe with a set of countries keeping a stronghold in manufacturing industries and others are specialising in the provision of related services, whereas some countries have faced a decline in their manufacturing shares, but have not succeeded in increasing their specialisation in business services either. The first four sections of the study present selected quantitative indicators concerning the ‘manufacturing value chains’, discuss the relative importance of the manufacturing–services interaction and its cross-border dimensions, and point towards differences across countries, industries and services activities, and the respective changes over time. Further, impacts of these interactions on manufacturing performance are addressed econometrically. The following two sections highlight important dimensions of services use in manufacturing and issues related to services trade and potential barriers in that respect for selected industries and countries, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative insights.
    Keywords: manufacturing-service interaction, EU-wide specialisation, manufacturing value chains, industry studies
    JEL: F10 L6 L8 O14 R15
    Date: 2015–07
  10. By: Xavier Pavie (PhD Program - Essec Business School); Eva Hsu (The Chinese University of Hong Kong - The Chinese University of Hong Kong); Hanns Justus Tillman Rödle (School of Business, Economics and Law - University of Gothenburg - (SWEDEN)); Raquel Orozco Tapia (Universidad Argentina de la empresa of Buenos Aires - Universidad Argentina de la empresa of Buenos Aires)
    Abstract: This research deals with the process of business model innovation in services. Definitions and explanations of both general innovation terminologies as well as specific service related once will be given and discussed. Moreover, reasons and implementation strategies will be identified and discussed. Last but not least a case will be elaborated how innovative companies in products can become innovative in services.
    Date: 2013–12–20
  11. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS), which produce skill-intensive services used as intermediate inputs, are becoming important for the economic growth and international competitiveness of advanced countries. This paper, using establishment- and firm-level micro data, analyzes the productivity of knowledge- and information-intensive services such as information services, publishers, and design services. We focus on the effect of urban density on the productivity of these services. According to the estimations, doubling the employment density of municipalities is associated with an average of around 5% higher labor productivity of the services providers, which is larger than that found in the manufacturing industry. However, the size of the economies of density is heterogeneous by individual services, suggesting that the services to be promoted by small and medium cities are different from the services for which large metropolitan cities such as Tokyo and Osaka have strong comparative advantages.
    Date: 2015–08
  12. By: Tran, Tat Thanh; Zikos, Vasileios
    Abstract: We study how free trade agreements between countries and international R&D networks between firms emerge endogenously. The government of each country can initiate bilateral free trade agreements to abolish the import tariffs of other countries. Firms can decide whether and with whom to form R&D collaborations. We build a new model of double-layer networks where the network of free trade agreements is formed in the first layer, and the R&D network is formed in the second layer. Consistently with the stylized facts, we find that free trade agreements can promote international R&D collaboration between firms. Private incentives to form free trade agreements are aligned with societal ones. For R&D networks, by contrast, we identify a conflict between private and social incentives.
    Keywords: Free trade agreements, R&D collaboration, tariffs, innovation.
    JEL: D85 F10 L13 L20 O31
    Date: 2014–11–20
  13. By: Robin SAKAMOTO (Kyorin University)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review the state of higher education development in ASEAN and formulate how research and development should proceed post 2015 to ensure technological upgrading, innovation and competitiveness.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Research and Development, Innovation
    Date: 2015–08
  14. By: Fulvio Castellacci (TIK Centre, University of Oslo, Norway); Jose Miguel Natera (Universidad Metropolitana, Mexico)
    Abstract: This paper presents an empirical analysis of the global evolution of national innovation systems. The study identifies six main dimensions, three of which are related to the techno-economic domain (innovation and technological capabilities, openness and infrastructures), while the other three refer to countries’ socio-institutional system (education, political institutions and social cohesion). The empirical analysis describes the cross-country distribution of a large number of indicators measuring these six dimensions, and how these factors have evolved during the period 1980-2008. The results point out the existence of a convergence paradox: national systems worldwide have become more similar in terms of their socio-institutional framework but increasingly more different with respect to their techno-economic pillars.
    Date: 2015–08
  15. By: Alexander Eickelpasch; Georg Hirte; Andreas Stephan
    Abstract: Our study provides evidence for firms' evaluation of location quality. We use a 2004 survey of 6,000 East German firms that contained questions on the importance and assessment of 15 different location factors ranging from closeness to customers and suppliers, transport infrastructure, and proximity to research institutions and universities, as well as questions about the local financial institutions and region's “image”. The results show (1) a great deal of heterogeneity in terms of which firm- or regional-level characteristics are important in the evaluation of a specific location factor, (2) that the model's explanatory power is, overall, low and thus neither location characteristics nor internal factors are fully reflected in the perceptions, (3) that a firm's business situation and whether a location factor is considered important have explanatory power for perception. One policy-relevant conclusion that we derive from these findings is that location policy should consider firms' perception of a specific location in addition to improving the actual attributes of that location.
    Keywords: Location Factors, Multi-Equation System, Perception Bias, Survey Data
    JEL: R3 R12 L2
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Fabio Saracco; Riccardo Di Clemente; Andrea Gabrielli; Luciano Pietronero
    Abstract: Few attempts have been proposed in order to describe the statistical features and historical evolution of the export bipartite matrix countries/products. An important standpoint is the introduction of a products network, namely a hierarchical forest of products that models the formation and the evolution of commodities. In the present article, we propose a simple dynamical model where countries compete with each other to acquire the ability to produce and export new products. Countries will have two possibilities to expand their export: innovating, i.e. introducing new goods, namely new nodes in the product networks, or copying the productive process of others, i.e. occupying a node already present in the same network. In this way, the topology of the products network and the country-product matrix evolve simultaneously, driven by the countries push toward innovation.
    Date: 2015–08
  17. By: Fulvio Castellacci (TIK Centre, University of Oslo, Norway); Jose Miguel Natera (Universidad Metropolitana, Mexico)
    Abstract: The paper carries out an analysis of long-run development paths in Latin America in the period 1970-2010. We focus on three main dimensions – openness, industrial structure and innovation – and analyze how changes in these factors, and the specific combination of them adopted by each country, have affected its income per capita growth. We apply Johansen cointegration approach to time series data for 18 Latin American countries. The analysis leads to two main results. First, we show that Latin American countries have followed different growth trajectories depending on the combination of policies they have adopted to catch up. Secondly, we find a clear correspondence between policy strategies, on the one hand, and growth performance, on the other. Countries that have managed to combine imitation and innovation policy have experienced a higher rate of growth than those economies that have only made efforts to improve their imitation capability.
    Date: 2015–08
  18. By: Brixiova, Zuzana (University of Cape Town); Kangoye, Thierry (African Development Bank)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to closing a knowledge gap on gender, entrepreneurship and development by linking the entrepreneurial productivity to start-up capital and skills. The empirical analysis of a survey of entrepreneurs in Swaziland confirmed the importance of start-up capital for sales. Women entrepreneurs have smaller start-up capital and are less likely to fund it from the formal sector than their men counterparts, pointing to a possible room for policy interventions. Further, business training is positively associated with sales performance of men entrepreneurs, but has no effect on women. However, this does not call for abolishing training programs for women entrepreneurs. Instead their design and targeting should be revisited.
    Keywords: gender and entrepreneurship, start-up capital, skills, training, multivariate analysis
    JEL: L53 O12
    Date: 2015–08
  19. By: Derya Findik (Science and Technology Policy Studies Program, Middle East Technical University 06800 Ankara, Turkey); Aysit Tansel (Cornell University, Ithaca, USA & Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of firm resources on ICT adoption by the Turkish business enterprises using firm level data. ICT adoption is measured at three levels: The first level is technology ownership. The second level is the presence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer resource management (CRM), and the third level is the use of narrowband and broadband technologies. The effects of the three main features of each technology level, which are complementarity, specificity, and the complexity, are analyzed by using firm level data in Turkey. This study has three main conclusions. As for the complementarity, firm’s resources play an important role in the adoption of technology while advancing from single technology to the multiple ones. Further, in the use of specific technologies such as ERP and CRM, firm resources generate differential effects between those technologies. Finally, the use of simple technologies does not require the same amount of firm resources as complex technologies.
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Joe Cullen (Arcola Research); Clare Cullen (Arcola Research); Emma Hamilton (Arcola Research); Greg Holloway (Arcola Research); Gigliola Paviotti (Arcola Research); Veronique Maes (Arcola Research)
    Abstract: This Report presents the final results of the study ‘ICT-enabled social innovation services for active inclusion of young people’ (IESI-Youth) which has been commissioned by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) and implemented by Arcola Research in 2014. The overall objective of the study was to review the state of the art in the domain of active inclusion services for young people, with a specific focus on how ICTs can support active inclusion of disadvantaged youth to strengthen their skills and capacities and support them to participate fully in employment and social life. The study was conducted as preparatory activity contributing to the development of the broader research project on 'ICT enabled Social Innovation in support of the Implementation of the Social Investment Package (IESI) being implemented by JRC-IPTS in collaboration with DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion (DG EMPL).
    Keywords: inclusion, young people, ICT, innovation
    JEL: I15 I24 I30 O20 O30 O31
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Anna Gerke (Audencia Recherche - Audencia)
    Abstract: This article addresses three main questions: what kind of interorganizational linkages exist in sport industry clusters, how do they develop over time, and what are the motivations for creating or joining them. Different types of interorganizational linkages are identified according to the number of partners involved, the formalized nature of linkages, and the type of organizations involved. A multiple case study approach is adopted. The empirical context are two sport industry clusters in sailing (France and New Zealand). Results show that interorganizational relationships tend to be formalized, while interorganizational networks tend to be informal. A circular development process of different types of linkages was detected. Reciprocity is the most prevalent motive for the development of all types of linkages.
    Date: 2015–06–17
  22. By: Nigel Roome (Vlerick Management School); Céline Louche (Audencia)
    Abstract: Scholars increasingly recognise that business contributions to sustainable development are founded in new business models. However, most research in this field remains conceptual and offers a rather static view of a complex and dynamic reality. This article contributes to understanding how new business models for sustainability are fashioned through the interactions between individuals and groups inside and outside companies. Based on two case studies, our findings show that three elements contributed to the path of transformation toward business models for sustainability: building networks and collaborative practices for learning and action around a new vision, the deployment of new concepts drawn from outside the company, and elaborating an implementation structure within a reconfigured network. Our findings reveal the complexity of the process, which went through four subprocesses: identifying, translating, embedding, and sharing. Our results also highlight the importance of considering value destruction as well as new ways to create and capture value.
    Date: 2015–08–27
  23. By: J. Sylvan Katz (SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK)
    Abstract: Innovation systems are frequently referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale- invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxa where the exponent, a, is a measure of the scale-invariance. The purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system and in particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature. These properties can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. And citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as the data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. Papers indexed in Scopus were classified into fields using the Scopus, NSF and MAPS schemes. The evolution of the overall and field level impact distributions were examined to see if they had a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant as they aged. Also, correlations between impact and size were explored to see if they were scale-invariant too. The findings show that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time. Scale-invariant correlations are shown to exist between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. However, it was found that care must be exercised making these measures as the method of classification may hide emerging properties. The confirmation that an innovation has common characteristics of an adaptive complex system and scale-invariant emergent properties allows us to confidently say that the global research system has a reasonable likelihood of being a complex innovation system. And using the recursive nature of scale-invariance it is reasonable to assume that regional, national, local and sectoral level systems contained within it are complex with scale- invariant properties too. Measures and models based on the scale-invariant properties of complex innovation systems can provide new and novel insights about an innovation system useful for informing public policy.
    Keywords: innovation system; scale-invariant; scale-free; complex system; complex adaptive system; power law; innovation policy; bibliometric; scientometric
    Date: 2015–07
  24. By: Jamal Ibrahim Haidar; Karim Ouled Belayachi
  25. By: David Bailey; Lisa De Propris; Jürgen Janger
    Abstract: This deliverable draws on the findings of all Area3 outputs and it present the project's perspecitive on how to shape and design a new industrial policy for Europe. The Europe’s 2020 Strategy clearly outlines the ambition for EU member states to pursue a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth: this means designing a the strategy that aims at achieving a socio-ecological transition by fostering economic growth as well as social development (e.g. with respect to employment, gender or cultural aspects) whilst also pushing for Europe’s green shift. To deliver the EU 2020 strategy a new definition of competitiveness needs to be considered. Aiginger et al. (2013) propose defining competitiveness as the ability to deliver beyond-GDP goals’. Competitiveness should be based on capabilities like skills, innovation, institutions, an empowering social system, and ecological ambitions. Outcomes should be defined by the achievement of ecological, social and economic goals. The new industrial policy for Europe will be underpinned by four game changers: (a) From GDP to beyond-GDP (b) A new definition of competitiveness (c) the green shift and (d) high road growth. Aiginger (2015) proposes to define industrial policy as economic policy to promote the competitiveness of a country or region, where competitiveness is defined as the ability to deliver the beyond-GDP goals. This means an industrial policy that shows leadership towards Europe’s green shift; this means not only pursuing -for instance- energy efficiency and applications of the circular economy, but that supports the conversion of the economy into a green-intensive economy with the creation of new sectors, new processes, new products and the emergence of “green gazelles”, that can deliver growth and jobs through ecological innovations. Industrial policy should foster the long-run transition, not decelerate structural change. This is a demanding challenge, given vested interests and the traditional role of governments to preserve the status quo and national champions. Refocusing on the economy’s industrial base is a necessity to anchor long term socio-economic prosperity, particularly after the experience of bubbles in financial and real estate markets. A new industrial policy for Europe should therefore pursue a balanced economy and support the transition of traditional, narrowly defined manufacturing sectors to an advanced and distributed manufacturing sector able of greater value creation, innovation and creativity. A new industrial policy for Europe should be delivered by means of a portfolio of instruments that simultaneously steer demand and supply sides to move in the same direction creating and additive effect as against a cancelling-out effect. Such portfolio needs to avoid trade-offs between technological change and growth/employment priorities. Policy changes need to provide long-run and consistent signals, which provide certainty for businesses in making long term investments and short term adjustment. Technological upgrading instrument needs to be mission-oriented programmes, compatible with existing capabilities but enabling capabilities to be diversified. Universities, investment in intangible assets, new technologies and key enabling technologies, and entrepreneurship will be crucial to secure Europe on a growth path compatible with a beyond GDP competitive agenda.
    Keywords: Industrial innovation, Industrial policy, Innovation, Innovation policy, Intangible assets, New technologies, Patents, Post-industrialisation, Research, SMEs, Sustainable growth
    JEL: L5 L52 L53 L59
    Date: 2015–08
  26. By: Silvia Cruz (State University of Campinas Campinas); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Sônia Paulino (University of Sao Paolo)
    Abstract: This paper is devoted to public services innovation in the municipal solid waste sector. It analyses the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the Bandeirantes and São João landfills in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. The analysis is based on the concept of Public-Private Innovation Networks in services (ServPPINs). Using the ServPPIN concept it was possible to identify competence gaps affecting the stakeholders involved in these CDM projects. We focus in particular on those organisational and relational competence gaps that are likely to weaken innovation feasibility and reduce the quality of solid waste services supply. In fact, innovation is closely linked to the development of new competences among service providers and users. For the most part, these will arise out of changes in interactions between actors-given that the projects in question include the coordination of various actors (public, private, and citizen). Such innovations will also arise out of changes in the environmental aspect, since in addition to monitoring of the technical parameters required for the general operation of landfills which implement CDM projects, auditing is also carried out by the Designated Operational Entities (DOE), which are responsible for validation of these projects.
    Date: 2013–09–19
  27. By: Kristin Reichardt; Karoline S. Rogge; Simona Negro; Marko Hekkert
    Abstract: One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations – typically by identifying system barriers – the actual role of these proposed policies in the TIS is rarely looked at. In addition, often single policy instruments instead of more encompassing policy mixes are considered. We address these shortcomings by applying a more comprehensive policy mix concept within the TIS approach. In doing so we analyze interdependencies between the policy mix and the TIS by shedding light on the role of the policy mix for TIS functioning and performance as well as how TIS developments influence the evolution of the policy mix. We explore these interdependencies for the case of offshore wind in Germany, using data from event history analysis and expert interviews. We find highly dynamic interdependencies with reoccurring patterns of systemic problems and adjustments of the policy mix, which are fuelled by high policy mix credibility and supportive actors. Our study constitutes a first step incorporating the policy mix concept into the TIS approach, thereby enabling a better understanding of real dynamics occurring in TIS.
    Date: 2015–08
  28. By: Muriel Fadairo (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Cintya Lanchimba (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Josef Windsperger (University of Vienna [Vienna])
    Abstract: Multi-unit franchising (MUF) is a governance form inside franchising networks where the franchisor transfers to the franchisees the right to own and operate more than one outlet. While previous empirical literature has revealed various advantages of MUF as compared to single-unit franchising (SUF), we study the impact of this governance form on the network performance, taking into account different contexts. Our results from propensity score matching show that MUF leads to higher performance. However, non-parametric estimations highlight thresholds suggesting that a mix of SUF and MUF is a more efficient governance form than a pure MUF network.
    Date: 2015–03–09
  29. By: Jonathan Ladinsky
    Abstract: This issue brief provides guidance on what it will take to develop a first-class performance management system that allows states to collect and report accurate data under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act legislation, which modifies Workforce Investment Act measures.
    Keywords: WOIA, WIA, Performance Management
    Date: 2015–08–25
  30. By: Bublitz, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Kristian; Noseleit, Florian; Timmermans, Bram
    Abstract: Contrary to employees, there is no clear evidence that entrepreneurs' education positively effects income. In this study we propose that entrepreneurs can benefit from their education as a signal during the recruitment process of employees. This process is then assumed to follow a matching of equals among equals. Using rich data from Germany and Denmark we fully confirm a matching on qualification levels for high-skilled employees, partially for medium-skilled employees but not for low-skilled employees, suggesting that as skill levels of employees decrease it becomes equally probable that they work for different founders. Founder qualification is the most reliable predictor of recruitment choices over time. Our findings are robust to numerous control variables as well as across industries and firm age.
    Keywords: returns to education,labor demand of small firms,human capital,matching,signaling
    JEL: J23 J24 J21
    Date: 2015
  31. By: Adam, Tim R. (Humboldt University of Berlin); Fernando, Chitru S. (University of OK); Salas, Jesus M. (Lehigh University)
    Abstract: The widespread practice of managers speculating by incorporating their market views into firms' hedging programs ("selective hedging") remains a puzzle. Using a 10-year sample of North American gold mining firms, we find no evidence that selective hedging is more prevalent among firms that are believed to possess an information advantage. In contrast, we find strong evidence that selective hedging is more prevalent among financially constrained firms, suggesting that this practice is driven by asset substitution motives. We detect weak relationships between selective hedging and some corporate governance measures but find no evidence of a link between selective hedging and managerial compensation.
    JEL: G11 G14 G32 G39
    Date: 2015–06
  32. By: Proost, Stef; Thisse, Jacques-François
    Abstract: The three themes of this survey—cities, regions, and transport—are closely intertwined and gathered in the category R of the JEL Classification System. We discuss cities and regions in separate sections because they are different spatial units facing specific problems. Transport issues affect both cities and regions and are discussed in each relevant section. The introductory remarks explain both the reason for this division, as well as what spatial economics is all about. Because general economists have barely met the words cities, regions, and transport during their studies, we explain what the field of spatial economics is and define basic concepts that might not currently be in their tool box. The second section is devoted to cities; the third focuses on regions. We conclude with general policy recommendations.
    Keywords: cities; congestion; land; region; trade; transport
    JEL: R00
    Date: 2015–08
  33. By: Lin, Xiaoji (OH State University); Palazzo, Berardino (Boston University)
    Abstract: We explore the asset pricing implications of technological change in a model with costly technology adoption and external financing frictions. Firms adopt the latest technology embodied in new capital to reach the technology frontier, but entail adoption costs and external financing costs. The central finding is that optimal technology adoption is an important determinant of the cross section of stock returns. The model predicts that technology adopting firms are less risky than non-adopting firms. Intuitively, by restricting firms from freely upgrading the existing vintage capital to the technology frontier, costly technology adoption and external financing frictions reduce firms' real and financial flexibilities, and hence generate the risk dispersion between technology adopting firms and non-adopting firms. The model is qualitatively and in many cases quantitatively consistent with the key empirical regularities in the cross sectional returns.
    JEL: E23 E44 G12
    Date: 2015–01
  34. By: Norma B. Coe; Gopi Shah Goda; Courtney Harold Van Houtven
    Abstract: We examine how long-term care insurance (LTCI) affects family outcomes expected to be sensitive to LTCI, including utilization of informal care and spillover effects on children. An instrumental variables approach allows us to address the endogeneity of LTCI coverage. LTCI coverage induces less informal caregiving, suggesting the presence of intra-family moral hazard. We also find that children are less likely to co-reside or live nearby parents with LTCI and more likely to work full-time, suggesting that significant economic gains from private LTCI could accrue to the younger generation.
    JEL: H5 H75 I13 J12 J14 J22
    Date: 2015–08

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