nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒08‒13
29 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Clusters and Collective Learning Networks: The Case of the Competitiveness Cluster 'Secure Communicating Solutions' in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region By Christian Longhi
  2. How do firms acquire knowledge in different sectoral and regional contexts? By Tödtling, Franz; Trippl, Michaela
  3. Econometric modelling of the regional knowledge production function in Europe By Sylvie Charlot; Riccardo Crescenzi; Antonio Musolesi
  4. Gender diversity and innovation in manufacturing and service firms By Teruel, Mercedes; Parra, Maria Dolores; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  5. Intangible investment and technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
  6. Strategic alliances in the company’s value creation By Joanna Kuczewska; Izabela Szumal
  7. Do native and migrant workers contribute to innovation? Patents dynamic in France, Germany and the UK By Claudio Fassio; Alessandra Venturini
  8. Innovation, industrial dynamics and economic growth By Stadler, Manfred
  9. Human resources and innovation: Total Factor Productivity and foreign human capital By Claudio Fassio; Sona Kalantaryan; Alessandra Venturini
  10. Innovation and internationalization. Evidence for Poland from a firm-level survey By Tomasz Brodzicki
  11. Does ICT Investment Spur or Hamper Offshoring? Empirical Evidence from Microdata By Benfratello, Luigi; Razzolini, Tiziano; Sembenelli, Alessandro
  12. Innovation in the European Digital Single Market: The Role of Patents By Chryssoula Pentheroudakis
  13. When Geography Matters for Growth: Market Inefficiencies and Public Policy Implications By Benjamin Montmartin
  14. Production Networks, Geography and Firm Performance By Yukiko Saito; Andreas Moxnes; Andrew Bernard
  15. The Diversity of Personnel Practices and Firm Performance By Pedro S. Martins
  16. Theoretical perspectives on the international transfer and diffusion of climate technologies By Gandenberger, Carsten
  17. Micro-Evidence on Product and Labor Market Regime Differences between Chile and France By Sabien Dobbelaere; Rodolfo Lauterbach; Jacques Mairesse
  18. Demonstrations and Price Competition in New Product Release By Raphael Boleslavsky; Christopher Cotton; Haresh Gurnani
  19. Resources on the stage: a firm level analysis of the ict adoption in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
  20. The Determinants of Entrepreneurship at the Country Level: A Panel Data Approach By Gonçalo Brás; Elias Soukiazis
  21. Understanding Community Development Needs through the CRA Performance Context By Choi, Laura; dowling, william
  22. R&D Policies in France: New Evidence from a NUTS3 Spatial Analysis By Benjamin Montmartin; Marcos Herrera; Nadine Massard
  23. Creative Industries: a Preliminary Insight to their Location Determinants By Coll Martínez, Eva; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
  24. Services Productivity, Trade Policy, and Manufacturing Exports By Bernard Hoekman; Benjamin Shepherd
  25. Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance By Mario Macis; Fabiano Schivardi; Andrea Moro; Luca Flabbi
  26. Business Dynamics of Innovating Firms: Linking U.S. Patents with Administrative Data on Workers and Firms By Stuart Graham; Cheryl Grim; Tariqul Islam; Alan Marco; Javier Miranda
  27. Management Earnings Forecasts as a Performance Target in Executive Compensation Contracts By Shota Otomasa; Atsushi Shiiba; Akinobu Shuto
  28. Innovation and Collaboration: Our Role in Strengthening the Rural Economy By Guevara, Thomas
  29. Managing the commons in the knowledge economy By Carlo Vercellone; Francesca Bria; Andrea Fumagalli; Eleonora Gentilucci; Alfonso Giuliani; Giorgio Griziotti; Pierluigi Vattimo

  1. By: Christian Longhi (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis; GREDEG-CNRS)
    Abstract: Since the development of the knowledge based economies, clusters and clusters policies have been the subject of increased interest, as sources of knowledge, innovation, and competitiveness. The paper focuses on a case study drawn from the French cluster policy, the pole of competitiveness 'Secure Communicating Solutions' in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region, based on two high tech clusters, Rousset - Gémenos and Sophia-Antipolis. The policy aims to provide the firms incentives to build network relations of heterogeneous actors to trigger innovative processes. The analysis of the collaborative R&D projects of the pole provides insights on the nature of the collective learning networks working in the clusters as well as the prevailing organizational forms resulting from the firms strategies. It show that knowledge spillovers are not simply "in the air" but very specific of the learning networks and clusters from which they belong. Clusters thus need to be analyzed jointly with networks in order to understand the processes underlying their innovation capacity.
    Keywords: Collective Learning Networks, Knowledge, Innovation, Clusters, Cluster Policy, Social Network Analysis
    JEL: L14 L38 O31 R11
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Tödtling, Franz (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This chapter provides a review and discussion of recent conceptual and empirical contributions on the nature and geography of firms’ knowledge acquisition activities. We offer a systematic conceptual view on the pattern on knowledge sourcing, bringing into focus and combining the notions of industrial knowledge bases (sectoral contexts), which are supposed to vary considerably with respect to the transferability of their key knowledge types and regional innovation systems (regional contexts), which are supposed to differ substantially in terms of the availability of knowledge sources. The empirical part of the chapter draws on cases from Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden and provides an analysis and comparison of knowledge sourcing activities in analytical, synthetic and symbolic industrial sectors in metropolitan, specialised industrial and peripheral regional contexts.
    Keywords: knowledge sourcing activities; industrial knowledge bases; regional innovation systems
    JEL: D83 O30 R10
    Date: 2015–07–27
  3. By: Sylvie Charlot; Riccardo Crescenzi; Antonio Musolesi
    Abstract: By adopting a semiparametric approach, the ‘traditional’ regional knowledge production function is developed in three complementary directions. First, the model is augmented with region-specific time trends to account for endogeneity due to selection on unobservables. Second, the nonparametric part of the model relaxes the standard assumptions of linearity and additivity regarding the effect of R&D and human capital. Finally, the assumption of homogeneity in the effects of R&D and human capital is also relaxed by explicitly accounting for the differences between developed and lagging regions. The analysis of the genesis of innovation in the regions of the European Union unveils nonlinearities, threshold effects, complex interactions and shadow
    Keywords: innovation; Europe; R&D; regional knowledge production function; semiparametric models; endogenous selection; random growth model
    JEL: C14 C23 O32 R11
    Date: 2014–10–09
  4. By: Teruel, Mercedes; Parra, Maria Dolores; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: Traditionally, researchers have considered the innovation process as being gender neutral. However, recently some studies have begun to take gender diversity into account as a determinant of firms’ innovation. This paper aims to analyse how the effect of gender diversity on innovation output at firm level is sensitive to team size. Using the Spanish PITEC (Panel de Innovación Tecnológica) from 2007 to 2012 for innovative manufacturing and service firms, we estimate a multivariate probit model to analyse how gender diversity both in R&D teams and in the total workforce affect product, process, marketing and organizational innovations. Our results show that gender-diverse teams increase the probability of innovating, and this capacity is positively related team size. Gender diversity, in both the R&D department and the total workforce, has a larger positive impact on the probability of carrying out product and organizational innovations in larger teams than it does in smaller teams. This effect is less clear-cut in the case of marketing and process innovation, where the impact is only significant for micro and small firms. Finally, size effects are of greater importance when we distinguish between the manufacturing and service sectors. JEL Code: O30, O31, J16
    Keywords: Innovacions tecnològiques, Treball en equip, Personal Administració, Rol sexual en el medi laboral, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Software investment, Efficiency, Software intensive firms, Stochastic frontier analysis, Production Function, Firms, Turkey.
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013–08–05
  6. By: Joanna Kuczewska (Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk); Izabela Szumal (Nelton Design Group)
    Abstract: Modern, global, knowledge-based economy creates very difficult business environment conditions. They are characterized by high volatility and instability. Strategic cooperation agreements have become key factors-contributor to the building of a lasting, permanent and difficult to copy competitive position. Actions without collaboration in many situations are impossible, and strategic alliances have become not only an attractive option among the various forms of value creation, but a necessity. The aim of the article is assessing the role of strategic alliances in the creation of companies’ value. The key issue is to determine the meaning and place of decisions concerning cooperation in the process of value creation. In addition, the analysis covered selected case studies of global corporations.
    Keywords: strategic alliances, company value, types and forms of strategic alliances
    JEL: L14 L21 L24
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Claudio Fassio; Alessandra Venturini
    Abstract: This paper uses the French and the UK Labour Force Surveys and the German Microcensus to estimate the effects of different components of the labour force on innovation at the sectoral level between 1994 and 2005. The authors focus, in particular, on the contribution of migrant workers. We adopt a production function approach in which we control for the usual determinants of innovation, such as R&D investments, stock of patents and openness to trade. To address possible endogeneity of migrants we implement instrumental variable strategies using both two-stage least squares with external instruments and GMM-SYS with internal ones. In addition we also account for the possible endogeneity of native workers and instrument them accordingly. Our results show that highly-educated migrants have a positive effect on innovation even if the effect is smaller relative to the positive effect of educated natives. Moreover, this positive effect seems to be confined to the high-tech sectors and among highly-educated migrants from other European countries.
    Keywords: Innovation, Migration, Skills, Human capital
    JEL: O31 O33 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Stadler, Manfred
    Abstract: We present a class of dynamic general-equilibrium models of education, innovation and technology transfer to explain the evolution of industries and aggregate growth in closed and open economies. Firms employ educated workers in order to develop higher-quality products. The realization of quality innovations becomes more difficult as the quality level increases but this deterioration of technological opportunities is compensated by an improvement of the researchers' capabilities. Innovation and human-capital accumulation appear as in-line engines of scale-invariant endogenous growth. Industries evolve according to stochastic processes of innovation, imitation and technology adaption in the global economy.
    Keywords: education,innovation,industrial dynamics,technology transfer,international trade,economic growth
    JEL: F43 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Claudio Fassio; Sona Kalantaryan; Alessandra Venturini
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of migrants in innovation in Europe. We use Total Factor Productivity as a measure of innovation and focus on the three largest European countries – France, Germany and the United Kingdom – in the years 1994-2007. Unlike previous research, which mainly employs a regional approach, we analyse the link between migration and innovation at the sectoral level. This allows us to measure the direct contribution of migrants in the sector in which they are actually employed. Moreover, it allows a distinction between the real contribution of migrants to innovation from possible inter-sectoral complementarities, which might as well foster innovation. We control for the different components of human-capital, such as age, education and diversity of origin. To address the possible endogeneity of migration we draw on an instrumental variable strategy originally devised by Card (2001) and adapt it at the sector level The results show that overall migrants are relevant in all sectors, but some important differences emerge across sectors: highly-educated migrants show a larger positive effect in the high-tech sectors, while middle- and low-educated ones are more relevant in manufacturing. The diversity of countries of origin contributes to innovation only in the services sectors, confirming that in empirical analyses at the regional or national level the diversity measure might capture the complementarity between sectors rather than the contribution of different national skills. This implies that the diversity should not guide the migration policy which instead should be linked to the specific demand for labour of firms and not to pursue a generic search for highly skilled migrants.
    Keywords: Migration, innovation, highly skilled migrants, low skilled migrants, Total Factor Productivity.
    JEL: F22 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–06
  10. By: Tomasz Brodzicki (University of Gdansk, Faculty of Economics; Institute for Development)
    Abstract: Several important studies find that innovation and exporting are inextricably linked at firm-level. Aw et al. (2011) find that the marginal benefit of simultaneous exporting and innovating increases with productivity, with self-selection effect typical for heterogeneous firm literature a la Melitz (2003) driving a large part of the observed complementarity. Altomonte et al. (2013) show that there is a positive, broad, strong and robust correlation between the extent of internationalization of firms and innovation activities in the panel of European manufacturing firms (EFIGE dataset). Apart form several recent studies the literature on the role of firm heterogeneity in Polish trade and the nexus with innovation performance is in its infancy. The goal of this article is to present some initial results of a large survey of Polish exporting and non-exporting firms conducted by the team of the Institute for Development aimed at filling this important gap.
    Keywords: internationalization, innovation activity, firms survey
    JEL: F12 F14 C83
    Date: 2015–08
  11. By: Benfratello, Luigi (University of Naples Federico II); Razzolini, Tiziano (University of Siena); Sembenelli, Alessandro (University of Turin)
    Abstract: We provide evidence on the effect of ICT investment on the propensity to offshore for a sample of Italian manufacturing firms. To deal with the endogeneity of ICT investment we adopt an innovative identification strategy based on the availability of local broad band facilities. Contrary to previous literature focusing on services, we find a negative effect of ICT on offshoring. Furthermore, when splitting the sample according to the technological level, the effect is negative and significant only in the sub-sample of low-tech firms. This suggests that ICT capital substitutes for foreign workers in performing routine tasks in low-tech industries.
    Keywords: ICT Investment, offshoring, maximum likelihood system estimation
    JEL: C34 C35 F20 L23
    Date: 2015–07
  12. By: Chryssoula Pentheroudakis
    Abstract: The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) organised the Conference "Innovation in the European digital single market - The Role of Patents". This conference aimed to provide reliable evidence based on patent data analysis to support European innovation policies for a Digital Single Market. The advancement of the digital economy in Europe does not only bring unmatched opportunities, but also a series of challenges in the area of intellectual property rights. This is particularly true for the patent system which has to strike the right balance between providing incentives for research and development investments while enabling at the same time the dissemination and re-use of technological knowledge. The difficulties of striking this balance are most apparent in the field of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), where standardization and interoperability are important for the implementation of a Digital Single Market. In order to pin down the role of patents in the new digital economy, it is important to look at the broader economic, legal, technological and policy context and achieve a better understanding of what is at stake in the current dynamics. It is a volatile landscape marked by patent wars, high litigation costs, overlapping rights, hold-up scenarios in the field of standardization and radical market shifts deriving from convergent technologies and emerging platform-centric business models. Against this background, the stakes are high with regards to many issues: interoperability, reasonable and timely access to key technologies and technical knowledge, legal certainty, unfettered competition and a secured return on investment in research and development.
    Keywords: Innovation, Digital Single Market, patents
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Benjamin Montmartin (GREDEG CNRS; University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France)
    Abstract: We propose a unique market and social planner solution for a generalized New Economic Geography and Growth model to highlight the importance of taking account of the existence of agglomeration externalities in an analysis of market inefficiencies, which allows us to provide some important implications for public policy. This framework among other things, allows us to disentangle an insufficient growth condition from an under-investment in R&D condition which in turn allows us to explain various market steady state situations. For instance, it provides an explanation for situations where the market economy grows too slowly and over-invest in R&D (as opposed to an a-spatial model). By evaluating the effects of two strategic policies, namely innovation policy and industrial policy, on market inefficiencies, we show that (1) the efficiency of a policy evolves strongly with the market economy situation and no policy is the most efficient in all situations, (2) the geography of economic activities and the question of over or underagglomeration of the market economy plays a central role on the relative efficiency of policies and (3) industrial and innovation policies are only partially complementary but policy-mixes can be justified if some market gaps are more important than others.
    Keywords: agglomeration, growth, spatial income inequality, innovation and industrial policies
    JEL: F43 H50 R12
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Yukiko Saito (RIEITI); Andreas Moxnes (Dartmouth College); Andrew Bernard (Dartmouth College)
    Abstract: This paper examines the importance of buyer-supplier relationships, geography and the structure of the production network in firm performance. We develop a simple model where firms can outsource tasks and search for suppliers in different locations. Firms located in close proximity to other markets, and firms that face low search costs, will search more and find better suppliers. This in turn drives down the firm's marginal production costs. We test the theory by exploiting the opening of a high-speed (Shinkansen) train line in Japan which lowered the cost of passenger travel but left shipping costs unchanged. Using an exhaustive dataset on firms' buyer-seller linkages, we find significant improvements in firm performance as well as creation of new buyer-seller links, consistent with the model.
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Pedro S. Martins
    Abstract: Personnel economics tends be based on single-firm case studies. Here we examine the personnel practices of nearly 5,000 firms, over a period of 20 years, using detailed matched employer-employee panel data from Portugal. In the spirit of Baker et al (1994a, b), we consider different dimensions of personnel management within each firm: worker turnover, the role of job levels and human capital as wage determinants, the dispersion of wages within job levels, the importance of tenure in terms of promotions and exits, and the scope for careers. We find a large degree of diversity in most of these practices across firms. Moreover, some personnel practices are shown to be robust predictors of higher levels of firm performance, even after controlling for time-invariant firm heterogeneity and other variables: low wage dispersion at low and intermediate job levels and a tight relationship between human capital variables and wages.
    Keywords: Personnel Economics, Job Levels, Wages, Big Data
    JEL: M51 M52 J31
    Date: 2015–08
  16. By: Gandenberger, Carsten
    Abstract: Enhancing developing countries' access to climate technologies can provide a significant contribution to addressing climate change on a global scale. However, the issue of international technology transfer has remained underexplored in the climate policy literature and more research on the role of climate technology firms is needed. However, simply revisiting existing firm-level theories about the firm's internationalization behavior and technology transfer strategy with a view on climate technology would not be sufficient given that the objective is a widespread technology diffusion. In addition, these theories need to be closer aligned with the extant literature on knowledge spillover and technology diffusion which provides answers to the question why some developing countries are able to absorb foreign technology successfully, whereas others are not. Taking this as a starting point, the paper relates firm-level theories on internationalization and transfer channel choice to the literature on knowledge spillover and technology diffusion with the help of a simple framework. This framework is then applied to the issue at hand: the international transfer and diffusion of climate technologies. Implications are derived for climate technology firms as well as for the countries involved in the transfer process.
    Keywords: International Technology Transfer,Climate Technology,Transfer Channel,Knowledge Spillover,Technology Diffusion
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Sabien Dobbelaere; Rodolfo Lauterbach; Jacques Mairesse
    Abstract: Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in particular. Contributing to the literature on estimating simultaneously product and labor market imperfections, this paper quantifies industry differences in both types of imperfections using firm-level data in Chile, a non-OECD member under the considered time period, and France. We rely on two extensions of Hall’s econometric framework for estimating price-cost margins by nesting three labor market settings (perfect competition or right-to-manage bargaining, efficient bargaining and monopsony). Using an unbalanced panel of 1,737 firms over the period 1996-2003 in Chile containing unique data on firm-level output price indices and 14,270 firms over the period 1994-2001 in France, we first classify 20 comparable manufacturing industries in 6 distinct regimes that differ in the type of competition prevailing in product and labor markets. We then investigate industry differences in the estimated product and labor market imperfections. Consistent with differences in institutions and in the industrial relations system in the two countries, we find important regime differences across the two countries. In addition, we observe cross-country differences in the levels of product and labor market imperfections within regimes.
    JEL: C23 D21 J51 L13
    Date: 2015–07
  18. By: Raphael Boleslavsky (University of Miami); Christopher Cotton (Queen's University); Haresh Gurnani (Wake Forest University)
    Abstract: We incorporate product demonstrations into a game theoretic model of firm price competition. Demonstrations may include product samples, trials, return policies, reviews, or any other means by which a firm allows consumers to learn about their value for a new product. In our model, demonstrations help individual consumers learn whether they prefer an innovation over an established product. The innovative firm controls demonstration informativeness. When prices can respond to demonstration policies, the firm prefers to provide maximumly informative demonstrations, which optimally segment the market, dampen subsequent price competition, and maximize profits. In contrast, when prices are less flexible, the firm prefers only partially informative demonstrations, designed to maximize its market share at prevailing prices. Such a strategy can generate the monopoly profit for the innovative firm. We contrast the strategic role of demonstrations in our framework with the strategic role of capacity limits in models of judo economics (e.g. Gelman and Salop 1983), which also allow firms to divide a market and reduce competition.
    Keywords: judo economics, demonstrations, product trials, product samples, return policies, money back guarantees, marketing strategy, product differentiation
    JEL: L13 L15 D83
    Date: 2015–07
  19. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of firm resources on ICT adoption by the Turkish business enterprises using firm level data. ICT adoption is measured at three levels: The first level is technology ownership. The second level is the presence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer resource management (CRM), and the third level is the use of narrowband and broadband technologies. The effects of the three main features of each technology level, which are complementarity, specificity, and the complexity, are analyzed by using firm level data in Turkey. This study has three main conclusions. As for the complementarity, firm’s resources play an important role in the adoption of technology while advancing from single technology to the multiple ones. Further, in the use of specific technologies such as ERP and CRM, firm resources generate differential effects between those technologies. Finally, the use of simple technologies does not require the same amount of firm resources as complex technologies.
    Keywords: adoption, ict, complementarity, specificity, complexity
    JEL: D22 D24 O30 O47
    Date: 2013–08–05
  20. By: Gonçalo Brás (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Elias Soukiazis
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of a variety of factors (economic, institutional, competitiveness, formal and informal) on the entrepreneurial activity of nations, given by the Total Entrepreneurial Activity rate (TEA). A panel data approach of 26 developed countries is used to evaluate the simultaneous influence of the referred factors on TEA over the period 2004-2011. Aiming to include a wide range of variables imposed by the multidisciplinary entrepreneurship concept, the stepwise regression approach is applied with backward elimination of insignificant variables. Our findings show an inverse relationship between TEA and the initial capital effort; a direct relation between TEA, monetary freedom, investment freedom, financial market development and education; and a non-linear concave relationship between TEA and the GDP per capita. However, the most significant impacts on TEA come from factors related to education level and the financial market conditions. The dynamic estimation approach shows a quite high speed of adjustment between the actual and desired rate of entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA), Opportunity or necessity driven Entrepreneurship, Determinants of Entrepreneurship, Panel data.
    JEL: L26 M13 C31
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Choi, Laura (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco); dowling, william (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco)
    Abstract: Community development efforts to revitalize low- and moderate-income neighborhoods should begin with an appropriate understanding of the needs and opportunities present within these communities. This sentiment is especially true of banks looking to fulfill their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) obligations. A truly responsive and innovative CRA program should begin with the “performance context,” or knowledge about the bank’s local markets, including the needs of the community as well as the opportunities that exist within the local network of resources and organizations. This paper attempts to demystify the performance context and establish its strategic value to the CRA process. It explores new opportunities for strengthening the performance context as a community development tool, from the perspective of both bankers and regulators.
    Date: 2014–12–08
  22. By: Benjamin Montmartin (GREDEG CNRS; University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France); Marcos Herrera (CONICET - IELDE; National University of Salta, Argentina); Nadine Massard (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne; Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne, France)
    Abstract: The French policy-mix for R&D and innovation has deeply evolved in recent years and is nowadays, one of the most generous and market-friendly system in the world. This paper investigates the (evolutive) effects of this policy-mix by using a unique database containing information on the amount of R&D tax credit, regional, national and European subsidies received by firms in all French metropolitan NUTS3 regions over the period 2001-2011. By estimating a Spatial Durbin model with regimes and fixed effects, we provide new evidence on the efficiency of the French policy-mix. First, a yardstick competition between NUTS3 regions for R&D investment driven by negative spatial spillovers is found. Second, it seems that national subsidies are the only instrument able to generate a significant leverage effect on privately-financed R&D. Third, due to the context of spatial competition, the three other policies studied (Tax Credit, Regional and European subsidies) do not generate significant leverage or crowding-out effect. Fourth, we highlight the presence of structural breaks in our data that correspond to the last two important reforms of the French tax credit. Consequently, the effect of R&D policies and especially R&D tax credit are likely to change over time and influence ex-post evaluation results.
    Keywords: Additionality, French policy-mix, Private R&D investment, Spatial panel
    JEL: H25 O31 O38
    Date: 2015–07
  23. By: Coll Martínez, Eva; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
    Abstract: This paper is about location decisions of Creative Industries and the role played by existent spatial distribution and agglomeration economies of these kinds of activities in order to analyse their location determinants. Our main statistical source is the REIC (Catalan Manufacturing Establishments Register), which has plant-level microdata on location of new plants. Using Count Data Models, our main results show that location determinants are quite similar between both industries and also both non-creative and creative firms are positively influenced by the specialisation level in Creative Industries of municipalities. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the unobserved ‘creative milieu’ has a limited impact on attracting firms. Keywords: creative industries, creative milieu, count data models, industrial location, agglomeration economies
    Keywords: Indústria del lleure, Indústries culturals, Localització industrial, 332 - Economia regional i territorial. Economia del sòl i de la vivenda,
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Bernard Hoekman; Benjamin Shepherd
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the linkage between services and manufacturing productivity performance, using firm-level data for over 100 developing countries. We find strong evidence for such a linkage, although the effect is small: at the average rate of services input intensity, a 10% improvement in services productivity is associated with an increase in manufacturing productivity 0.3%, and a resulting increase in exports of 0.2%. Services trade restrictiveness indices (STRI) are found to be a statistically significant determinant of manufactured exports performance, a finding that is robust to the inclusion of the overall level of trade restrictiveness that is applied against manufactured exports directly. The main channel through which services trade restrictions negatively affect manufactured exports is through FDI, a finding that is consistent with the stylized fact in the literature that FDI is a key channel for trade in services and an important vehicle through which services technology and know-how is transferred across countries. At the sectoral level, restrictions on transport and retail distribution services have the largest negative impact on exports of manufactures.
    Keywords: trade, productivity, services, manufacturing, competitiveness
    JEL: F14 D24 L80
    Date: 2015–01
  25. By: Mario Macis (Johns Hopkins University); Fabiano Schivardi (Bocconi University); Andrea Moro (Vanderbilt University and Universita  Ca' Foscari di Venezia); Luca Flabbi (IDB)
    Abstract: We analyze a matched employer-employee panel data set and find that female leadership has a positive effect on female wages at the top of the distribution, and a negative one at the bottom. Moreover, performance in firms with female leadership increases with the share of female workers. This evidence is consistent with a model where female executives are better equipped at interpreting signals of productivity from female workers. This suggests substantial costs of under-representation of women at the top: for example, if women became CEOs of firms with at least 20% female employment, sales per worker would increase 6.7%.
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Stuart Graham; Cheryl Grim; Tariqul Islam; Alan Marco; Javier Miranda
    Abstract: This paper discusses the construction of a new longitudinal database tracking inventors and patent-owning firms over time. We match granted patents between 2000 and 2011 to administrative databases of firms and workers housed at the U.S. Census Bureau. We use inventor information in addition to the patent assignee firm name to and improve on previous efforts linking patents to firms. The triangulated database allows us to maximize match rates and provide validation for a large fraction of matches. In this paper, we describe the construction of the database and explore basic features of the data. We find patenting firms, particularly young patenting firms, disproportionally contribute jobs to the U.S. economy. We find patenting is a relatively rare event among small firms but that most patenting firms are nevertheless small, and that patenting is not as rare an event for the youngest firms compared to the oldest firms. While manufacturing firms are more likely to patent than firms in other sectors, we find most patenting firms are in the services and wholesale sectors. These new data are a product of collaboration within the U.S. Department of Commerce, between the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
    Date: 2015–07
  27. By: Shota Otomasa (Kansai University); Atsushi Shiiba (Osaka University); Akinobu Shuto (The University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether and how Japanese firms use management earnings forecasts as a performance target for determining executive cash compensation. Consistent with the implications of the principal?agent theory, we find that the sensitivity of executive cash compensation varies with the extent to which realized earnings exceed initial management forecasts. In particular, we find that, for a sample of Japanese firms comprising 14,899 firm-year observations from 2005 to 2012, the executive cash compensation is positively related to management forecast error (MFE). Moreover, we show that the relationship between executive cash compensation and MFE strengthens when realizing positive MFEs despite aggressive initial forecasts. Overall, we find that initial management forecasts can be used as a performance target in executive compensation contracts. These findings also suggest that management earnings forecasts are important for improving contract efficiency as well as for providing useful information to investors in the capital market.
    Date: 2015–07
  28. By: Guevara, Thomas
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  29. By: Carlo Vercellone (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS); Francesca Bria (NESTA); Andrea Fumagalli (Dipartimento di Economia, Università di Pavia, Italie - University of Pavia, Italy); Eleonora Gentilucci (Axe Institutions - CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS); Alfonso Giuliani (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS); Giorgio Griziotti (Effimera); Pierluigi Vattimo (Università di Cosenza)
    Abstract: This report presents an in-depth analysis of the concept of common goods and of possible political and management variation in the context of a knowledge-based economy. The research presents an initial critical review of the literature together with a concrete analysis of the development of the commons and common goods. The report will be organised in three sections. In the first, entitled "From the theory of public goods to the new political economy of the commons" we will see how, for Ostrom's new theory of the commons, what remains as a central element defining common goods is the particular nature of certain goods, in continuity with the ahistorical and static approach to classification of goods (private, public, common, belonging to a club) driven by neo-classical inspired economic theory. In the second section we will develop the approach of Common in the singular drawn up with the contribution of numerous studies in the theoretical framework of cognitive capitalism. The third will deal with the historic and empirical analysis of the origin, sense and principal stakes at play in the dynamics of the common, starting from the key role of the transformations of labour at the foundation of a knowledge-based economy. Throughout this journey, in the three sections different crucial aspects relating to the forms of regulation open to guarantee the sustainability of the commons and promote its development as a new central form of economic and social organisation will be faced systematically. This research offers an exhaustive theoretical framework, tackling all the conceptual and historical issues on the evolution of the theory of common goods. At the same time however, it offers practical and regulative examples of models of self-governance of commons, in the context of the knowledge-based economy. This analysis offers the D-CENT project possible models of democratic management of resources and common infrastructures that are at the base of the experience of shared democracy in Spain, Iceland and Finland, with the aim of achieving middle and long-term sustainability. Specifically speaking, the analysis submitted here reports: (1) research into the market of identity and the opposing claim of social data as digital common goods and the need for public and common infrastructures of information and communication not based on the logic of the market and surveillance (D3.3); (2) models to implement a commons currency of the common that can support the activities of social movements and productive communities (D3.5); (3) the final report (D1.3) on models of sustainability and the general impact of this project. Many of the examples proposed here, from the re-municipalisation of water, the self-management of cultural spaces to the free software and makers’ movement, illustrate collective practices that establish new spaces, institutions or norms of participative and democratic sharing. These examples represent practices of re-appropriation and management of the common, new practices of labour, creation and production based on collaboration and sharing. Moreover, from the concrete experiences analysed here, the idea emerges that the concept of common goods can constitute a concrete alternative, and that includes on a legal footing (Rodotà, 2011). Therefore the common is the product of a social and institutional structure that demonstrates forms of governing and social co-operation that guarantee its production, reproduction and spread. The new institutions of the common that emerge from these constituent practices constitute a general principle of self-governance of society and self-organisation of social production, proposing a new division between common, public and private. Obviously, the success of these new practices is a complex process that must rely on institutions which accord and guarantee reproduction over time and space of the commons and common goods: ways of management based on self-governance and collaborative economics; relationships of exchange based on reciprocity and gratuitousness; legal regimes that, like the invention of copyleft for free software, guarantee the accumulation of a stock of common-pool resources (CPR); distribution norms that permit the active involvement of the commoners in the development of the commons, guaranteeing a basic income, for example. In this context, it becomes more and more essential and urgent to define the terms of an alternative model of regulating a knowledge-based society and economy at the centre of which the logic of the commons would perform an essential role.
    Date: 2015–04–30

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