nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒06‒27
25 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Cluster Policy: Renewal through the integration of institutional variety By Grillitsch, Markus; Asheim, Björn
  2. The Impact of Captive Innovation Offshoring on the Effectiveness of Organizational Adaptation By Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
  3. Entrepreneurial Regions: do macro-psychological Cultural Characteristics of Regions help solve the “Knowledge Paradox” of Economics? By Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Potter, Jeff; Audretsch, David B.
  4. Spillovers from the global productivity frontier and public policy: Industry-level evidence By Alessandro Saia; Dan Andrews; Silvia Albrizio
  5. Can Innovation Help U.S. Manufacturing Firms Escape Import Competition from China? By Hombert, Johan; Matray, Adrien
  6. Does cognitive distance affect product development for distant target groups? Evidence from the literature using co-citation methodology By Lew, Jia Hui; Marwede, Malte; Herstatt, Cornelius
  7. Strategic Uses of Electronic Commerce for Thai Travel Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) By Naruemon Choochinprakarn
  8. Macroeconomic Policy and potential growth By Jérôme Creel; Maurizio Iacopetta
  9. “Differences in efficiency between Formal and Informal Micro Firms in Mexico” By Antonio Báez-Morales
  10. Infringement of Intellectual Property in Innovation Partnerships By Schubert, Torben
  12. University-enterprise Interaction in Brazil: The Role of the Public Research Infrastructure By Fernanda De Negri; Luiz Ricardo Cavalcante; Patrick Franco Alves
  13. Cournot Competition and “Green” Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship By Luca Lambertini; Joanna Poyago-Theotoky; Alessandro Tampieri
  14. Small firms? formalization : the stick treatment By De Giorgi,Giacomo; Ploenzke,Matthew; Rahman,Aminur
  15. Micro-Evidence on Product and Labor Market Regime Differences between Chile and France By Dobbelaere, Sabien; Lauterbach, Rodolfo; Mairesse, Jacques
  16. Science-industry-linkages in China: What drives MNCs to collaborate with Chinese academic partners and what makes them successful By Tagscherer, Ulrike
  17. Impact of the Relationship between HR policy and Practices on Corporate Growth (Japanese) By NISHIOKA Yumi
  18. Product standards and firms? export decisions By Fernandes,Ana Margarida; Ferro,Esteban; Wilson,John Martin
  19. Policy Lessons from Financing Innovative Firms By Karen E. Wilson
  20. Sustainable development of low income countries through investment in tertiary education By Kundu, Nobinkhor; Banu, Asma
  21. Empirical Evidence from Canadian Firm-level Data on the Relationship Between Trade and Productivity Performance By Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling
  22. Measuring progress in eco-innovation By Rizos, Vasileios; Behrens, Arno; Taranic, Igor
  23. The Economic Impact of Cloud Service in Japan (Japanese) By YoungGak KIM; KWON Hyeog Ug
  24. Competing Mechanisms with Dominant Strategy Implementable Punishment in Directed Search Markets By Seungjin Han
  25. Introduction to Special Issue on "The Governance of International Communications: Business, Politics, and Standard-Setting in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" By Heidi Tworek; Simone M. Müller

  1. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Asheim, Björn (CIRCLE, Lund University; UiS Business School/Centre for Innovation Research, University of Stavanger; BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo)
    Abstract: The literature on cluster evolution suggests that heterogeneity of firm capabilities and openness of network structures are essential for the renewal of mature and declining clusters. This paper argues that the regional and institutional context in which clusters are embedded plays an important role for the renewal of clusters. It elaborates how the integration of institutional variety can stimulate the combination of different types of knowledge, learning and modes of innovation, thereby promoting cluster renewal. The conceptual argument is illustrated with a case study of the maritime cluster in Møre and Romsdal, Norway, which is one of the globally leading clusters in this industry. We find that key actors and policy play an important role in integrating institutional variety. Additionally, the case shows that institutional variety and the integration thereof can be a driving force for cluster renewal even in specialized and semi-peripheral locations.
    Keywords: cluster policy; institutions; path-renewal; path-creation; manufacturing; periphery
    JEL: B52 O10 O30 R30 R50
    Date: 2015–06–08
  2. By: Baier, Elisabeth (PTV Group AG, Karlsruhe, Germany); Rammer, Christian (ZEW, Mannheim, Germany); Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University & Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of captive offshoring of innovation activities on the ability of the firms to adapt their organizational structures. Basing our arguments on complexity theory, we use three consecutive waves of the German part of the Community Innovation Survey to test our hypotheses. We find an inverted u-shape of innovation offshoring on the effectiveness of organizational adaptability, implying an optimal threshold value of innovation offshoring. This value is 11% for share of offshored R&D, 15% for downstream innovation activities such as local market adaptation, and 34% for design activities. We also analyze several contingency variables. In particular, we show that the costs of innovation offshoring in terms of reduced organizational adaptation are increased by a regional dispersion of the offshoring activities and strong embeddedness in onshore networks. We also show that smaller firms find it easier to deal with the management complexity induced by geographical dispersion of innovation activities.
    Keywords: Internationalization; Offshoring; Innovation; Organizational Adaptation; Organizational Adaptability
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015–06–21
  3. By: Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Potter, Jeff; Audretsch, David B.
    Abstract: In recent years, modern economies have shifted away from being based on physical capital and towards being based on new knowledge (e.g., new ideas and inventions). Consequently, contemporary economic theorizing and key public policies have been based on the assumption that resources for generating knowledge (e.g., education, diversity of industries) are essential for regional economic vitality. However, policy makers and scholars have discovered that, contrary to expectations, the mere presence of, and investments in, new knowledge does not guarantee a high level of regional economic performance (e.g., high entrepreneurship rates). To date, this “knowledge paradox” has resisted resolution. We take an interdisciplinary perspective to offer a new explanation, hypothesizing that “hidden” regional culture differences serve as a crucial factor that is missing from conventional economic analyses and public policy strategies. Focusing on entrepreneurial activity, we hypothesize that the statistical relation between knowledge resources and entrepreneurial vitality (i.e., high entrepreneurship rates) in a region will depend on “hidden” regional differences in entrepreneurial culture. To capture such “hidden” regional differences, we derive measures of entrepreneurship-prone culture from two large personality datasets from the United States (N = 935,858) and Great Britain (N = 417,217). In both countries, the findings were consistent with the knowledge-culture-interaction hypothesis. A series of nine additional robustness checks underscored the robustness of these results. Naturally, these purely correlational findings cannot provide direct evidence for causal processes, but the results nonetheless yield a remarkably consistent and robust picture in the two countries. In doing so, the findings raise the idea of regional culture serving as a new causal candidate, potentially driving the knowledge paradox; such an explanation would be consistent with research on the psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Innovation, Personality, Knowledge, Culture, Entrepreneurship, Psychology, Regions, Cities
    JEL: L26 M13 O3 O30
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Alessandro Saia; Dan Andrews; Silvia Albrizio
    Abstract: For much of the second half of the twentieth century, labour productivity grew rapidly in most OECD economies, fuelled by the adoption of a large stock of unexploited existing technologies. However, the slowdown in productivity growth over the past decade underscores the idea that as economies converge toward the global technological frontier, the ability to capitalise on new innovations developed at frontier becomes more important. Using industry level data for 15 countries over the period 1984-2007, this paper augments the neo-Schumpeterian framework to identify the relevant channels and policies that shape an economy’s ability to learn from the global productivity frontier. An economy’s ability to benefit from frontier innovation is a positive function of its degree of international connectedness, ability to allocate skills efficiently and investments in knowledge based capital, including managerial capital and R&D. Productivity growth, via more effective learning from the global frontier, is supported by a policy framework that promotes efficient resource allocation – including lower barriers to entrepreneurship, efficient judicial systems and bankruptcy laws that do not overly penalise failure – and fosters the creation of markets for seed and early stage finance. Innovation policies that support basic research and facilitate the absorption of external knowledge for firms – including via university-industry R&D collaboration – also enhance spillovers from the global productivity frontier, and consequently, productivity growth.<P>Retombées des technologies de pointe et politiques publiques : Ce que montrent les données sectorielles<BR>Durant la majeure partie de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle, la productivité du travail a augmenté rapidement dans la plupart des économies de l'OCDE, alimentée par l'adoption d'un grand nombre de technologies existantes mais encore inexploitées. Toutefois, le ralentissement de la croissance de la productivité au cours de la dernière décennie corrobore l'idée selon laquelle au fur et à mesure que les économies convergent vers la frontière technologique mondiale, la capacité à capitaliser sur les innovations développées à la pointe de la technologie augmente. À partir de données sectorielles couvrant 15 pays sur la période 1984-2007, cet article complète le modèle de croissance néo-schumpétérien afin d'identifier les canaux et les politiques qui affectent la capacité d'une économie à apprendre de la frontière de la productivité mondiale. La capacité d'une économie à bénéficier de l'innovation dans les technologies de pointe est une fonction croissante de son degré d’ouverture internationale, de sa capacité à allouer efficacement les compétences et les investissements aux actifs fondés sur la connaissance, y compris le capital managérial et la R & D. La croissance de la productivité, via un apprentissage plus efficace à partir de la frontière technologique mondiale, est soutenue par un cadre politique qui favorise une allocation efficace des ressources - y compris la réduction des barrières à la création d’entreprises, l’efficacité des systèmes judiciaires et les lois sur la faillite qui ne pénalisent pas trop l'échec - et qui favorise la création de marchés du capital d’amorçage et du capital-risque. Les politiques d'innovation qui soutiennent la recherche fondamentale et facilitent l'assimilation des connaissances extérieures par les entreprises - y compris via des collaborations entre les universités et les entreprises en matière de R & D– renforcent également les retombées de la frontière de la productivité mondiale, et par conséquent, la croissance de la productivité.
    Keywords: productivity, spillovers, growth, croissance, rattrapage, productivité
    JEL: C23 L16 L5 O43 O57
    Date: 2015–06–23
  5. By: Hombert, Johan; Matray, Adrien
    Abstract: We study whether R&D-intensive firms are more resilient to trade shocks. We correct for the endogeneity of R&D using tax-induced changes to the cost of R&D. On average across US manufacturing firms, rising imports from China lead to slower sales growth and lower profitability. These effects are, however, significantly smaller for firms with a larger stock of R&D -- by about half when moving from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile of the R&D stock distribution. As a result, while the average firm in import-competing industries cuts capital expenditures and employment, R&D-intensive firms downsize considerably less.
    Keywords: China; import competition; innovation; R&D tax credit
    JEL: F14 L25 L60 O33
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Lew, Jia Hui; Marwede, Malte; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: The level of cognitive distance determines how detailed objects, persons or events are mentally construed. The higher the level of cognitive distance between two individuals, the lower the level of detail in mental representation of each other. In product development, a detailed conception of the target group is essential for future product success. Product developers need to establish an accurate mental representation of the user and internalize customer preferences to ensure product usability and/or delivery of adequate services in new product development projects (NPD). Depending on the target group in focus, potential users can be distant in various dimensions. Silver Agers (65+ years of age) can be a distant target group for product developers in terms of age and personal contacts as most developers are too young to fall in the category of Silver Agers. Thus, they have likely taken different life experience paths compared to people of their own age cohort. Management and psychological science refers to this phenomenon as cognitive or psychological distance. Especially for distant target groups (e.g. elderly people or children), cognitive distance between product developers and users might have an impact on the creation of new products/services. Literature in this field, especially within an innovation context, is very scarce. Therefore, this paper analyzes existing research streams and thought schools of cognitive distance literature and their applicability in an innovation context to study implications for NPD. We use co-citation analysis to identify and visualize the different research areas dealing with cognitive distance, and to detect conceptual subdomains applicable for individual relationships between product developers and (distant) target groups. We find eight relevant clusters dealing with cognitive distance in psychology and innovation management-related research papers. Construal level theory stands out as the predominant theoretical foundation of cognitive distance in psychological research. It states that distant persons, objects or events in terms of space, time, social or probability are mentally construed in a more abstract way as opposed to nearer/closer/more likely persons, objects or events. Applied to product developers' mental representation of the actual users, this infers that users of distant target groups are likely to be represented more abstractly compared to proximal target groups, e.g. target groups of similar age. This lesser differentiated view on users could lead to non-optimal solutions in NPD. We thus propose that cognitive distance can have an impact on product development. We discover a knowledge gap on the individual level for innovation management studies, i.e. linking cognitive distance to product development success. We analyze findings from psychological research on individual cognitive distances and find that besides temporal distance, the social dimension of cognitive distance appears to be most relevant for empirical tests in innovation management. To empirically explore and test dimensions of social distance, we argue to utilize established network-theoretic measures, like social capital as a proxy for social distance between product developers and distant target groups. We close with practical suggestions to mitigate adverse effects of cognitive distance for product developers.
    Keywords: cognitive distance,psychological distance,Silver Market,distant target group,innovation management
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Naruemon Choochinprakarn (Burapha University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current stage of e-commerce usage by Thai small and medium travel enterprises (SMEs) and investigate the effect of technological, organizational, and environmental (TOE) factors on three stages of e-commerce (EC) adoption. An online survey was employed to collect data from Thai travel SMEs that have company websites, are registered with the Thai Department of Business Development and are a member of the Tourism Authority of Thailand. Data from 114 usable cases was analyzed using multiple regression. Results revealed that the use of EC in Thai travel SMEs was in the second stage of EC adoption. This indicates that the majority use the Internet for provision of information and services. Other key findings are: (1) only competition intensity positively affected the first (promotion) stage of EC adoption, (2) relative advantage was found to be the only determinant of EC adoption in the second stage of the provision of information and services, and (3) only organization readiness was found to influence EC adoption in the third (processing) stage. This study can provide Thai travel SMEs with useful findings to further understand EC adoption and help to develop a better strategic vision in adopting advanced EC technologies to gain potential benefits and competitive advantages. In addition, the findings have implications for government agencies and EC consultants and vendors in providing guidance on practical applications of EC adoption in Thai travel SMEs and in supporting the development of EC systems. The findings of this study offer a theoretical extension to e-commerce adoption research by highlighting the role of TOE factors on e-commerce adoption by Thai travel SMEs.
    Keywords: E-Commerce Adoption, TOE framework, Travel and tourism industry, SMEs, Thailand
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Jérôme Creel (OFCE Sciences Po & ESCP-Europe); Maurizio Iacopetta (OFCE-SciencesPo & SKEMA Business School)
    Abstract: We make the case for investigating the gap between the potential and the actual level of production, and review contributions that point to the reduced power of standard policy in- struments in presence of a prolonged gap. We also highlight di¢ culties in measuring where an economy stands relative to its potential. We review links between human capital accumulation and technology, and sketch a basic Schumpeterian model that puts at the center stage of the growth process investments in innovation and the foundation of new Örms, arguably two key sources of growth that could revitalize the faltering European Economies. The gap between the short and long run behavior is illustrated through quantitative experiments.
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Antonio Báez-Morales (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The economic role of micro firms is still the subject of much discussion and debate. While these firms can be seen as potential growth drivers, as they are usually related to entrepreneurship, a relatively high share of micro firms can also be a sign of an underdeveloped productive system, which applies especially to developing countries, where micro firms represent the majority of business activity. Unlike other studies, this research separates formal and informal micro firms in order to test whether there are efficiency differences between them, and to explain these differences. One of the novelties of the study is the use of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, which enables an analysis of the differences between both groups of firms after controlling for their different allocation of factors. Micro firms in Mexico are taken as a case study, with the Encuesta Nacional de Micronegocios (ENAMIN, or the National Micro Firm Survey), for 2008, 2010 and 2011, used to carry out the analysis. The emprical evidence suggests that output differences can be explained by endowment characteristics, while efficiency differences are explained by endowment returns. The main variables to explain the gap between the groups are the owner’s level of education, the firm’s age, the owner’s motivations, and financing.
    Keywords: informality, micro firms, efficiency, productivity, decomposition method. JEL classification: D00, D22, D24
    Date: 2015–06
  10. By: Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University & Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: Using data from the German Community Innovation Survey (CIS) from 2008 we analyze whether innovation partnering increases the risk of experiencing infringement of intellectual property (IP). The results show that depending on types of IP innovation partnerships increase the risk of infringement by up to 37% compared to the average risk in the sample. The results suggest that this massive increase can be reduced by intellectual property rights and contracts to govern the partnerships. Yet we show that formal protection mechanisms do not eliminate the sources of opportunistic infringement, since that infringement in innovation partnerships more commonly relates to the infringement of formally unprotected intellectual property, such as tacit knowledge and know-how.
    Keywords: infringement; intellectual property; innovation; partnerships; alliances; protection
    JEL: O32 O34
    Date: 2015–06–21
  11. By: Chihcheng Lo (Department of Industrial Technology and Education, National Changhua University of Education)
    Abstract: This paper examines the evolution and stages of Intellectual property rights (hereafter as IPRs) regimes since 1980s by investigating historical and quantitative data of IPRs. We explore how policy network of IPRs responds the development of industries, the evolution of innovation systems, and international IPRs harmonization and in turn affect the profile of IPRs policy. Theoretically, we will identify the determination of institutional voids and ask how Taiwanese industries face the issues related to appropriability regimes and in turn affect the development of innovation system and IPRs policy. The perspective of policy network is used to explore the whole structure of IPRs policy making and justify the role of state and industries in the relative evolution process. We used different types of IPRs data and historical archives to examine how the evolution of IPRs are established to build market, seek innovation chance, to network resources, and finally legitimately ensure approrpriability amongst industries from closed to open innovation regime reach out beyond institutional voids. To sum up, this study regards IPRs regime as a striking case study to demonstrate the effect of institutional voids on the governance choice of policy network. Empirical results will demonstrate that the innovation activity processed by industries is increased only when the appropriability strategies are resumed to catch up with new market created by institutional voids. This would allow us to better assess the global optimality of the array of international IPRs harmonisation currently in use around the world and their interplay. Finally this outcome of this paper have implications of IPRs policy for policy makers in the developing countries.
    Keywords: Appropriability regime; policy network; institutional voids;Intellectual property right harmonization
    JEL: F42 H11
    Date: 2015–06
  12. By: Fernanda De Negri; Luiz Ricardo Cavalcante; Patrick Franco Alves
    Abstract: This paper discusses the university-enterprise interactions in the Brazilian innovation system by focusing on the characteristics of the public research infrastructure which affects its propensity to interact with the industrial sector. Logistic regressions have been used to identify, in a wide set of explanatory variables, the characteristics of the research infrastructure which increase its probability of supplying technological services to firms. Besides the primary data collected from a survey carried out in a sample of institutions related to the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), data concerning the scientific and technological production of the researchers affiliated to each laboratory have also been used in the regressions. The choice of the explanatory variables was based in a brief literature review on the role of the research infrastructure in the national innovation systems. Aiming at supporting the discussion of the results of the regressions, this review also included a brief report of the recent interactions between the research infrastructure and the industrial sector in Brazil. The main findings of the logistic regressions are: i) the size of the laboratory (as measured by the number of affiliated researchers) and of the qualification of its research team positively and significantly affects its propensity to interact with the industrial sector; ii) multidisciplinary laboratories tend to interact more with the industrial sector than laboratories focused on a single field of expertise; iii) there seems to be a tradeoff between scientific publications and market oriented research, since the number of papers published by the affiliated researchers is negatively correlated to the probability of supplying technological services to firms.
    Date: 2015–01
  13. By: Luca Lambertini (Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy); Joanna Poyago-Theotoky (School of Economics, La Trobe University, Australia; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy); Alessandro Tampieri (Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between competition and innovation in an industry where production is polluting and R&D aims to reduce emissions (“green” innovation). We present an n-firm oligopoly where firms compete in quantities and decide their investment in “green” R&D. When environmental taxation is exogenous, aggregate R&D investment always increases with the number of firms in the industry. Next we analyse the case where the emission tax is set endogenously by a regulator (committed or time-consistent) with the aim to maximize social welfare. We show that an inverted-U relationship exists between aggregate R&D and industry size under reasonable conditions, and is driven by the presence of R&D spillovers.
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: De Giorgi,Giacomo; Ploenzke,Matthew; Rahman,Aminur
    Abstract: Firm informality is pervasive throughout the developing world, Bangladesh being no exception. The informal status of many firms substantially reduces the tax basis and therefore impacts the provision of public goods. The literature on encouraging formalization has predominantly focused on reducing the direct costs of formalization and has found negligible impacts of such policies. This paper focuses on a stick intervention, which to the best of the knowledge of the authors is the first one in a developing country setting that deals with the most direct and dominant form of informality, i.e. registration with the tax authority with a direct link to the country's potential revenue base and thus public goods provision. The paper implements an experiment in which firms are visited by tax representatives who deliver an official letter from the Bangladesh National Tax Authority stating that the firm is not registered and the consequential punishment if the firm fails to register. The paper finds that the intervention increases the rate of registration among treated firms, while firms located in the same market but not treated do not seem to respond significantly. The paper also finds that only larger revenue firms at baseline respond to the threat and register. These findings have at least two important policy implications: i. the enforcement angle, which could be an important tool to encourage formalization; and ii. targeting of government resources for formalization to the high-end informal firms. The effects are generally small in levels and this leaves open the question of why many firms still do not register.
    Keywords: E-Business,Economic Theory&Research,Debt Markets,Markets and Market Access,Taxation&Subsidies
    Date: 2015–06–22
  15. By: Dobbelaere, Sabien (VU University Amsterdam); Lauterbach, Rodolfo (Maastricht University); Mairesse, Jacques (CREST-INSEE)
    Abstract: Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms' operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in particular. Contributing to the literature on estimating simultaneously product and labor market imperfections, this paper quantifies industry differences in both types of imperfections using firm-level data in Chile –a non-OECD member under the considered time period– and France. We rely on two extensions of Hall's econometric framework for estimating price-cost margins by nesting three labor market settings (perfect competition or right-to-manage bargaining, efficient bargaining and monopsony). Using an unbalanced panel of 1,737 firms over the period 1996-2003 in Chile containing unique data on firm-level output price indices and 14,270 firms over the period 1994-2001 in France, we first classify 20 comparable manufacturing industries in 6 distinct regimes that differ in the type of competition prevailing in product and labor markets. We then investigate industry differences in the estimated product and labor market imperfections. Consistent with differences in institutions and in the industrial relations system in the two countries, we find important regime differences across the two countries. In addition, we observe cross-country differences in the levels of product and labor market imperfections within regimes.
    Keywords: rent sharing, monopsony, price-cost mark-ups, production function, panel data
    JEL: C23 D21 J51 L13
    Date: 2015–06
  16. By: Tagscherer, Ulrike
    Abstract: [Motivation and background ...] The presented report describes and analyzes the results of a survey among 30 foreign invested enterprises in China in 2014. The survey was conducted once before in 2011/2012 and the update in 2014 was specifically designed to create a better understanding of the recent dynamics in innovation in China, especially in the collaboration between MNCS and Chinese universities and research institutes. The main questions the survey wants to answer are: who are the key drivers for collaboration, what are the key success factors and which are the most recent developments in these industry-science-collaborations. The survey also answers the question of what policy makers could do to increase the collaboration and to reinforce spill-over effects into the Chinese science system as well as to create a supportive environment for MCNs R&D activities in China.
    Date: 2015
  17. By: NISHIOKA Yumi
    Abstract: Using data collected from an interview survey of intangible assets in Japan, this study analyzes the relationship between internal fit of human resource management (HRM), which is the fit between a human resource (HR) policy and its subordinate concept HR practices, and its impact on corporate growth in Japan.The empirical results are as follows: First, corporations which adopt both results-oriented and lifetime employment-oriented HR policies at the same time face a negative effect on their corporate growth. Second, results-oriented HR practices themselves have a positive effect on corporate growth, but interactions between results-oriented HR practices and HR development practices have a negative effect. Third, interactions between a lifetime employment-oriented HR policy and HR development practices indicate a positive effect, but interactions between a results-oriented HR policy and HR development practices indicate a negative effect on corporate growth. These results imply that corporations need to consider the importance of internal fit of HRM, and how the lack of internal fit might have a negative effect on corporate growth.
    Date: 2015–06
  18. By: Fernandes,Ana Margarida; Ferro,Esteban; Wilson,John Martin
    Abstract: The paper estimates the effect of product standards on firms? export decisions using two novel datasets. The first covers all exporting firms in 42 developing countries. The second covers pesticide standards for 243 agricultural and food products in 63 importing countries over 2006?12. The analysis shows that product standards significantly affect foreign market access. More restrictive standards in the importing country, relative to the exporting country, lower firms? probability of exporting as well as their export values and quantities. The relative restrictiveness of standards also deters exporting firms from entering new markets and leads to higher exit rates from those markets. Moreover, firm characteristics mediate the effect of product standards on firms? export decisions. Smaller exporters are more negatively affected in their market entry and exit decisions by the relative stringency of standards than larger exporters. Positive network effects of exporters from the same country may help reduce the burden of importing countries? standards on firms? decisions to enter new markets.
    Keywords: Science Education,Microfinance,Labor Policies,Markets and Market Access,Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2015–06–18
  19. By: Karen E. Wilson
    Abstract: There has been increasing concern from policy makers around the world about the lack of access to finance for young innovative firms. As a result, governments in many OECD countries have sought to address the financing gap and perceived market failures by supporting the seed and early stage market. This paper seeks to summarise the lessons learned in seed and early stage finance based on OECD work over the past several years focused on policies related to financing high growth firms, including angel investment and venture capital. That research was supplemented with a questionnaire on seed and early stage financing policies in 2012 and a series of policy workshops held between 2012 and 2014. The workshops provided deeper insights into experiences and lessons learned from OECD member countries. The OECD has been working on seed and early stage finance within the Committee for Industry, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) in the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry as well as across other Directorates. This work has highlighted the growth in seed and early stage finance policies as well as the importance of high-growth firms for job creation and the role that financial development and other policies play in firm dynamics and the growth of such firms.
    Date: 2015–06–24
  20. By: Kundu, Nobinkhor; Banu, Asma
    Abstract: To counterbalance the challenges of globalization, raising the superiority of our tertiary education to global standard is very significant. Tertiary education is the essential enabler of the human capital of the twenty-first century that demands a set of new competencies. It draws lessons for developing countries where policy makers have set out procedure to build a tertiary education in which higher priorities and future strategies would form the center of the sustainable development strategy. In the case of low-income economies, which are keen to invest in tertiary levels of education but the government budget is constrained, this study recommends the formation of financing sources. In addition, it is necessary to develop an effective lifelong learning system to provide continuing higher education and skill upgrading to persons after they have left higher education in order to provide the changing skills necessary to be competitive in the new global economy. This paper analyses the importance of investment in tertiary education with low-income economies to ensure a gradual sustainable development over the years. It is apparent that Bangladesh will acquire potential gains from investment in tertiary education.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Economic growth, Sustainable Development
    JEL: I21 O47 Q01
    Date: 2014–05–07
  21. By: Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling
    Abstract: Canada?s aggregate productivity performance has closely tracked changes in Canada?s trading environment. To gain a better understanding of the link, the Economic Analysis Division of Statistics Canada has conducted a set of studies that investigate whether and how changes in the trading environment, brought about by trade liberalization policies and exchange-rate movements, contributed to productivity growth. The firm-level analysis provides insights into the productivity dynamics that arise from within-industry growth and restructuring as resources are shifted from declining to growing industries. The paper provides an overview of the key Canadian empirical findings over the last two decades.
    Keywords: Business performance and ownership, Economic accounts, International trade, Manufacturing
    Date: 2015–06–16
  22. By: Rizos, Vasileios; Behrens, Arno; Taranic, Igor
    Abstract: Eco-innovation has been identified as one of the key drivers of change that need to be harnessed for a sustainable future. Given the complexity of eco-innovation as a concept, there are various challenges to measuring its progress. This CEPS Working Document briefly explores the evolution of the concept of eco-innovation and emphasises its role in the EU 2020 strategy. It then gives an overview of the different measurement approaches and challenges associated with identifying and using indicators for measuring progress in eco-innovation. Within this context, the paper describes the added value and key features of the web tool, which aims to improve the way in which policy-makers and others involved in the policy process can access, understand and use green economy and eco-innovation indicators. The web tool was developed as part of a systematic overview by the NETGREEN project research team of the large and fragmented body of work in the field of green economy indicators. The paper concludes with a number of messages for policy-makers in this field.
    Date: 2015–06
  23. By: YoungGak KIM; KWON Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: Much research has pointed out that one of the main reasons why the Japanese economy has suffered from a prolonged economic slump since the late 1990s is the delay in investment in information and communications technology (ICT). In this paper, we investigate the economic impact of introducing cloud computing services in Japanese firms. As was seen in the investment in general ICT, Japan is far behind the United States in the introduction of cloud computing services. To investigate Japanese firms' investment behavior in ICT, we matched the longitudinal data of the Actual Conditions Survey of Information Technology and the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities. Estimation of production function shows that the marginal product of ICT is much higher than its user cost (about five times), whereas that of usual capital is almost equal to its user cost. As is discussed by Fukao et al. (2015), the estimation results imply that Japanese firms underinvest in ICT. We categorized ICT input into four types: (i) hardware, (ii) software, (iii) ICT service, and (iv) other ICT costs, and estimated the production function to measure their marginal product. The results show that underinvestment is more prominent in software and ICT service than in hardware. Going further, we separated the cost of cloud service from ICT service, and estimated its coefficient and marginal product. It proves that cloud service plays an important role in firms' production, and that it is severely underinvested. The estimation results suggest that the marginal product of cloud service is about 24 times greater than its user cost.
    Date: 2015–06
  24. By: Seungjin Han
    Abstract: This paper studies competing mechanism problems in directed search markets in which multiple principals (e.g., sellers) simultaneously offer trading mechanisms to multiple agents (e.g., buyers) to compete for trading opportunities, and agents select any particular principal for trading via directed search. A principal's mechanism can be sufficiently general to make his terms of trade contingent on agents' messages, which may reflect not only their types but also changes in others' terms of trade. This paper is interested in an equilibrium with dominant strategy implementable punishment (DSIP) where principals punish the deviating principal with dominant strategy incentive compatible (DIC) direct mechanisms when a principal's deviation becomes evident from agents' messages. This DIC property of punishment off the path makes equilibrium analysis tractable. This paper provides the greatest lower bound of a principal's payoff supportable in an equilibrium with DSIP in terms of incentive compatible direct mechanisms. It also provides implications of the results.
    Keywords: click stream pricing, on-line markets, competing mechanisms, market information, implicit collusion, robust equilibrium
    JEL: C72 D82
    Date: 2015–06
  25. By: Heidi Tworek; Simone M. Müller
    Abstract: This provides an introduction to the special issue on the governance of international communications. We have two main arguments. First, we argue that international coordination of technical standards has historically succeeded over and above any attempts to regulate content or the users of communications technology. Second, we argue that these technical standards have proven highly durable for communications, in particular because communications infrastructures are so path-dependent.

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