nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒05‒22
28 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Another cluster premium: Innovation subsidies and R&D collaboration networks By Tom Broekel; Dirk Fornahl; Andrea Morrison
  2. Network (Mis)Alignment, Technology Policy and Innovation: The Tale of Two Brazilian Cities By Janaina Pamplona da Costa
  3. Networking, context and firm-level innovation: Cooperation through the regional filter in Norway By Rune Dahl Fitjar; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  4. Technology Transfer in ASEAN Countries: Some Evidence from Buyer-Provided Training Network Data By Dionisius A. NARJOKO
  5. Innovation in contemporary economies By Elzbieta Pohulak-Zoledowska
  6. Determinants of Internal Versus of External R&D Offshoring: Evidence from Spanish Firms By Mery Patricia Tamayo; Elena Huergo
  7. What do firms know? What do they produce? A new look at the relationship between patenting profiles and patterns of product diversification By G. Dosi; M. Grazzi; D. Moschella
  8. Private versus Social Incentives for Pharmaceutical Innovation By Paula González; Inés Macho-Stadler; David Pérez-Castrillo
  9. R&D tax incentives in industry: empirical study among small and medium electronics manufacturing enterprises By Nina Bockova
  10. Do spinoff dynamics or agglomeration externalities drive industry clustering? A reappraisal of Steven Klepper’s work By Boschma, Ron
  11. Persistence of Various Types of Innovation Analyzed and Explained By Tavassoli, Sam; Karlsson, Charlie
  12. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach By Catini, Roberto; Karamshuk, Dmytro; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo
  13. Knowledge flows in high-impact firms: How does relatedness influence survival, acquisition and exit? By Jonathan Borggren; Rikard H. Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
  14. Monetary valuation of intellectual human capital in innovative activity By ?arina Fedotova; Olga Loseva; Olga Kontorovich
  15. Maturity of strategic management in organizations By Anna Witek-Crabb
  16. Human Resources Management by Improving the Competences of Employees By Ma Kura; Piotr K
  17. Strategic dual sourcing as a driver for free revealing of innovation By Noriaki Matsushima; Laixun Zhao
  18. Coping with Change in the Economy: New Technologies, Organisational Innovation and Economies of Scale and Scope in the Brazilian Engineering Industry By Ruy de Quadros Carvalho
  19. Regulation, firm dynamics and entrepreneurship By Braunerhjelm, Pontus; Desai, Sameeksha; Eklund, Johan E.
  20. Small and medium enterprises and the support policy of local government By Mieczyslaw Adamowicz; Aldona Machla
  21. Adding sustainable value: integrating sustainability via a multi-disciplinary learning method in hospitality education By Niels Van Felius; Elena Cavagnaro
  22. Aiding innovation and entrepreneurship through migration policy: A view from Australia By Khanh Hoang
  23. An analysis of factors that influence organizational learning: The case of higher education institutions By Alexandra Luciana Gu
  24. Technological Progress and Diffusion: Decomposing Total Factor Productivity Growth in Brazilian Manufacturing By Armando Castelar Pinheiro
  25. Productivity in the slow lane?: the role of information and communications technology By Wang, J. Christina; Pearson, Alison
  26. Model of Integrated Academic Performance and Accountability System for HEI By Shawyun Teay
  27. Strategic behaviour in Schelling dynamics: Theory and experimental evidence By Juan M. Benito-Ostolaza; Pablo Brañas-Garza; Penélope Hern´andez
  28. Exploring strategic priorities for regional agricultural research and development investments in Southern Africa By Johnson, M.

  1. By: Tom Broekel; Dirk Fornahl; Andrea Morrison
    Abstract: This paper investigates the allocation of R&D subsidies with a focus on the granting success of firms located in clusters. On this basis it is evaluated whether firms in these clusters are differently embedded into networks of subsidized R&D collaboration than firms located elsewhere. The theoretical arguments are empirically tested using the example of the German biotechnology firms’ participation in the 6th EU-Framework Programmes and national R&D subsidization schemes in the early 2000s. We show that clusters grant firms another premium to their location, as they are more likely to receive funds from the EU-Framework Programmes and hold more favourable positions in national knowledge networks based on subsidies for joint R&D.
    Keywords: Innovation policy, R&D subsidy, collaboration networks, embeddedness, technology cluster
    JEL: R11 O33 R58 D85
    Date: 2015–05
  2. By: Janaina Pamplona da Costa (State University of Campinas, Department of Science and Technology Policy)
    Abstract: This article addresses network alignment through an investigation of network governance (coordination) and structure, and examines how regional level network governance and structure influence the effectiveness of technology policy to improve local firms’ innovativeness in a developing country context. It examines whether network governance and structure have a consistent influence on firms’ innovative performance in developing country regions with different levels of socio-economic development. The empirical evidence is based on case studies of the Campinas and Recife regional software networks in Brazil and the innovative performance of the participating local firms. We find that adoption of a general technology policy prescription and formation of networks to improve firm-level innovation and regional catch-up should involve careful consideration of the intended effects: membership of a network may not be a necessary condition for improved innovation at firm level.
    Keywords: network alignment; network governance; Brazilian software industry; innovation networks; technology policy effectiveness; regional development
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Rune Dahl Fitjar; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: The paper assesses the role for innovation of one aspect which has been generally overlooked by evolutionary economic geography: context. It analyses how context shapes the impact of collaboration on firm-level innovation for 1604 firms located in the five largest city regions of Norway. Specifically, the analysis shows how the benefits to firms of collaborating within regional, national, and international innovation networks are affected by the knowledge endowments of the region within which the firm is located. Using a logit regression analysis, we find, first, that only national and international networking have a significant positive impact on the likelihood of innovation (the former only for process innovation), whereas the regional knowledge endowments have no direct effect. Second, regional cooperation is particularly effective in regions with high investments in R&D, whereas international cooperation is important in regions with an educated workforce – and regional and national collaboration may be ineffective in such cases. We conclude that, in the case of Norway, context is essential in determining the capacity of firms to set up networks and innovate. Regions with an educated workforce can use the resulting absorptive capacity to successfully assimilate knowledge being diffused through global pipelines from faraway places. However, this absorptive capacity is likely to be heavily filtered if regional firms mainly rely on internal connections within Norway.
    Keywords: Innovation; interaction; networking; context; human capital; R&D; firms; Norway
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Dionisius A. NARJOKO (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Technology transfers are important channels for firms in developing countries to get access to new technology and initiate innovation. This paper examines the geographical pattern of technology transfers in the form of buyer-provided training in domestic and international production networks. Our unique buyer-supplier network data in four countries in Southeast Asia allow us to directly observe the buyer-supplier relationship as well as the existence of inter-firm provision of training for product/process innovation in order to investigate the geographical structure of knowledge acquisition, dissemination, and aggregation among local and non-local firms. The empirical analysis finds the following: (i) the probability of having training provided by the main buyer presents a U-shaped quadratic pattern with respect to the geographical distance between the respondent firms and the main buyers. The geographical proximity to the main buyer seems to be particularly important for local firms. (ii) The training provision is likely for both local and non-local firms when the main buyer is a multinational located in the same country. (iii) The probability of having training from the main buyer is high when the main buyer conducts R&D. (iv) Both local and non-local firms that have training provided by their main buyers are likely to provide training to their main suppliers. (v) In the case of non-local firms, product innovation with production partners is more likely when they have upstream/downstream training. However, such links seem to be weaker in the case of local firms
    Keywords: buyer-provided training; FDI spillovers; backward linkages; Southeast Asia
    JEL: M5 O31 O32 R12
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Elzbieta Pohulak-Zoledowska (Wroclaw University of Economics)
    Abstract: The hereby article discusses the issues related to the existing or required support given by the State to enterprises in order to provide them conditions to innovate. Neoclassical economy puts an emphasis to the price mechanism as a decision making effective tool, but enterprises meet many barriers in creating and introducing innovation, like high cost, high risk or lack of demand for innovation. These phenomena tend to inhibit innovation of enterprises. This means that market is not an efficient mechanism for innovation activity of enterprises, and its imperfections provoke State’s intervention. The goal of the article is to shape the objectives of State’s impact on decisions of innovative enterprises. Research method is the critical literature review and public data on State’s support on business R&D analysis. The research results show State’s support for both – incremental and radical innovation, which proves that innovative activity of enterprises is far from being a spontaneous, market-based process.
    Keywords: innovation, knowledge, market economies, the state
    JEL: H53 O12 O32 O38
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Mery Patricia Tamayo (Grupo de Economía y Empresa, Departamento de Economía, Universidad EAFIT, Universidad EAFIT and GRIPICOUCM, carrera 49 No 7 sur – 50, Medellín, Colombia.); Elena Huergo (Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I (Análisis Económico), Facultad de CC. Económicas y Empresariales. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Grupo de Investigación en Productividad, Innovación y Competencia (GRIPICO) (Group for Research in Productivity, Innovation and Competition), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Complutense University of Madrid))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of R&D offshoring of Spanish firms using infor-mation from the Panel of Technological Innovation. We find that being an exporter, continuous R&D engagement, applying for patents, being a subsidiary, and firm size are factors that positively affect the decision to offshore R&D. In addition, we obtain that the factors that influence this decision for firms that belong to a business group differ depending on whether the firm purchases R&D services within the group or through the market.
    Abstract: Este trabajo analiza los determinantes del offshoring de I+D de las empresas españolas utilizando información del Panel de Innovación Tecnológica. Los resultados indican que ser exportador, realizar I+D de forma continua, solicitar patentes, ser una filial y el tamaño de la empresas afectan positivamente a la decisión de realizar offshoring de I+D. Además, se obtiene que los factores que influyen en esta decisión para las empresas que pertenecen a grupos empresariales difieren dependiendo de si la empresa compra los servicios de I+D dentro del grupo o a través del mercado.
    Keywords: R&D offshoring, firms’ strategies, obstacles to innovation, independent firms, subsidiaries, estrategias empresariales, obstáculos a la innovación, empresas independientes, filiales.
    JEL: L24 O32
    Date: 2015–01
  7. By: G. Dosi; M. Grazzi; D. Moschella
    Abstract: In this work we analyze the relationship between the patterns of firm diversification, if any, across product lines and across bodies of innovative knowledge, proxied by the patent classes where the firm is present. Putting it more emphatically we investigate the relationship between "what a firm does" and "what a firm knows". Using a newly developed dataset matching information on patents and products at the firm level, we provide evidence concerning firms' technological and product scope, their relationships, the size-scaling and coherence properties of diversification itself. Our analysis shows that typically firms are much more diversified in terms of products than in terms of technologies, with their main products more related to the exploitation of their innovative knowledge. The scaling properties show that the number of products and technologies increase log-linearly with firm size. And the directions of diversification themselves display coherence between neighboring activities also at relatively high degrees of diversification. These findings are well in tune with a capability-based theory of the firm.
    JEL: C81 D22 L20 L25 O31
    Date: 2015–04
  8. By: Paula González (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide.); Inés Macho-Stadler (Department of Economics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Barcelona GSE.); David Pérez-Castrillo (Department of Economics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Barcelona GSE.)
    Abstract: There is a great deal of debate in society regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than the development of breakthrough drugs. This paper provides a theoretical framework to study firm incentives for pharmaceutical innovation that disentangle the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients treated with one of two --horizontally and vertically differentiated-- drugs. One of the drugs is the pioneer; the other is the result of an innovative process by a firm that seeks to achieve an improvement over the existing drug. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations.
    Keywords: pharmaceuticals, R&D activities, me-too drugs, breakthrough drugs, incremental innovation, radical innovation.
    JEL: I1 L1
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Nina Bockova (Brno University of Technology)
    Abstract: The paper deals with the topic of direct and indirect support for research and development and its use in small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the electronic industry. The Czech Republic is the geographic segment to be explored. A chapter on theoretical issues is followed by a description of the current situation in the Czech Republic and abroad and access to legal support for research and development in the business sector. Primary data collected from a survey are analysed in the analytical part. Some small and medium-sized enterprises of chosen group of manufacturing industry focus on research and development performed by they own means and they searched the possibility of financing the research from various sources. The initiative of these enterprises increase considerably their competitiveness in the global market and they realize the necessity of the innovation policy in the strategic management of the business, but still they do not make full use of all available supports in research and development from public sources and instruments of fiscal policy, which allows the legislation of the Czech Republic.
    Keywords: small & medium-size enterprises, R&D tax deductible, own research and development, Czech Republic
    JEL: E61 H29 D92
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: Boschma, Ron (CIRCLE, Lund University and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Utrecht University)
    Abstract: Klepper’s theory of industry clustering based on organizational reproduction and inheritance through spinoffs challenged the Marshallian view on industry clustering. The paper provides an assessment of Klepper’s theoretical and empirical work on industry clustering. We explore how ‘new’ his spinoff theory on industry clustering was, and we investigate the impact of Klepper’s theory on the economic geography community. Klepper’s work has inspired especially recent literature on regional branching that argues that new industries grow out of and recombine capabilities from local related industries. Finally, the paper discusses what questions on industry location are still left open or in need of more evidence in the context of Klepper’s theory.
    Keywords: Klepper; spinoff dynamics; agglomeration economies; Marshall; industry cluster; evolutionary economic geography
    JEL: B15 B52 O18 R11
    Date: 2015–05–14
  11. By: Tavassoli, Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University and Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona); Karlsson, Charlie (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona; Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), KTH, Stockholm and Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the persistency in innovation behavior of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a ten-year period, i.e. between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between four types of innovations: process, product, marketing, and organizational innovations. First, using Transition Probability Matrix, we found evidence of (unconditional) state dependence in all types of innovation, with product innovators having the strongest persistent behavior. Second, using a dynamic probit model, we found evidence of “true” state dependency among all types of innovations, except marketing innovators. Once again, the strongest persistency was found for product innovators.
    Keywords: Persistence; innovation; product innovations; process innovations; market innovations; organizational innovations; state dependence; heterogeneity; firms; Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: D22 L20 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–05–14
  12. By: Catini, Roberto; Karamshuk, Dmytro; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo
    Abstract: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.
    Keywords: innovation clusters; network analysis; bio-pharmaceutical industry
    JEL: C6 O31 R12
    Date: 2015–05–14
  13. By: Jonathan Borggren; Rikard H. Eriksson; Urban Lindgren
    Abstract: Following the impact on regional renewal and employment ascribed to rapidly growing firms (high-impact firms, HIFs), this paper argues that little is still known in economic geography and business studies today regarding the mechanisms influencing growth of such firms and, hence, the potential impact on regional employment. The aim of this paper is thus to explore how the qualitative content of skills (i.e. the degree of similarity, relatedness and unrelatedness) recruited to a firm during a period of fast growth influences its future success. Our findings, based on a sample of 1,589 HIFs in the Swedish economy, suggest that it is not only the number of people employed that matters in aiding the understanding of the future destiny of the firms –"but also, more importantly, it is the scope of the skills recruited and their proximity to related industries.
    Keywords: high-impact firms, skills, relatedness, labor flows
    JEL: L25 R12 R23
    Date: 2015–05
  14. By: ?arina Fedotova (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation); Olga Loseva (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation); Olga Kontorovich (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation)
    Abstract: The article views the structure of an organization’s intellectual human capital, which integrates both employees’ intellectual, professional and personal abilities to perform innovation activity and their results achieved in the process of this activity. The authors prove the role of intellectual human capital in improving an organization’s innovation activity. Basing on the cost, income, expert and psychological approaches, the article develops the intellectual capital monetary valuation model focused on an increase in the objectivity of measuring its value by means of the individual intellectual and performance report. The application of this model is aimed at activating the innovative development of social and economic entities by increasing the quality and efficiency of intellectual human capital.
    Keywords: intellectual human capital, value, valuation, innovation activity
    JEL: O31 J33
    Date: 2015–05
  15. By: Anna Witek-Crabb (Wroclaw University of Economics)
    Abstract: There is some ambivalence with regards to how to improve strategic management of organizations. On the one hand the example of big companies emphasizes the need for formalization and good organization of strategic management process. On the other hand the example of small companies draws attention to such qualities as entrepreneurship, flexibility and adaptability. The concept of strategic management maturity embraces both of these priorities. In this paper a framework for strategic management maturity has been designed. Strategic management maturity was defined as a resultant of: strategic management process maturity and leadership maturity. Theoretical framework was tested on a sample of 150 Polish enterprises.
    Keywords: maturity, strategic management, organizational development
    JEL: L1 L2 M14
    Date: 2015–05
  16. By: Ma Kura (Czestochowa University of Technology); Piotr K (Czestochowa University of Technology)
    Abstract: For modern and innovative enterprises, the priority activity should be effective and skillful management of the possessed human resources since they are considered as one of the most valuable assets of the enterprise, which can provide the achievement of competitive advantage on the market. In the paper, there is discussed the problem of human resource management in the context of providing employees with opportunities for development.In the first part of the paper, there is presented the significance and specificity of human resources for modern enterprises and the selected definitions of human resource management. In the subsequent part of the paper, there is discussed the issue of the necessity to invest in staff development and the significance of improving staff competences for enterprises. The last part of the paper includes the analysis of dependencies between investing in staff development and the level of development of enterprises operating in Poland. The analysis has been conducted on the basis of the empirical data included in the report of the research Rozwijanie kompetencji przez doros
    Keywords: human resources, competences, competitiveness, enterprise
    JEL: O15
  17. By: Noriaki Matsushima; Laixun Zhao
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of dual sourcing (e.g., outside options) in vertical and horizontal relations. In a bilateral monopoly market, if either the upstream or downstream firm has outside options, the other firm could lose from seemingly positive shocks, e.g., market expansion or technology improvements. We extend this setting to a bilateral duopoly market in which each downstream firm has outside options and upstream firms can engage in cost reducing investments and generate technological spillovers. We find that each upstream firm has an incentive to voluntarily generate technological spillovers to its upstream rival if the downstream firms have better outside options.
    Date: 2015–05
  18. By: Ruy de Quadros Carvalho
    Date: 2015–01
  19. By: Braunerhjelm, Pontus (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)); Desai, Sameeksha (Indiana University); Eklund, Johan E. (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum and Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship can have important positive effects linked to job creation, wealth and income generation, innovation and industry competitiveness. Scholars and policy-makers around the world have turned to the regulatory environment as a mechanism through which entrepreneurship can be encouraged, grown and its economic benefits harnessed. The effect of regulatory conditions on entrepreneurship however is not well understood, and can be nuanced given the wide range of regulatory tools and possible areas of impact. This paper serves as the introduction to a special issue, which seeks to shed some light on the relationship between regulation, firm dynamics and entrepreneurship. We identify some foundational considerations relevant to this relationship and discuss key questions, followed by a brief overview of each of the papers contained in the special issue.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; regulation; firm; entry
    JEL: K20 L30 L51 M13
    Date: 2015–05–11
  20. By: Mieczyslaw Adamowicz (Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biala Podlaska); Aldona Machla (Warsaw University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Subjects of research are small and medium enterprises in local scales of Pultusk town and community and policy of local authorities related to SME sector. The main task of research is an avaluation, in random sample of enterpreneurs, of the SME support system and instruments used by local authorities. Results of empirical survey were suttled in subject literature analysis and presented by comparing to the national charakteristics of MSE sector and its structure in Poland, and linking these to general suport policy by central and lokal governments.
    Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises Sector, support policy for SME, Pultusk town and community, development factors and barriers for SME
    JEL: A11
    Date: 2015–05
  21. By: Niels Van Felius (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands); Elena Cavagnaro (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands)
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper addresses the issue put forward by Bynum Boley and Remington-Doucette by proposing a multi-disciplinary method, as an applicable learning method to integrate all three dimensions of sustainability in Hospitality education. The purpose of this paper is to request feedback of the industry partners and colleagues present at the conference to a proposed educational method that is possibly suitable in the design of a minor in sustainability for hospitality management. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The educational method designed focuses on solving sustainability problems of the “real world” and extends the research on integrating sustainability in higher hospitality management education. Findings – Through the analysis of sustainability in Hospitality education and through adding the concept of the triple bottom line6 for value creation to the quadrants of the Hospitality Value Chain, an integration of sustainability in the system of hospitality education is considered and explored. Since sustainability is an everlasting process, education needs to be on the forefront in creating future change agents2. This possibly requires an alternative view on developing knowledge and skills of hospitality and tourism students via a multi-disciplinary approach/learning method. Practical implications – The designed learning method can be put in practice and used for further research on implementation of sustainability in higher hospitality education. The originality of this research –The originality of this research consist of the fact that this form of sustainable education is in its primary stage and not much debated yet.
    Keywords: Education, teaching method, sustainability, constructivism, and pressure cooker
    JEL: L83
  22. By: Khanh Hoang (ANU College of Law, Australian National University)
    Abstract: In recent years, there has been significant interest internationally in the role that migration law and policies may play in aiding innovation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. Several countries, including Australia, Canada, the US and Singapore have established various investment and entrepreneur visas aimed at attracting foreign investment and human capital in return for permanent residency or citizenship. This paper analyses the effectiveness of Australia’s migration policies in strengthening its innovation system and provides suggestions for reform. It identifies shortages in venture capital and access to overseas entrepreneurial talent as two urgent areas for reform of the innovation system. Australia’s visa offerings under its Business Innovation and Investment Program - such as Significant Investment Visa (SIV) program and the Venture Capital Entrepreneur Visa - have so far failed to address these shortages. The paper draws on experiences from other jurisdictions to suggest avenues for reform of Business Innovation and Investment Program. These reforms could include: widening the ‘complying investment’ criterion for significant investor visa; mandatory investment in venture capital funds, with matching from the Government; and reducing onerous threshold criteria for entry into Australia as an entrepreneur. These proposals for reform, and Australia’s experiences, may provide lessons for other countries seeking to establish similar investment visa programs.
    Keywords: migration, innovation, investment, entrepreneurship
    JEL: K00
  23. By: Alexandra Luciana Gu (Doctoral School of Economics and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Ia)
    Abstract: This paper makes reference to different factors that can influence organizational learning. Our focus is on making considerations on the factors influencing organizational learning, in the specific case of higher education institutions. Our personal considerations are transposed in highlighting the particularities on this subject, in the case of higher education institutions, regarded as entities of their own, and are based on a review of the literature treating the factors that influence organizational learning. Our aim is to undertake a thorough analysis on these factors, in universities. The approach is a theoretical one – the paper combines a literature review on the factors that can influence organizational learning in general, and our own considerations on these factors, in higher education institutions. For undertaking the research, we have considered the case of Romanian higher education institutions, in general.
    Keywords: organizational learning, higher education institutions, influencing factors
    JEL: D83
  24. By: Armando Castelar Pinheiro
    Date: 2015–01
  25. By: Wang, J. Christina (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston); Pearson, Alison (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: As the current recovery matures in the United States, evidence is mounting that total factor productivity (TFP), the typical measure of technological change, has moved back into the slow lane. This study uses industry data to explore the extent to which the acceleration in TFP in the late 1990s and early 2000s and the subsequent deceleration are attributable to unmeasured investment by firms to take full advantage of the new capabilities made possible by information and communications technology (ICT).
    Keywords: productivity: TFP; MFP; information technology; ICT; intangible capital
    JEL: E23
    Date: 2014–12–22
  26. By: Shawyun Teay (King Saud University)
    Abstract: While accountability has been discussed and designed for implementation for schools systems in the West, what would responsibility and accountability mean for a Higher Education Institute (HEI) has been elusive. Basically, key literature in accountability connects assessment, teaching and learning, student and teacher systems, testing systems leading to improvements, innovations and renewals in the whole organizational capacity and capabilities system. These basically are the 4 sanctified mission tenets of any HEI of teaching, learning, research and societal responsibility. A key question facing most HEI would be the fundamental principles and mechanics in developing, ensuring and measuring these accountabilities that affects the students and society. The immediacy is the internal policies, processes, pragmatics and practices of the creation and delivery of “education value” that is the faculty and staff using the educational processes responsibly and accountably way towards the students’ accomplishment and achievements and societal development. Instead of focusing on the outcome of the accountability from external measures, this paper will focus on the internal practices and mechanisms that need to be established to ensure and support to internal responsibility and accountability of the HEI and its academic personnel. This paper aims at proposing a working model for this internal integrated Academic Performance and Accountability System (APAS) for a HEI. Six key internal indices are established in the key areas to course evaluations index, teaching and learning assessment learning outcome index of student, quality contributions index, research index, administrative work index, societal responsibility index. All these culminate in the Academic Performance and Accountability Index (APAI) of a scorecard of the faculty performance and accountability from the inherent internal processes that affect the final student external outcome performance.
    Keywords: Academic accountability, higher education, balanced scorecard approach, academic performance and evaluation
    JEL: I21
  27. By: Juan M. Benito-Ostolaza (Departamento de Econom´ıa.Universidad P´ublica de Navarra, Campus Arrosadia s/n. 31006 Pamplona. Navarra. Spain.); Pablo Brañas-Garza (Middlesex University London, Business School, London NW4 4BT, England.); Penélope Hern´andez (Departamento de An´alisis Econ´omico y ERI-CES, Facultad de Econom´ıa. Avda. dels Tarongers, s/n. 46022 Valencia. Spain.; ERI-CES and Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia. Facultad de Economía. Avenida dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.)
    Abstract: In this paper we experimentally test Schelling’s (1971) segregation model and confirm the striking result of segregation. In addition, we extend Schelling’s model theoretically by adding strategic behaviour and moving costs. We obtain a unique subgame perfect equilibrium in which rational agents facing moving costs may find it optimal not to move (anticipating other participants’ movements). This equilibrium is far from full segregation. We run experiments for this extended Schelling model, and find that the percentage of full segregated societies notably decreases with the cost of moving and that the degree of segregation depends on the distribution of strategic subjects.
    Keywords: Subgame perfect equilibrium, segregation, experimental games
    JEL: C72 C9 R23
    Date: 2015–05
  28. By: Johnson, M.
    Date: 2014

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