nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒07‒25
29 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation, Reallocation and Growth By William Kerr; Ufuk Akcigit; Nicholas Bloom; Daron Acemoglu
  2. Cluster Evolution, Regional Innovation Systems and Knowledge Bases. The Development and Transformation of the ICT Cluster in Southern Sweden By Martin, Roman; Trippl, Michaela
  3. Recent Trends in the Development of Modern Management in the Context of Globalization By Gaponenko, A.; Savelyeva, Marina
  4. Does Creative Destruction Work for Chinese Regions? An Empirical Study on the Articulation between Firm Exit and Entry By Yi Zhou; Canfei He; Shengjun Zhu
  5. How does Part-time Work Affect Firm Performance and Innovation Activity? By Kira Pauka
  6. Fellows Address: Are Industry Clusters and Diversity Strange Bedfellows? By Randall Jackson
  7. The Innovative Content of the Investment Policy By Kushlin, Valery; Ustenko, Viktoria
  8. The Financing of Investment in European SMEs: Does economic integration matter? By Mary Arrieta
  9. The export-productivity link in Brazilian manufacturing firms By Cirera,Xavier; Lederman,Daniel; Máñez,J.A.; Rochina,M.E.; Sanchis,J.A.
  10. International and Russian Experience in the Management of Public Expenditure on R&D By Sokolov, Ilya; Hudko, Elizaveta; Moguchev, Nikita; Deshko, M.
  11. Intra-sector and inter-sector competition in a model of growth By Di Cintio, Marco; Grassi, Emanuele
  12. Luxembourg – diversifying a small open economy By Jan Strasky; Eckhard Wurzel
  13. How to jump further? Path dependent and path breaking in an uneven industry space By Shengjun Zhu; Canfei He; Yi Zhou
  14. Regional Industrial Evolution in China: Path Dependence or Path Creation? By Canfei He; Yan Yan; David Rigby
  15. Learning strategies for the acquisition of specific skills, and its evaluation through an integrated rubric in different degrees of the University of Malaga (Spain). By Isabel Santacruz; Antonio Díaz-Ramos; M.M López; Lourdes Aranda; Rocío Martín-Valero; Gema Ruiz-Parraga; Antonia Gutiérrez; Antonio Jiménez-Lara
  16. Contemporary Trends in Further Corporate Education and Training By Marta Matul; Daniela Breveníková
  17. The Birth of Edge Cities in China: Measuring the Spillover Effects of Industrial Parks By Siqi Zheng; Weizeng Sun; Jianfeng Wu; Matthew E. Kahn
  18. An Analysis of Strategic Planning for Staff Hiring and Training at Japanese Universities Selected for the “Top Global Project” by the Central Government of Japan By Masanori Kimura
  19. Institutions and the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process for Smart Specialization By Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Callum Wilkie
  20. Foreign Experience of Lifelong Learning, Motives of Continuing Education in Russia and the Best Practices of Additional Professional Education By Krasnova, Gulnara; Polushkina, Elena
  21. Mechanisms to Enhance the International Competitiveness of the University By Abashkin, A.; Abashkina, O
  22. What Drives Productivity Volatility of Chinese Industrial Firms? By Xubei Luo; Nong Zhu
  23. Modern Views on the Role of Confidential Relations in the Structure of Inter-Firm Alliances By Lascaux, Alexander
  24. Review of International Practices for Determining Medium Term Resource Needs of Spending Agencies By Michael Di Francesco; Rafael Barroso
  25. Raising competitiveness and long-term growth of the Slovenian economy By Urban Sila; Hermes Morgavi; Nataša Jemec
  26. Comparative Analysis and Assessment of Regional Education Systems: Methodology, Techniques and Procedures By Kuklin, V.
  27. Innovation and Production in the Global Economy By Natalia Ramondo
  28. Interpreting bargaining strategies of developing countries in climate negotiations – A quantitative approach. By Valeria Costantini; Giorgia Sforna; Mariangela Zoli
  29. Effective research and innovation (R&I) policy in the EU-28: A causal and configurational analysis of political governance determinants By Turkeli S.; Kemp R.P.M.

  1. By: William Kerr (Harvard University); Ufuk Akcigit (University of Pennsylvania); Nicholas Bloom (Stanford); Daron Acemoglu (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: We build a model of firm-level innovation, productivity growth and reallocation featuring endogenous entry and exit. A key feature is the selection between high- and low-type firms, which differ in terms of their innovative capacity. We estimate the parameters of the model using detailed US Census micro data on firm-level output, R&D and patenting. The model provides a good fit to the dynamics of firm entry and exit, output and R&D, and its implied elasticities are in the ballpark of a range of micro estimates. We find industrial policy subsidizing either the R&D or the continued operation of incumbents reduces growth and welfare. For example, a subsidy to incumbent R&D equivalent to 5% of GDP reduces welfare by about 1.5% because it deters entry of new high-type firms. On the contrary, substantial improvements (of the order of 5% improvement in welfare) are possible if the continued operation of incumbents is taxed while at the same time R&D by incumbents and new entrants is subsidized. This is because of a strong selection effect: R&D resources (skilled labor) are inefficiently used by low-type incumbent firms. Subsidies to incumbents encourage the survival and expansion of these firms at the expense of potential high-type entrants. We show that optimal policy encourages the exit of low-type firms and supports R&D by high-type incumbents and entry.
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Martin, Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University); Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper extends research on long-term cluster evolution with a context sensitive conceptual framework that highlights how configurations of regional innovation systems (RIS), their knowledge base specificities and policy actions can shape cluster development and transformation. By doing so, we redress the neglect of regional context specific factors by current accounts of cluster life cycle models. The empirical part of the paper deals with the evolution of the ICT cluster in Scania, southern Sweden. The emergence of the cluster in the early 1980s was enabled by a strong analytical and synthetic knowledge base in the region, and the subsequent growth was driven by intense collaboration between industry and academia. The changing geography of the ICT industry in the past decade brought along new challenges for the existing companies and led to a transformation of the cluster towards a new growth trajectory. Cluster transformation was facilitated by policy actions that promoted symbolic knowledge activities in the region. The strategy was to combine existing competences in mobile communication with new competences in media and design, and to develop new industrial activities around the theme of New Media, which integrates analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge. In the case of Scania, the endowment of the RIS of a variety of knowledge bases and their combination has led to successful cluster development in spite of challenges resulting from changing socio-economic conditions.
    Keywords: Cluster evolution; knowledge bases; regional innovation systems; innovation policy; ICT; New Media; Sweden
    JEL: B52 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–07–20
  3. By: Gaponenko, A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Savelyeva, Marina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Constant changes, an increase in the rate of diffusion of innovation lead to the transformation of the management. A key function is training. It recognizes the most innovative companies, introducing new methods of organization of the process, that is engaged in the management of innovation. One of the key facilities management becomes knowledge, knowledge management is allocated in a separate direction. Along with the management of knowledge in modern management practices stand out as relatively independent kinds of reputation management company, managing customer loyalty, brand management organization, its image and so forth.
    Keywords: innovation, innovative companies, knowledge management
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Yi Zhou; Canfei He; Shengjun Zhu
    Abstract: Creative destruction is a key driving force behind industrial development. The continuing process of creative destruction provides an impetus to regional industrial renewal. Our analytical framework that emphasizes the ways in which firm exit creates a stimulus for firm entry, resulting in incremental innovation and productivity increase is complementary to the process of technological change and industrial renewal articulated by Schumpeter who pays attention to how new entrants bring in radical innovation and new products, making incumbents’ products and technologies obsolete and force them to exit or catch up. Using firm-level data of China’s industries during 1998-2008, this paper seeks to argue that the articulation between firm exit and entry has been constantly shaped by an assemblage of various factors, including firm characteristics, industrial linkages, regional institutions and geographical proximity.
    Keywords: Creative destruction, Firm Exit, Firm Entry, Industrial Dynamics, China
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Kira Pauka (University of Basel)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how part-time work affects financial and innovative firm performance. Moreover, it provides a detailed examination of part-time work by defining three different forms of part-time work (large, medium and small part-time work) depending on weekly working hours. Considering human capital theory, I expect part-time workers to have lower work experience and to accumulate less human capital. Thus I hypothesize that part-time work affects both, financial and innovative firm performance, negatively. For the empirical investigation I use a large German firm-level data set. The analysis shows that increasing part-time work has a significant negative impact on financial firm performance. Specifically, there are differences with regard to the considered categories of part-time work. Part-time workers having the fewest working hours per week have the strongest negative impact on financial firm performance. However the negative effect of part-time work does not remain for innovative firm performance. The results show no significant difference between part-time and full-time workers in their impact on innovative firm performance.
    Keywords: part-time work, financial firm performance, innovation
    JEL: J21 L25 M50
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Randall Jackson (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: In this address, I review industry clustering and diversification strategies to compare and contrast their underlying foundations. The lack of consensus choice of one or the other for regional economic development strategies along with the recognition that in the dynamic process of development these two processes are related leads me to conclude that clusters and diversity need not be such strange bedfellows after all, and that a rational approach to economic development can leverage the strengths of each and offset weaknesses. I follow this discussion by introducing a cluster assessment diversification strategy (CADS) apparatus that can be used to measure existing cluster strength, to identify industrial strengths and deficit bottlenecks, and to explore the regional consequences of potential cluster diversification strategies.
    Keywords: Industry Clusters, Regional Industrial diversification, Input-output, Industry structure
    JEL: R30 C67 L16
    Date: 2015–04
  7. By: Kushlin, Valery (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Ustenko, Viktoria (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: According to the new challenges Russia needs to provide access to the path of sustainable economic growth n the medium term period, which involves the activation of investment policy, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively, so to go to the innovation-oriented and high-performance economy. The paper analyzes three possible scientific innovation inve-vestment policy of Russia in the conditions of high uncertainty, heated global crisis: 1) Local Leadership "; 2) "The rapid pursuit"; 3) "Adaptation to the off-season." It is shown how should combine all three at the same time the above script. Proposals aimed at improving the strategic-agency and program-oriented planning of scientific and innovative development of the mechanism of stimulation of innovative activity of Russian business, improving state management of innovative projects. Reasonable measures for the development of venture financing of innovative projects, use of mechanisms, "technology platforms" as a bridge between science, government and manufacturing business, the use of modern public-private partnerships, and more effective harnessing of innovation in order to modernize the economy of the human factor.
    Keywords: venture capital investment, public-private partnerships, investment policy, innovative modernization, intellectual resources, national innovation system, technology platforms, human potential
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Mary Arrieta (University of Greenwich)
    Abstract: The main research objective is to compare internal to external financing sources in and outside the Eurozone, and the way this affects investment, competitiveness and firm success in the long term. Of particular interest is investment in innovation projects of non-research intensive SMEs and how these compare throughout Europe. Aim: To inform industrial policy design at European level. Data: Mainly drawn from the Survey on the Access to Finance of Enterprises (SAFE) by the European Central Bank (ECB), and merged with business data at country level available in and outside the Eurozone. Methodology: Advanced Panel Data and Survival (Frailty) Models
    Keywords: Investment and financing, SMEs, innovation
    JEL: L00 G00 C10
  9. By: Cirera,Xavier; Lederman,Daniel; Máñez,J.A.; Rochina,M.E.; Sanchis,J.A.
    Abstract: This paper explores the link between exports and total factor productivity in Brazilian manufacturing firms over the period 2000?08. The Brazilian experience is instructive, as it is a case of an economy that expanded aggregate exports significantly, but with stagnant aggregate growth in total factor productivity. The paper first estimates firm-level total factor productivity under alternative assumptions (exogenous and endogenous law of motion for productivity) following a GMM procedure. In turn, the analysis uses stochastic dominance techniques to assess whether the ex ante most productive firms are those that start exporting (self-selection hypothesis). Finally, the paper tests whether exporting boosts firms? total factor productivity growth (learning-by-exporting hypothesis) using matching techniques to control for the possibility that selection into exports may not be a random process. The results confirm the self-selection hypothesis and show that starting to export yields additional growth in total factor productivity that emerges since the firm?s first year of exporting but lasts only one year. Further, this extra total factor productivity growth is much higher under the assumption of an endogenous law of motion for productivity, which reinforces the importance of accounting for firm export status to study the evolution of productivity.
    Keywords: E-Business,Economic Theory&Research,Labor Policies,Industrial Management,Knowledge for Development
    Date: 2015–07–13
  10. By: Sokolov, Ilya (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Hudko, Elizaveta (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Moguchev, Nikita (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Deshko, M. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the international governance of R&D, the peculiarities of the activities of international research organizations and different types of legal form of organizations (Academy of Sciences, universities, research institutes) in the institutional environment of R&D in different countries, the analysis of the structure and dynamics of financing costs research in OECD countries and Russia, revealed features international distribution and delivery of budget funds to contractors.
    Keywords: R&D, OECD, public expenditure
    Date: 2015–06
  11. By: Di Cintio, Marco; Grassi, Emanuele
    Abstract: The role of patents is threefold: first, they are important to state the property rights of an invention; second, they are necessary to secure financing for starting a new venture; third, they are fundamental to recoup R&D investments. The main difficulty in preventing unauthorized use of an innovation is in the establishment of ranges and contexts of patents applicability. Noting the imperfections of the patent legal system, the authors are in a position to consider an economy with two levels of competition under different market structures: the inter-sector monopolistic competition and the intra-sector Cournot oligopoly. The explicit consideration of strategic interactions in a model of endogenous growth produces interesting results. Considering the sectorial market share as the indicator of patent system enforcement, the authors find that growth takes place, if and only if, there are some property rights of private knowledge produced by R&D activities. In turn, the patent system translates into a low degree of competition among firms. Its influence on the growth rate goes in a single unambiguous direction. As competition rises, few resources are available for R&D, so the growth rate goes down.
    Keywords: product differentiation,endogenous growth,market structure,R&D
    JEL: E10 L13 L16 O31 O40
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Jan Strasky; Eckhard Wurzel
    Abstract: Developing activities in areas other than finance would help to sustain growth and deal with the declining potential output and trend productivity growth that Luxembourg’s economy is facing. Given the relatively high labour costs, Luxembourg’s future comparative advantages are likely to lie in higher value added and skill intensive activities. Further development of Luxembourg’s high living standards thus requires strengthening the economy’s growth potential via further diversification of activity in high value added sectors. Stepping up investment in knowledge based capital and enterprise innovation can help Luxembourg to maintain and further develop comparative advantages in high value added activities. The government is promoting the formation of enterprise clusters by providing networking, infrastructure investment and financial support for research and development. To enhance the efficiency of the government’s policy, high priority should be given to outcome-oriented evaluation. This is required to ensure that costly infrastructure investment yields good results. Further efforts should be made to create synergies via cross-border initiatives, in particular with respect to research. Experience in other countries points to the importance of regulatory framework conditions in product and labour markets to spur enterprise dynamics. Regulation in professional services can be made more competition friendly, and impediments to labour force participation, notably for women, can be reduced. Productivity and innovation are also affected by the effectiveness of the secondary education system to produce skilled workers, which in Luxembourg is hampered by high repetition rates among students. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Luxembourg (<P>Luxembourg – diversifier une petite économie ouverte<BR>Développer l’activité dans des domaines autres que la finance permettrait de soutenir la croissance et de faire face à la baisse de la production potentielle et de la croissance tendancielle de la productivité que connaît l’économie luxembourgeoise. Étant donné les coûts de main-d’oeuvre relativement élevés, les avantages comparatifs futurs du Luxembourg vont vraisemblablement reposer sur des activités à plus haute valeur ajoutée et à plus forte intensité de main-d’oeuvre qualifiée. Par conséquent, la progression du niveau de vie du Luxembourg, déjà élevé, exige le renforcement du potentiel de croissance de l’économie à travers une diversification plus poussée dans des secteurs d’activité à forte valeur ajoutée. Investir plus massivement dans le capital intellectuel et dans la capacité d’innovation des entreprises peut aider le Luxembourg à maintenir et à renforcer des avantages comparatifs dans des activités à forte valeur ajoutée. Le gouvernement s’emploie à promouvoir la mise en place de pôles d’entreprises en favorisant la constitution de réseaux, en investissant dans les infrastructures et en aidant financièrement la recherche-développement. Pour améliorer l’efficacité de la politique publique, il faudrait accorder une priorité élevée à la réalisation d’évaluations axées sur les résultats, afin de s’assurer que les investissements dans les infrastructures, qui sont coûteux, produisent des résultats satisfaisants. Il faut aussi s’employer davantage à générer des synergies par le biais d’initiatives transfrontalières, en particulier en matière de recherche. L’expérience d’autres pays fait ressortir l’importance que peut jouer le cadre réglementaire des marchés des produits et de l’emploi pour insuffler un nouveau dynamisme aux entreprises. Il est possible de rendre la réglementation des services professionnels plus favorable à la concurrence et de réduire les facteurs pesant sur le taux d’activité, notamment des femmes. L’efficacité du système d’enseignement secondaire au Luxembourg, qui se caractérise par un taux de redoublement élevé et a du mal à produire des travailleurs qualifiés, affecte également la production et l’innovation. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de Luxembourg, 2015 ( ique-luxembourg.htm).
    Keywords: innovation, education, infrastructure, government policy, intangible assets, entrepreneurship, recherche et développement, entrepreneuriat, diversification, éducation
    JEL: H52 H54 I25 L25 L52 L53 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2015–07–23
  13. By: Shengjun Zhu; Canfei He; Yi Zhou
    Abstract: By using the proximity product index, recent studies have argued that regional diversification emerged as a path-dependent process, as regions often branch into industries that are related to preexisting industrial structure. It is also claimed that developed countries that start from the core, dense areas in the uneven industry space have more opportunities to jump to new related industries and therefore have more opportunities to sustain economic growth than do developing countries that jump from peripheral, deserted areas. In this paper, we differentiate two types of regional diversification—path-dependent and path-breaking—and ask questions from a different angle: can developing countries/regions jump further in the industry space to break path-dependent development trajectories and more importantly to catch up with developed ones? Based on China’s export data, this paper shows that regions can jump further by investing in extra-regional linkages and internal innovation. Not only do these two sets of factors promote regions’ jumping capability, but they also contribute to regions’ capability of maintaining a comparative advantage in technologically distant and less related industries. In addition, different extra-regional linkage and internal innovation factors have affected regional diversification to different extents, and these effects also vary across regions and industries. Empirically, this research seeks to find a more promising future for developing countries/regions. Theoretically, our research testifies some key findings of theoretical works in evolutionary economic geography by using a quantitative framework. In addition, this paper includes some economic and institutional factors that have been left out in previous studies.
    Keywords: path-dependent, path-breaking, industrial relatedness, proximity index, transition industries
    Date: 2015–07
  14. By: Canfei He; Yan Yan; David Rigby
    Abstract: The evolutionary economic geography indicates that regional industrial development is path dependent. The path dependence approach however ignores the external factors, which may create new paths of regional development. Moreover, it does not pay much attention to the role of institutions. Both external factors and institutions are crucial to understand the regional industrial evolution in China. Based on firm level data of Chinese manufacturing industries during 1998-2008, this study examined the industrial evolution through the lens of entry and exit of four digit industries at the Chinese prefectures. Using a measure of co-occurrence based technological relatedness, we apply a logit model to link industry entry and exit to technological relatedness. We find significant evidence that regions branch into new industries which are technologically related to the existing industries and related industries are less likely to exit. Related globalization also encourages the entry of new related industries and discourages the exit of related industries. Further analysis reveals that economic transition has created favorable conditions to allow a larger role of technological relatedness. New industries are more likely to enter regions which are globalized, liberalized and fiscally independent, indicating that economic transition has also generated opportunities for Chinese regions to create new paths of industrial development.
    Keywords: Technological Relatedness, Economic Transition, Industrial Evolution, Path Dependence, Path Creation
    Date: 2015–07
  15. By: Isabel Santacruz (Universidad de Malaga); Antonio Díaz-Ramos (Universidad de Málaga); M.M López (Universidad de Málaga); Lourdes Aranda (Universidad de Málaga); Rocío Martín-Valero (Universidad Francisco Maldonado (Osuna)); Gema Ruiz-Parraga (Universidad de Málaga); Antonia Gutiérrez (Universidad de Málaga); Antonio Jiménez-Lara (Universidad de Málaga)
    Abstract: It is essential for the university lecturers/professors to design new strategies that help students to acquire skills in the new framework of the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, the assessment of the effectiveness and impact of the used strategies in the academic performance of the students is a key point [1].In this work, an integrated rubric has been used to assess the effect of new learning strategies for the acquisition of different skills, such as critical and self-critical reasoning, acquiring knowledge and applying it to practical cases, oral presentations, and teamwork. This study was carried out in eight different subjects of the University of Malaga (Spain), including experimental degrees (Engineering, Biology, Biochemistry, Physiotherapy and Psychology), and an abstract degree such as Mathematics. Given the characteristics of this study, it has involved a large number of students from different subjects and degrees. The critical/self-critical thinking turned out to be better developed by the students with higher scores. Concerning the acquisition of knowledge and ability to apply it to practical cases, independently of the degree, students with good (but not very good) scores are those who consider that they have worked harder on the exercises to achieve their respective scores. Moreover, the oral presentations have been very positively accepted by the students for several reasons, such as the scarce experience of the first year students, and the opportunity to do teamwork.Finally, students have evaluated the performance of these strategies through a common rubric. It seems that the surveys and questionnaires have impacted positively on the final score, and that the students have also rated them positively and considered as very useful learning tools.
    Keywords: rubric; skills; new strategies; academic performance
  16. By: Marta Matul (University of Economics in Bratislava); Daniela Breveníková (University of Economics in Bratislava)
    Abstract: Management of further corporate education is an important part of human resources development HRD) in an organisation. Its aim is to ensure the development of human resources by means of applying methods of innovative education, the focus of which is on the effective improvement of work performance. Motivating employees and developing a highly efficient education system leads to high performance, increase in employees’ knowledge and skills, and satisfying customer needs. The aim of the present paper is to describe methods of education applied in real-life conditions of Slovak enterprises and characterise employee attitudes to further corporate education, currently most frequently applied methods in further corporate education, e.g. coaching, mentoring, action learning, teamworking or case studies.The paper is a partial result of the authors’ output from third stage the research project KEGA 006EU-4/2013 –
    Keywords: Human resource development (HRD), corporate education, coaching, mentoring, case studies, motivation, work performance.
    JEL: I29 J24 I25
  17. By: Siqi Zheng; Weizeng Sun; Jianfeng Wu; Matthew E. Kahn
    Abstract: Several Chinese cities have invested billions of dollars to construct new industrial parks. These place based investments solve the land assembly problem which allows many productive firms to co-locate close to each other. The resulting local economic growth creates new opportunities for real estate developers and retailers that develop properties and stores close to the new park. The city mayor has the political clout and the personal promotion incentives to anticipate these effects as he chooses whether and where within the city to build the park. Using several geo-coded data sets, we measure the localized spillover effects of the new parks on local incumbent firm productivity, the growth of retail activity close to the park and local real estate pricing and construction. We document the heterogeneous effects of investment in parks. Those parks featuring a higher level of human capital, a greater level of co-agglomeration among firms within the park, and a smaller share of State Owned Enterprises offer greater spillover effects.
    JEL: H42 H72
    Date: 2015–07
  18. By: Masanori Kimura (Kindai University)
    Abstract: In 2014, the Central Government of Japan selected 34 universities for the “Top Global Project” which is designed to promote the international competitiveness of Japanese universities. This poster session examines how those selected universities plan to hire and train staff members whose duties include providing satisfactory administrative services for international researchers and students. For this purpose, the session focuses on two issues addressed in their plans. One issue is on how the universities plan to help their staff members improve their communicative skills in English. The author has found that the universities have adopted five different types of strategies to improve English skills of their staff members. The details of these strategies will be explained in the session. One possible problem in the use of these strategies is, however, that the universities utilize commercial standardized English tests including the TOEIC, TOEFL, and IELTS tests to measure English competence of their employees without examining the nature of the tests. The other issue is on how the universities plan to recruit and train staff members to form globally competitive universities in the world. The universities plan to hire new employees from three categories: (1) non-native Japanese speakers, (2) native Japanese speakers graduating from an overseas university, and (3) native Japanese speakers having experience of working abroad. The author has found that as far as the percentage is concerned, the Japanese in category (3) account for the largest portion among the three and non-native Japanese speakers the least. The author will explain some of the obstacles that may hinder more flexible human resource planning.
    Keywords: Higher Education in Japan; Employment stratégy; Human Resource Planning; Faculty and Staff Development
    JEL: I23
  19. By: Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Callum Wilkie
    Abstract: Smart specialization approaches to regional innovation policies have attracted, and in all likelihood will continue to attract, considerable attention. With this attention has come significant interest in one of the approach’s defining features: the ‘entrepreneurial discovery process’ (EDP). While this interest has yielded substantial progress in the development of a comprehensive collective understanding of the EDP, several important, even vital, aspects of the EDP remain ‘under-‘ or even ‘unaddressed’. This essay aims to fill what we consider to be two prominent gaps in the aforementioned collective understanding by, first, identifying the actors who are responsible for the EDP, investigating their respective roles, and exploring how they should be engaged, and, second, by dissecting the relationship between the EDP and the institutional context within which it occurs recognizing that institutions can exercise tremendous influence on the effectiveness and outcomes of the EDP. Four prominent conclusions emerge from this exercise – each of which is made explicit in the final section of the paper – that will hopefully contribute to the more effective implementation and execution of the EDP across diverse socioeconomic and institutional contexts.
    Keywords: Smart specialisation, entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP), innovation, innovation policy, institutions, Europe.
    Date: 2015–07
  20. By: Krasnova, Gulnara (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Polushkina, Elena (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Professional development in the industry in information and communication technology (ICT) has the features that are directly related to the strategy of development of the industry as a whole. As ICT is considered range of areas related to information technology: the development, sale and implementation of software (software), its support and technical support, as well as providing control of existing software products. We also consider the areas directly related to the use and control of programs, such as information security and quality control, how to implement the product and the process of implementation. Another group of related disciplines working on a similar principle to the analysis of information consulting and implementation of enterprise information product.
    Keywords: professional development, ICT, additional education
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Abashkin, A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Abashkina, O (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Improving the competitiveness of the leading Russian universities is an important task for the state. Presidential Decree N 599 of May 7, 2012 set the goal to bring "by 2020 at least five Russian universities in the first hundred of the world's leading universities according to world ranking of universities." In accordance with the Government of the Russian Federation on March 16, 2013 ¹ 211 was formed by the International Council for increasing the competitiveness of the leading universities of the Russian Federation made significant investments to support the 15 Russian universities that the government considered worthy to join the fight for the title of best universities of the world.
    Keywords: competitiveness, universities, Russia
    Date: 2015–07
  22. By: Xubei Luo; Nong Zhu
    Abstract: The Chinese economy has witnessed impressive development since the enterprise reforms in the 1990s.  With the restructuring of the private sector and the development of market economy, the level and volatility of firm level productivity have become increasingly important aspects of the micro performance of the economy.   This paper examines the role of different firm characteristics - such as size, age, ownership, and geographic location - in productivity volatility using a firm-level dataset collected annually by China’s National Bureau of Statistics in 1998-2007. It follows the methodology developed in Comin and Philippon (2005; 2007) to measure firm productivity volatility as the standard deviation of the annual growth rate of output per worker. Its objectives are to investigate the drivers of productivity volatility of Chinese industrial firms, and to shed light on the sources of output volatility and its evolution over time.   The results suggest that in general, firm productivity volatility declined over time. Among firms of different characteristics, larger firms, older firms, foreign firms, and firms located in the coastal provinces are less volatile. Firm size and location are the two major factors that drive changes in productivity volatility – one positively and one negatively. While the gaps of volatility between smaller firms and larger firms declined, the gaps between firms located in the coastal provinces and inland provinces increased.
    Keywords: Enterprise reform, productivity, volatility, China,
    JEL: C21 D21 E23
    Date: 2015–07–13
  23. By: Lascaux, Alexander (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Trusting relationships play a pivotal role in the structures of interfirm cooperation, particularly in the highly uncertain and complex technological environment characterized by frequent and radical innovations. The very fact of forging long-term cooperative relationships hinges upon a high level of trust development. Firms experience trust in competence, benevolence and integrity of their partners in interfirm economic exchanges, which makes it possible to maintain durable cooperative structures.
    Keywords: trusting relationships, interfirm cooperation, inter-firm alliances
    Date: 2015–06
  24. By: Michael Di Francesco; Rafael Barroso
    Keywords: Private Sector Development - Business Environment Banks and Banking Reform Private Sector Development - Competitiveness and Competition Policy Private Sector Development - Business in Development Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Fiscal & Monetary Policy Public Sector Development
    Date: 2014–05
  25. By: Urban Sila; Hermes Morgavi; Nataša Jemec
    Abstract: The rapid growth after independence stopped in 2008 as the global crisis exposed important structural weaknesses. Large state involvement and rigid labour and product markets lowered productivity. Weak corporate governance and easy credit before the crisis led to high indebtedness and overinvestment. Slovenia was slow to deal with the underlying structural problems. Gradually, important reforms have been implemented which raised credibility of Slovenia in the financial markets and boosted confidence. But economic recovery has been sluggish, many people are unemployed and living standards still remain below the pre-crisis levels. Cost competitiveness and export market performance deteriorated, and there have been marked improvements only recently. Better corporate governance and management practices in the state owned sector and privatisations can attract FDI and raise efficiency. Low innovative activity could be boosted by more FDI, stronger framework for entrepreneurial activity and better start-up support. Relatively high minimum wage is potentially reducing employment opportunities of low-skilled workers. Limiting the minimum wage growth, and lowering the high tax wedge on labour income could boost employment. Efficiency should be raised in early and tertiary education to enhance skills. Despite generous public support, overall students’ performance could be improved and there are marked differences between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Slovenia (<P>Renforcer la compétitivité et la croissance à long terme de l'économie Slovène<BR>La croissance rapide suite à l'indépendance s'est arrêtée en 2008 alors que la crise mondiale a révélé d'importantes faiblesses structurelles. La participation de l'État et des marchés du travail rigides ont abaissé la productivité. Une faible gouvernance des entreprises et une facilité d'accès au crédit avant la crise ont conduit à un endettement élevé et au surinvestissement. La Slovénie a été lente à traiter les problèmes structurels sous-jacents. Peu à peu, des réformes importantes ont été mises en oeuvre qui ont amélioré la crédibilité de la Slovénie dans les marchés financiers et ont renforcé la confiance. Mais la reprise économique a été lente, beaucoup de gens sont au chômage et les conditions de vie restent toujours en dessous des niveaux d'avant-crise. La compétitivité des coûts et la performance des marchés d'exportation se sont détériorées, il y a eu des améliorations marquées que récemment. Des meilleures pratiques de gouvernance d'entreprise et de gestion des secteurs conduits par l'État et les privatisations peuvent attirer l'IDE et augmenter l'efficacité. Une faible activité innovante pourrait être stimulée d'avantage par l'IDE, en créant un environnement plus solide pour l'activité entrepreneuriale et un meilleur support pour de nouvelles entreprises de petite taille. Le salaire minimum relativement élevé réduit potentiellement les possibilités d’emploi de travailleurs peu qualifiés. Limiter la croissance du salaire minimum, et l'abaissement de la charge fiscale sur les revenus du travail pourrait stimuler l'emploi. L'efficacité doit être soulevée dans l'éducation précoce et tertiaire pour améliorer les compétences. Malgré le soutien public, la performance de l'ensemble des étudiants pourrait être améliorée et il y a des différences marquées entre les élèves de différents milieux socio-économiques. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Slovénie, 2015 ( ique-slovenie.htm).
    Keywords: taxation, education, innovation, labour market, productivity, R&D, fiscalité, marchés du travail, innovation, éducation
    JEL: E24 F21 G3 H2 I2 J24 K2 L26 L33 O3
    Date: 2015–07–15
  26. By: Kuklin, V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The number of control mechanisms had in the education system in recent years included various procedures of comparative evaluation - "monitoring" and ratings. However, their use is not sufficiently justified theoretically. Moreover, in practice, the entire spectrum of existing procedures of ranking the most widespread procedure of "weighted sum", despite the fact that the theory of measurement and the results obtained in the field of scaling lead to conclusion that the correct use of this procedure requires the fulfillment of certain conditions, and in social systems limited to a relatively small circle of applications. As the main object of the work focuses on the regional educational systems and their subsystems. Subject of research - theoretical basis, algorithmic implementation and testing of the comparative assessment of regional education systems (and subsystems). The results of the system analysis of the mechanisms and procedures of comparative evaluation, an algorithm ranking (rating form) on the basis of separation procedures and the results of its use for comparative assessment of the subsystems of preschool education of regional educational systems. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion about the applicability of the proposed algorithm and the need to continue work in this direction, in particular - towards the development of information and software decision support system for comparative evaluation of educational systems.
    Keywords: regional education systems, assessment
    Date: 2015–07
  27. By: Natalia Ramondo (UCSD)
    Abstract: The decline in the costs of multinational production (MP) has led some countries to specialize in innovation and others to specialize in production. To study the aggregate and distributional implications of this phenomenon, we develop a quantifiable general equilibrium model of trade andMP. Specialization is endogenously determined as a result of comparative advantage and home market effects (HME) that arise from the interaction between increasing returns to innovation and geographical frictions. The model yields simple structural expressions for bilateral trade and MP that we use to calibrate it across a set of OECD countries. Comparative statics exercises reveal that the reduction in the cost of MP or the integration of China into the world economy may hurt countries that are driven to specialize in production due to HMEs, although these losses tend to be very small. Contrary to popular fears, we find that production workers gain even in countries that further specialize in innovation.
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Valeria Costantini (Department of Economics, Roma Tre University, Rome (Italy)); Giorgia Sforna (Department of Economics, Roma Tre University, Rome (Italy)); Mariangela Zoli (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Tor Vergata (Italy))
    Abstract: Despite the efforts made during the last climate conferences (COPs), countries participating in the negotiation process are still far from reaching an agreement on the implementation of a new Post-Kyoto climate regime. The growing role played by developing countries in negotiations is one of the main causes behind the deadlock. Further attention should therefore be paid to the composition of the coalitions formed by developing countries in order to better understand the key structural features driving their bargaining positions. By applying a cluster analysis, this paper aims to investigate the role played by heterogeneity in specific characteristics of developing countries in forming bargaining coalitions in climate negotiation. By clustering developing countries according to their economic, geographic, environmental, energy and social characteristics, the paper presents some considerations on climate political economy strategies in these countries.
    Keywords: Climate negotiations, Developing countries, Vulnerability, Cluster analysis, Climate models
    JEL: O19 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–07
  29. By: Turkeli S.; Kemp R.P.M. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Effective research and innovation RI policy depends on the extent to which ideas, interests and institutional mechanisms for policy making work together rather than work against each other. In a political governance model for effective RI policy in the EU-28, the separate influence of inter-ministerial coordination, regulatory impact assessment extended to sustainability checks, parliamentary committee surveillance, media attention and societal consultation is investigated. Interaction effects are investigated in a set-theoretic analysis for the econometrically best-fit model. Our results show that the societal consultation, policy-informed opposition and sector-informed informal policy coordination are necessary but not sufficient to bring about effectiveness to RI policy. Their influence on effectiveness of RI policy depends on the combination with either media attention or Regulatory Impact Analysis RIA extended to sustainability checks. We reached these results with the help of ordered logit estimations and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses using 2011-2013 SGI data of Bertelsmann Stiftung and Lexis Nexis Academic.
    Keywords: Mathematical Methods; Economic Development: General; Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Comparative Studies of Particular Economies; Cultural Economics: Public Policy;
    JEL: O10 O31 P52 Z18 C02
    Date: 2015

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