nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒04‒25
thirteen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Modelling R&D and Innovation Support Systems – Analysis of Regional Cluster Structures in Innovation in Portugal By Teresa de Noronha Vaz; Purificación Vicente Galindo; Peter Nijkamp
  2. The Firms behind the Regions: Analysis of Regional Innovation Performance in Portugal by External Logistic Biplots By Teresa de Noronha; Purificación Vicente Galindo; Peter Nijkamp; Eric de Noronha Vaz
  3. Research among Copycats: R&D, Spillovers, and Feedback Strategies By Grega Smrkolj; Florian Wagener
  4. Allocation of Human Capital and Innovation at the Frontier: Firm-level Evidence on Germany and the Netherlands By Eric Bartelsman; Sabien Dobbelaere; Bettina Peters
  5. Significance of globalization-specific factors for SME competitiveness: a conceptual model and an empirical test By Vladimirov, Zhelyu; Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa; Ganev, Kaloyan
  6. Buyers, Suppliers, and R&D Spillovers By IKEUCHI Kenta; René BELDERBOS; FUKAO Kyoji; Young Gak KIM; KWON Hyeog Ug
  7. Technology Import, R and D Spillover and Export: A Study of Automobile Sector in India By Santosh K. Sahu; K. Narayanan
  8. The Spatial-Institutional Architecture of Firms’ Innovative Behaviour By Eric de Noronha Vaz; Teresa de Noronha Vaz; Peter Nijkamp
  9. Space and Knowledge Spillovers in European Regions By Andrea Caragliu; Peter Nijkamp
  10. Skill Variety, Innovation and New Business Formation By Jolanda Hessels; Udo Brixy; Wim Naudé; Thomas Gries
  11. Innovative Transformation and Transformational Potential of Socio-Economic Systems By Dudin, Mikhail; Ljasnikov, Nikolaj; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Fedorova, Irina
  12. Technology foresight and industrial strategy in developing countries By Pietrobelli C.; Puppato F.
  13. The Triple Helix Model as a Mechanism for Partnership between the State, Business, and the Scientific-Educational Community in the Area of Organizing National Innovation Development By Dudin, Mikhail; Frolova, Evgenia; Gryzunova, Natalie; Shuvalova, Elena

  1. By: Teresa de Noronha Vaz (University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal); Purificación Vicente Galindo (University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper offers a new methodology to identify R&D and innovation clusters, on the basis of a regional analysis of innovation support systems in Portugal. Using a web-based inventory of R&D and innovation agencies, an extensive data base is created. This data set is next analyzed by means of Principal Coordinates Analysis followed by a Logistic Biplot approach (leading to Voronoi mappings) in order to design a systematic typology of innovation clusters in the main regions in Portugal. A striking result is the significant difference in innovation systems at regional level in Portugal. The paper is concluded with policy recommendations.
    Keywords: R&D and innovation, regional innovation systems, principal coordinates analysis, logistic biplot, Voronoi mapping, public policy
    JEL: Q55 Q16
    Date: 2013–08–02
  2. By: Teresa de Noronha (Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal; Cities Centre, University of Toronto, Canada); Purificación Vicente Galindo (University of Salamanca, Spain); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Eric de Noronha Vaz (Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada)
    Abstract: The strategic choices regarding innovation and R&D policy in Portugal have, over the last two decades, produced various positive benefits, in which particularly the regions of Lisbon and Algarve have taken the lead. These are the only parts of the country that converge towards the European average growth rate. The other Lisbon and Algarve have taken the lead, and are the only ones in the country to converge towards the European average growth rate. Other Portuguese regions – despite significant national growth rates in the 1990s and a successful attempt to cope with the EMU – are lagging behind the EU average with respect to gross production, investment and employment generation. Meanwhile, one of the greatest public policy efforts was to diffuse much of the European funds across the entrepreneurial sector. This paper aims to evaluate the firms’ contribution to national and regional growth, their obstacles and impacts, and to explain the present performance of Portuguese firms located throughout the country, and to explore those innovation determinants that have a region-specific connotation. In our paper, innovation is used as a major contributor to the policy evaluation process referred to above. To provide a thorough investigation, our analysis defines, on a regional basis, a set of firms’ behavioural patterns regarding innovation. In our modelling, we employ a new methodology, viz. the External Logistic Biplot method, which is applied to an extensive sample of innovative institutions in Portugal. Variables such as ‘Promoting knowledge’, ‘Management skills’, ‘Promoting R&D’, ‘Knowledge transfer’, ‘Promoting partnership & cooperation’, and ‘Orientation of public measures’ have been identified as crucial determinants in earlier studies and are now used to describe regional institutional profiles.
    Keywords: Regional Asymmetries, Innovation, Firms' Performance, Regional Innovation Systems, Principal Coordinates Analysis, External Logistic Biplot, Voronoi Diagram, Dissimilarity Matrix
    JEL: O50 O3
    Date: 2013–09–05
  3. By: Grega Smrkolj (Newcastle University, United Kingdom); Florian Wagener (University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
    Abstract: We study a stochastic dynamic game of process innovation in which firms can initiate and terminate R&D efforts and production at different times. We discern the impact of knowledge spillovers on the investments in existing markets, as well as on the likely structure of newly forming markets, for all possible asymmetries between firms. We show that the relation between spillovers, R&D efforts, and surpluses is non-monotonic and dependent on both the relative and absolute efficiency of firms. Larger spillovers increase the likelihood that a new technology is brought to production, but they do not necessarily make the industry more competitive.
    Keywords: Differential game, Feedback Nash equilibrium, Numerical partial differential equations, R&D, Spillovers
    JEL: C61 C63 C73 D43 D92 L13 O31
    Date: 2014–08–22
  4. By: Eric Bartelsman (VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and IZA, Germany); Sabien Dobbelaere (VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and IZA, Germany); Bettina Peters (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), MaCCI Mannheimer Centre for Competition and Innovation, Germany, and University of Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper examines how productivity effects of human capital and innovation vary at different points of the conditional productivity distribution. Our analysis draws upon two large unbalanced panels of 6,634 enterprises in Germany and 14,586 enterprises in the Netherlands over the period 2000-2008, considering 5 manufacturing and services industries that differ in the level of technological intensity. Industries in the Netherlands are characterized by a larger average proportion of high-skilled employees and industries in Germany by a more unequal distribution of human capital intensity. Except for low-technology manufacturing, average innovation performance is higher in all industries in Germany and the innovation performance distributions are more dispersed in the Netherlands. In both countries, we observe non-linearities in the productivity effects of investing in product innovation in the majority of industries. Frontier firms enjoy the highest returns to pro duct innovation whereas the most negative returns to process innovation are observed in the best-performing enterprises of most industries. In both countries, we find that the returns to human capital increase with proximity to the technological frontier in industries with a low level of technological intensity. Strikingly, a negative complementarity effect between human capital and proximity to the technological frontier is observed in knowledge-intensive services, which is most pronounced for the Netherlands. Suggestive evidence for the latter points to a winner-takes-all interpretation of this finding.
    Keywords: Human capital, innovation, productivity, quantile regression
    JEL: C10 I20 O14 O30
    Date: 2013–07–19
  5. By: Vladimirov, Zhelyu; Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa; Ganev, Kaloyan
    Abstract: On the basis of existing theory we suggest two main types of factors for SME competitiveness. The first type is comprised of the basic factors, including internal, external and entrepreneur-related factors, all well-defined and discussed in the IO and RBV approach and the configuration theory as well. The second type consists of globalization-specific factors, referring to the innovation related processes as a response to the globalization challenges (innovation, internationalization, ICT and quality standards adoption, etc.). Our main research question is: Do globalization-specific factors have a significant impact on SME performance in times of crisis and post-crisis recovery? Using the two types of factors, we develop a conceptual model explaining their role for SME performance. We suggest that globalization-specific factors determine SME performance, and that the configurations of the two types of factors differ in times of crisis and post-crisis recovery. Research hypotheses are tested through construction of indexes for competitiveness and logit models using data on Bulgarian SMEs for two periods – one of economic crisis, and another of post-crisis recovery. Empirical evidence confirms significant impact of globalization-specific factors in period of post-crisis recovery only. Our findings show that the configuration of basic and globalization-specific factors with respect to business success is dynamic: in times of crises globalization-specific factors have no significant impact while basic factors have dominant role. In times of post-crises recovery both factors seem to be equally important for SME performance.
    Keywords: SMEs, competitiveness, basic factors, globalization-specific factors, configuration, crisis, post-crisis recovery
    JEL: L25 M0 M10 M20 O10 O30
    Date: 2013–08–15
  6. By: IKEUCHI Kenta; René BELDERBOS; FUKAO Kyoji; Young Gak KIM; KWON Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: The role of buyers and suppliers has received little attention in the literature on research and development (R&D) spillovers and productivity, which has focused primarily on the moderating roles of technological and geographic proximity. In this study, we examine R&D spillovers that result from buyer and supplier relationships at the transaction level, utilizing a unique dataset identifying individual buyers and suppliers of Japanese manufacturing firms, matched with data from R&D surveys and the Census of Manufactures. In an analysis of more than 20,000 Japanese manufacturing plants, we find that R&D stocks of buyers and suppliers provide a substantial productivity performance premium over and above the effect of technologically and geographically proximate R&D stocks. These effects are magnified if the supplier and buyer have business group ties based on capital ownership relationships. While the effects of technologically proximate R&D decay with distance, this is not the case for spillovers from buyers and suppliers. Our results identify transaction-based spillovers as a key influence on productivity and social returns to R&D.
    Date: 2015–04
  7. By: Santosh K. Sahu (Madras School of Economics); K. Narayanan (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai)
    Abstract: We examine the importance of a firm’s R and D activity, technology import and intra-sectoral R and D spillovers on the decision to export and export intensity using firm level panel data for the Indian automobile sector from 2000-2014. R and D and technology import activities are found to be important determinants of export activity. There is evidence that R and D spillovers exert positive effects on firms’ export intensity and decision to export. In addition to these results, firm age and size are nonlinearly related to export decision and export intensity. Energy efficiency plays important role in export behavior for firms that are continuously exporting and those who are exporting at least for one year.
    Keywords: Decision to export, Export intensity, Indian automobile sector, R and D intensity, Technology import intensity
    JEL: L10 L21 L22 L62
    Date: 2015–02
  8. By: Eric de Noronha Vaz (Ryerson University, Department of Geography, Toronto, Canada); Teresa de Noronha Vaz (CIEO – Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Faro, Portugal); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In recent decades there have been an enormous number of studies about innovation systems, partly inspired by a great interest among policy makers in search for a solid scientific foundation and professional support to identify appropriate development strategies. Despite different perspectives, most studies highlight knowledge creation and innovation as the major drivers of change and growth. This consensus disappears, however, as soon as the complexity of innovation and knowledge are taken into consideration. Innovation goes far beyond new product or process development on account of its interactive nature, while knowledge often surpasses the firms’ internal mechanisms, because, frequently, it is a spatially endogenous characteristic. The present paper aims to offer a refreshing contribution to the above discussion and represents an effort to develop a novel model able to answer how institutions are relating to each other, drawing networks of innovation. The available database comprises an extensive set of Portuguese innovative firms, spatially identified and able to engage in spatial connectivity in order to understand where and how strong the links are for innovation in Portugal, and to analyse the respective levels of geographical concentration or dispersion.
    Keywords: innovation; firms
    JEL: O31 D21
    Date: 2013–08–01
  9. By: Andrea Caragliu (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Usually, the diffusion of a non-rival market knowledge externality - called a Knowledge Spillover (KS) - is related to geographical proximity. In this paper we explore the channels through which knowledge spreads. Compared with earlier work on KS measures, this study makes a step forward by calculating KS (as a balance of positive and negative absolute knowledge flows) on the basis of different proximity matrices. In particular, we focus on the relational, social, technological, and cognitive channel, along with the traditional geographical channel. In the light of previous studies on KS, we examine: (i) which types of proximity enhance or hamper the outward flow of knowledge; and (ii) whether the local endowment of absorptive capacity reduces such a flow. Our results show that KSs vary across alternative definitions of proximity. The parameter estimates of such a KS model show interesting patterns, with geographical and cognitive proximity having the highest explanatory power am ong all the types of proximity considered. Local absorptive capacity is found to be negative only when a region is surrounded by regions with similarly high levels of absorptive capacity. Furthermore, outward KSs decrease as geographical, relational, social, technological and cognitive distance increase. This points to the emergence or existence of large clusters of regions <I>('absorptive capacity clubs')</I>, where relational, social, technological and cognitive proximity lock-in maximizes the returns to local investment in R&D.
    Keywords: knowledge spillover, total factor productivity, proximity, absorptive capacity, knowledge production function
    JEL: R1 D8
    Date: 2013–09–20
  10. By: Jolanda Hessels (Erasmus University Rotterdam, and Panteia/EIM, the Netherlands); Udo Brixy (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremburg, and Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany); Wim Naudé (Maastricht School of Management, Maastricht University, the Netherlands , and IZA, Germany); Thomas Gries (University of Paderborn, Germany)
    Abstract: We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to possess skill variety. Third, we test our model empirically using data from Germany and the Netherlands. Individuals with more varied work experience seems indeed more likely to successfully start up a new business and being a generalist does not seem to be important in this regard. Finally, we find that innovation positively moderates the relationship between having varied experiences, and being successful in starting up a new business. Our conclusion is that entrepreneurs with more varied work experience are more likely to introduce innovations that have not only technical, but also commercial value. Our findings support the notion that entrepreneurship can be learned.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, start-ups, human capital, innovation, skills
    JEL: L26 M13 J24 O31
    Date: 2014–01–20
  11. By: Dudin, Mikhail (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship); Ljasnikov, Nikolaj (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship); Kuznetsov, Alexander (Moscow Institute of Economics, Politics and Law); Fedorova, Irina (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation)
    Abstract: The article reveals the specific character of the study and management of innovation of transformation and transformational potential of socio-economic systems in contemporary conditions, which are characterized by the presence of turbulent changes that cause necessity to find new forms, methods and ways to ensure the sustainable development of these systems and their balanced socio-economic growth. The ability of the socio-economic system towards sustainable development is defined by a set of parameters, factors and conditions, though the most important characteristic of the system is the availability of its transformational potential, which in a formalized form is a set of local indicators that are considered integrally.
    Keywords: sustainable development, socio-economic system, innovative transformation, transformational potential, innovations, major economic cycles, innovation wave, innovation process
    JEL: F00 P00 P20
  12. By: Pietrobelli C.; Puppato F. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: When Technology Foresight TF began to be adopted in industrial countries, it tended to be still somewhat a marginal activity in developing countries. It was then believed that TF and its prediction of the future was a matter that only highly industrialised countries could endeavour to achieve, being more engaged and interested in frontier and new to the world innovation. Today globalisation, increased complexity, competition and fast technical change, have radically transformed the range of economic activities that developing countries can perform. Production is internationally fragmented and organised along global value chains. Dense flows of knowledge and technology are available, but need to be fully exploited and employed within coherent industrial strategies. A specialisation by technology and learning has become the dominant paradigm and developing countries must detect opportunities for future technological and productive specialisation in order to catch up and forge ahead. Yet, often TF exercises do not go hand in hand with the design of a concrete policy strategy to promote emerging countries productive development and catching up. This paper analyses how and to what extent TF programmes are needed in developing countries given the new prevailing global context. It argues that the link between TF and broader industrial development strategy needs to be taken seriously in light of its role to shape technological change and economic growth, and that TF and industrial development strategy need to be coherently designed and implemented. We provide preliminary support to this argument by discussing the theoretical foundations of TF and industrial strategy and their justification, and then reviewing some relevant examples from Brazil, Chile and South Korea.
    Keywords: Industrial Policy; Technological Change: Government Policy;
    JEL: O38 O25
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Dudin, Mikhail (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship); Frolova, Evgenia (Far Eastern Federal University); Gryzunova, Natalie (Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics (MESI)); Shuvalova, Elena (Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics (MESI))
    Abstract: Setting the objective: this article is aimed at examining theoretical topical issues related to modeling innovation development within the setting of the “knowledge economy”. Our new understanding of the role of three crucial institutional entities (the state, business, and science) leads us to reconsider and look for new model solutions on the formation of national innovation systems as environments that ensure sustainable national social-economic development. A goal-oriented and consistent partnership between the state, business, and science within the frame of the nascent information society and the knowledge economy helps resolve issues in ensuring sustainability not only at the level of national social-economic systems but that of the World System as a whole. The approach taken in this article lies in the following: the author is using as the article’s main methodological tool the institutional evolution approach complemented by a methodology for the formation of national innovation systems through interaction between the state, business, and science. Results: the shift to new social-economic relations requires reforming the links between social entities and redistributing their roles in ensuring national social-economic development. Realizing the Triple Helix model in practice as a basis for the self-organization and evolving of national innovation systems, with the inclusion of global social responsibility in it as an element that helps ensure proper interrelationship of the components, helps neutralize the negative consequences of the action of the market mechanism for the creation of innovations and maximize the positive effects of the systemic globalization of the innovation sphere. Conclusion / recommendation: materials provided in this article not only illustrate the new special role of the Triple Helix model in shaping the national innovation economy but demonstrate the major changes taking place within the national and global social-economic system. The materials provided can be recommended for the use in working out methodologies for constructing self-organizing and self-developing national innovation systems.
    Keywords: national innovation systems, innovation, evolution, self-organization, Triple Helix model, social responsibility
    Date: 2015

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