nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒04‒19
thirty-two papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation in Russia: the territorial dimension By Riccardo Crescenzi; Alexander Jaax
  2. Moving People with Ideas - Innovation, Inter-regional Mobility and Firm Heterogeneity By Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
  3. Intellectual Property Rights and appropriability of innovation capital: evidence from Polish manufacturing firms By Tomasz Kijek
  4. Knowledge Spillovers, Absorptive Capacity and Growth: An Industry-level Analysis for OECD Countries By Bournakis, Ioannis; Christopoulos, Dimitris; Mallick, Sushanta
  5. Management system of knowledge workers in the contemporary enterprise By Michal Igielski
  6. Assessment of the performance and competitiveness of the selected clusters in the Moravian-Silesian Region By Hana Stverkova; Vlasta Humlova
  7. Foreign exposure and heterogeneous performance of Italian firms: A survey of the empirical literature (1992-2014) By Valeria Gattai
  8. The specific of economic competitiveness evaluation of cities from cross-border region under the context of urban shrinkage By Jurgita Bruneckiene; Jolita Sinkiene
  9. Strategic Paths and Performance of Born Globals: A Study of Indian IT Firms By Karthik, D.; Upadhyayula, Rajesh; Basant, Rakesh
  10. Measuring Innovation Using Patent Data By Svensson, Roger
  11. Balanced Scorecard Concept in Romanian Small and Medium enterprises By Anna Siemionek; Ma³gorzata Siemionek
  12. Role of Clusters and Certification in the Internationalization of Offshoring Service Providers from Emerging Markets: A Study of Indian IT firms By Upadhyayula, Rajesh; Karthik, D.; Karna, Amit
  13. Academic Business Incubators as an institutional form of academic entrepreneurship development in Poland By Lukasz Siemieniuk
  14. Taxonomy of implemented policy instruments to foster the production of green technologies and improve environmental and economic performance By Francesco Crespi; Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Quatraro
  15. A Framework for Comparative Analysis of National Knowledge Networks in UK and India By Jain, Rekha; Singh, Manjari
  16. Global Value Chains: Implications for the Austrian economy By Veronika Kulmer; Michael Kernitzkyi; Judith Köberl; Andreas Niederl
  17. Network Form and Performance. The Case of Multi-Unit Franchising By Muriel Fadairo; Cintya Lanchimba; Josef Windsperger
  18. Social Capital, Innovation and Economic Growth By Maria Thompson
  19. Specifics of Cluster Policy in Russia By Zemtsov S.P; Pavlov P.N; Sorokina A.V.
  20. The geographical network of bank organizations: issues and evidence for Italy By Luca Papi; Emma Sarno; Alberto Zazzaro
  21. The contribution of public and private R&D to UK productivity growth By Haskel, J; Goodridge, P; Hughes, A; Wallis, G
  22. International Diversification and Firm Performance: The contingent influence of Product Diversification By Karthik, D.; George, Rejie; Singla, Chitra
  23. Developing Corporate Strategic Framework to Enhance Sustainability through CSR By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  24. Organisational Mechanisms for National Knowledge Network and Outcomes in the Institutes of Higher Education & Research: Moderating Role of Needs & Ecosystem By Singh, Manjari; Jain, Rekha
  25. What can we learn from failed international companies? By Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph; Zhang, Hongxu
  26. Sources of Financing Knowledge-Based Economy: the Case of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Education in Poland By Iwona Kowalska
  27. Creative forces for entrepreneurship: The role of institutional change agents By Welter, Friederike; Smallbone, David
  28. Application of the war of attrition game to the analysis of intellectual property disputes By Manuel G. Ch\'avez-Angeles; Patricia S. S\'anchez-Medina
  29. Production Networks, Geography and Firm Performance By Andrew B. Bernard; Andreas Moxnes; Yukiko U. Saito
  30. Spillovers from Universities: Evidence from the Land-Grant Program By Shimeng Liu
  31. Global Competitiveness and Economic Growth: A One-Way or Two-Way Relationship? By Aleksandra Kordalska; Magdalena Olczyk
  32. Spillovers in the Nordic Countries By Borislava Mircheva; Dirk Muir

  1. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Alexander Jaax
    Abstract: The debate on Russia’s innovation performance has paid little attention to the role of geography. This paper addresses this gap by applying an ‘augmented’ regional knowledge function approach to examine the territorial dynamics of innovation in Russia. The empirical results suggest that regional R&D investments are strong predictors of local innovative performance. However, R&D activities are inadequately connected to regional human capital resources. The activities of foreign firms play a fundamental role as ‘global knowledge pipelines’. Different territorial dynamics of innovation are observed in the European and the Asian part of Russia, with regions to the East of the Urals less likely to benefit from interregional knowledge spillovers. The historical legacy from the Soviet era still emerges as a strong predictor of current innovative performance, shedding light on the importance of long-term path dependency in the Russian geography of innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, geography, regions, Russia
    JEL: R11 R12 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
    Abstract: This paper looks at the link between inter-regional mobility, innovation and firms' behavioural heterogeneity in their reliance on localised external sources of knowledge. By linking patent data (capturing inventors' inter-regional mobility) with firm-level data (providing information on firms' innovation inputs and behaviour) a robust identification strategy makes it possible to shed new light on the geographical mobility-innovation nexus. The analysis of English firms suggests that firm-level heterogeneity - largely overlooked in previous studies - is the key to explain the innovation impact of inter-regional mobility over and above learning-by-hiring mechanisms. A causal link between inflows of new inventors into the local labour market and innovation emerges only for firms that make the use of external knowledge sources an integral part of their innovation strategies.
    Keywords: Innovation, Labour Mobility, Inter-regional Migration, Spillovers
    JEL: O31 O15 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Tomasz Kijek (University of Life Sciences in Lublin)
    Abstract: This paper tries to find how firms use IPRs in the form of patents to protect innovation capital and find determinants of their effectiveness. The research is based on a large sample of 2960 Polish manufacturing firms that were engaged in developing and/or implementing a product or process innovation in the years 2010-2012. Besides descriptive statistics which show firms’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of patents and their determinants, I apply the knowledge production functionto find a link between patent propensity, R&D and innovation performance. Descriptive analyses show that Polish manufacturing firms rarely use patents as the appropriability mechanism which results in the low level of their perceived effectiveness. It also turns out that the perceived effectiveness of a patent depends on a firm’s size, theinnovation type and technological opportunities. In turn, the results of the knowledge production function estimationallow me to conclude that an increase in patent propensity affects the firm’s innovation performancepositively.
    Keywords: innovation capital;appropriability mechanism; intellectual property rights;patent;knowledge production function
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Bournakis, Ioannis; Christopoulos, Dimitris; Mallick, Sushanta
    Abstract: Given the decline in growth momentum in the manufacturing sector in many OECD countries, the role of knowledge-based capital has emerged as a key driver for sustained growth. While empirical studies on estimating knowledge spillovers have usually been undertaken at the country level, the spillover effects can be more definitive only if the analysis is conducted at the industry-level. The effectiveness of international spillovers is conditional on recipient country’s absorptive capacity and this is an important component of the spillover mechanism that has not attracted significant attention so far. This paper therefore assesses the effect of spillovers in driving per capita output growth taking into account the role of absorptive capacity. Our main findings are first, the confirmation of the robust positive relationship between human capital and output growth for 14 OECD countries at industry level. Second, the gains from international spillover are conditional to the level of human capital and the degree of protection of intellectual property rights. Third, countries that improve absorptive capacity can potentially increase gains from spillovers via either trade or FDI (including vertical FDI). Finally, significant heterogeneity is found between high and low-tech industries. The former group is more effective in absorbing spillovers while the latter has failed to reach the critical level of technological advancement in order to absorb foreign and domestic knowledge.
    Keywords: Growth; R&D; Knowledge Spillovers; Absorptive Capacity; Human Capital; Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: E24 F1 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–02–05
  5. By: Michal Igielski (Gdynia Maritime University)
    Abstract: Changes in the 21st century are happening more quickly, unexpectedly, not always in the way desired for the smooth functioning enterprises are turning up. It is domain of the globalization, where new events - chances or threats, cause challenges of the market, before which at present permanently all enterprises are being put. More and more he depends on immaterial resources of the enterprise which they constitute about his strategic potential. Companies form and are developing abilities, is exchanging them for competence which are becoming a base of their competitiveness. In this process he is becoming crucial conditioning, not that much what optimum, but competent managing the intellectual capital, of which meaning in the last period still is growing, and joint employing all organizational units is deciding on the market success. Some work demands a lot of the knowledge, of experience and the independent and custom thinking than other. It is essential for all employers in order to notice these differences creating the principle of the management new ketegori¹ of specialists, having a useful knowledge for functioning of the enterprise - with knowledge workers. Therefore an attempt to show the management system is a purpose of this article with knowledge workers in contemporary enterprises, based on conducted examinations, at turn 2013 and of 2014, in 100 large firms, acting in the area of the Baltic Sea Region.
    Keywords: knowledge worker, competitiveness, enterprise, management system
    JEL: A11 D83 M12 O15
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Hana Stverkova (Technical University of Ostrava); Vlasta Humlova (Technical University of Ostrava)
    Abstract: In recent years have been recording the number of sectorial clusters of firms and their links with a research and academic sphere unprecedented prosperity in the Czech Republic. The trend and popularity of clusters in regions are considered as an important source of competitive advantage of given locality. In particular SMEs can in this way overcome a certain weaknesses of this type of business and strategically use of so-called synergistic effect. Many times, it was stressed to be SMEs as the foundation of any economy, but they do not have the necessary economic force. These problems help to remove specific form alliances – the cluster. The competitiveness of regions goes hand in hand with support for cluster organizations. Clusters are perceived as modern and well-defined type groupings of entities from certain industry or field. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and assess the efficiency and competitiveness of selected cluster groups in the Moravian and Silesian region. The partial aim is a generalization of international methodologies for assessing the performance of clusters and linking this methodology with the basic principles of competitiveness evaluation. On practical example will be applied Porter's diamond combined with the EFQM model and Cluster Management Excellence methodology. The outcome of the paper will be the evaluation of cluster initiatives. There will also be proposed basic precautions that should lead to the desired performance level of international excellence cluster. For the selection of appropriate proposals will be used the multi-criteria decision analysis, to identify those measures that are currently most advantageous for the cluster.
    Keywords: cluster, competitiveness, performance, BEE model, Moravian-Silesian Region
    JEL: M1 M14 M21 L62 R10
    Date: 2015–04
  7. By: Valeria Gattai
    Abstract: This paper surveys 67 contributions on internationalisation and performance of Italian enterprises. It covers empirical studies (including working papers), published between 1992 and 2014, taking a microeconomic perspective and analysing the potential links between firms’ global involvement and heterogeneity in economic, human capital and innovation and financial measures. The discussion is organised in an intuitive and non-technical way. At the same time, we devote particular attention to studying the different papers from many points of view, including their internationalisation measures, performance indicators, empirical approach, causality and results.
    Keywords: Internationalisation, Performance, Italy, Firm-level data, Survey
    JEL: F1 F2 L2
    Date: 2015–04
  8. By: Jurgita Bruneckiene (Kaunas University of Technology); Jolita Sinkiene (Kaunas University of Technology)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the issues of economic competitiveness evaluation of cross-border cities under the context of urban shrinkage. Currently the "urban shrinkage" issue is on the top of the political agenda in Europe. Under the globalization conditions, especially cities, which suffer from urban shrinkage, have to find new and modern means and attitudes for increasing urban competitiveness. The absence of methodological tools for the evaluation of economic competitiveness of the cities of cross-border regions is becoming one of the obstacles that impede the real identification of the current situation and predicting perspectives of the cross-border urban development and competitiveness. The purpose of the article – to identify the challenges and factors for improvement of economic competitiveness of the cross-border cities under the context of urban shrinkage and to develop methodological guidelines for the evaluation of cross-border regional economic competitiveness based on the findings of analysis performed on Lithuanian-Polish cross-border cities. The article distinguishes basic characteristics of the shrinking cities and related problems that have a direct impact on the improvement of economic competitiveness of the city. The economic competitiveness evaluation methodology on the cross-border cities is developed and its practical applicability is verified, based on the sample of Lithuanian-Polish cities (Alytus, Marijampole (Lithuania) and Elk, Bialystok (Poland). Panevezys and Siauliai are additionally added to the analysis as industrial cities located near Lithuania - Latvia border). Strategic recommendations on improving the economic competitiveness of Lithuanian-Polish cross-border cities are introduced in the context of urban shrinkage.
    Keywords: city, cross-border region, economic competitiveness of cities, shrinking cities
    JEL: O11 O18 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–04
  9. By: Karthik, D.; Upadhyayula, Rajesh; Basant, Rakesh
    Abstract: Extant literature suggests that post entry internationalization strategies and performance implications of born globals is an under-researched area. In this paper, we examine the internationalization strategies of born global firms and performance implications thereof through strategic group analysis of hand collected data from Indian information technology firms. We identified four distinct strategic paths followed by born global firms. While some internationalization paths have performance differences others show equifinality. These performance differences primarily stem from the choice of degree of commitment and scope of internationalization. We also find that the nature of services and ways of mobilization or deployment of resources explain the different internationalization paths and consequently performance. Our paper contributes to the theory on born globals by using strategic lens to explain the internationalization paths and their performance implications. Further, our paper also provides distinct insights to practice by charting internationalization paths for an emerging born global firm.
  10. By: Svensson, Roger (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Firms and governments spend billions of dollars on R&D every year. To increase social welfare, the results of R&D must be commercialized so that consumers can benefit from improved products and lower prices. One measure of R&D output is patents; however, most patent databases contain no information on whether patents have been commercialized, i.e., whether innovations have been introduced in the market. This paper applies a new method to identify innovations in patent databases by relating traditional patent quality indicators (patent renewal, patent equivalents and forward citations) to patent commercialization variables. For this purpose, I use a unique database on Swedish patents that includes information on whether patents are commercialized and whether the commercialization is profitable. The estimations show that commercialization is strongly positively correlated with both patent renewal and patent equivalents but only moderately positively correlated with forward citations. Further, successful innovations are most positively related to patent renewal. Based on the traditional patent quality indicators and estimated parameters in the model, probabilities of commercialization and successful innovations can be predicted. The developed parameters may be used to identify innovations across sectors and regions in other patent databases.
    Keywords: Patents; Commercialization; Innovations; Profitability; Patent renewal; Patent equivalents; Forward citations; Predicted probabilities
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2015–04–07
  11. By: Anna Siemionek (University of Gdansk); Ma³gorzata Siemionek (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of a performance management system using the balanced scorecard (BSC) within Romanian small and medium sized enterprises (SME). This is a casebased methodological approach. This ensured that the issues were appraised in both an operational and a strategic context. The findings of this research are that balanced scorecards can be implemented within a SME context. However, the motivations for the adoption of the scorecard were both internal and external due to the heavily regulated nature of the organization. The paper analyses the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in Romanian Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs). Actions necessary for its implementation, obstacles and BSC development trends have been presented.
    Keywords: Balanced scorecard, strategy, performance management, SMEs, Romanian enterprises
    JEL: G30 M21
    Date: 2015–04
  12. By: Upadhyayula, Rajesh; Karthik, D.; Karna, Amit
    Abstract: We adopt a resource-based view to investigate the drivers of internationalization of emerging market offshoring service providers (OSPs). Using data from Indian IT firms between 1992 and 2002, we investigate the effect of cluster presence and quality certification on OSP internationalization and in moderating the internationalization-performance relationship. Our findings contribute to the OSP literature by proposing a significant role for clustering and certification. We find a positive effect of certification on OSP internationalization. Although certification contributes negatively to OSP performance, it positively moderates the performance effect of OSP internationalization. Cluster presence was found to drive OSP’s overall performance.
  13. By: Lukasz Siemieniuk (Uniwersytet w Bialymstoku)
    Abstract: The Academic Business Incubators are a significant investment in the development of academic entrepreneurship in Poland. They put the emphasis especially on local development. They are the driving force and a source of motivation to take up new challenges for young people. They allow ambitious people to combine their theoretical knowledge acquired during their studies with practical knowledge. Thanks to the Academic Entrepreneurship Incubators young people become professionals in their actions. Their acquired skills, knowledge, physical, moral and mental characteristics are an excellent basis for the development of their business.The aim of the paper is to discuss the essence of academic entrepreneurship and present issues of the Academic Business Incubators functioning as an institutional form of academic entrepreneurship development in Poland.
    Keywords: Business Incubators; academic entrepreneurship; Poland
    JEL: D01
    Date: 2015–04
  14. By: Francesco Crespi; Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: The Europe 2020 Strategy has identified the key goal of smart, more inclusive and sustainable growth. In this direction, redirecting firms’ innovation activities towards ecological targets without hampering their competitiveness is of paramount importance. The double externality issue related to environmental innovations makes the policy intervention crucial in order to avoid sub-optimal commitment of resources to the innovation process and ensure the reduction of polluting agents emissions However, the positive outcome of any policy inducement mechanisms is not guaranteed, as different policy frameworks may generate different innovative outcomes. An in depth analysis of environmental policy instruments is therefore all the more necessary in order to gain knowledge on the state of the art and evaluate the scenarios for further improvements. In this perspective, the proposed research project will focus on two main research questions: 1. What are the main existing EU policy instruments explicitly designed to trigger environmental innovations? Which are their main features? 2. Which are the possible avenues leading to successful policy design? The first research question will be tackled by performing a desk research aiming at analyzing the main environmental regulations introduced in Europe so as to produce a clear and comprehensive taxonomy to shed light on common dimensions and main differences. The second research question will be addressed by carrying out empirical analyses based on simulation and econometric techniques. We will focus on a specific environmental policy in the chemical domain so as to draw useful insights on the effect of the policy aiming at redirecting innovation activities to environmental targets and also to highlight the main policy best practices.
    Keywords: Academic research, Industrial policy, Innovation, Innovation policy, Patents
    JEL: O33 Q53 Q55 Q56 R11
    Date: 2015–03
  15. By: Jain, Rekha; Singh, Manjari
    Abstract: Recognizing that national competitiveness depends on the availability and quality of national Information and Communication Technology networks that support higher education (HE) and research, many countries have developed such infrastructure for their publicly funded HE and research institutes. The National Knowledge Network (NKN), India set up in 2009-10, and the Joint Academic Network (JANET), UK set up in 1984 are examples. These national knowledge networks are embedded within the larger context of HE and research institutions and ICT infrastructure in the country. For an emerging economy like India, effectiveness of NKN is important as resource availability for investment in such a network has to compete with other developmental priorities. A Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) was set up in 1993 with the objective of overseeing ICT in HE and research and managing JANET. In comparison to JANET, set up in 1984, NKN set up in 2009-10 is still at an early stage. However, it is an opportune time to review its effectiveness as it has a huge potential for all educational and research organizations in India. The evolution of JANET/JISC, not only in terms of the technical capability, but also its organizational form would be of importance to researchers and policy makers in India to formulate the implications for NKN. Towards this end, in this study we develop a framework for analysing elements that have contributed JANET/JISC to support HE and research. These include rationale, objectives, organizational structure and processes, funding, pricing, outcomes and review mechanisms. We also aim to suggest possible learning from this for NKN. This would have implications for other countries planning similar infrastructure
  16. By: Veronika Kulmer; Michael Kernitzkyi; Judith Köberl; Andreas Niederl
    Abstract: This study focuses on the implications of rising global value chains (GVCs) on international trade and analysis the impacts on small open economies. Small open economies rely heavily on international trade and are highly integrated in global production networks but have so far been hardly considered in the literature. On the example of Austria, an industrialized small open economy in central Europe, we addressed the role of small open economies in a globalized economy. Based on the WIOD database we apply network analysis and use GVC as well as competiveness indicators to measure the associated risks as well as benefits. Findings imply for Austria a sharp turn in the focus of trade policy away from the traditional gross trade perspective. Austria’s competitiveness has been strengthened considerably via the participation in GVCs since resource and endowment constraints have been overcoming easier and foreign inputs are used in the production processes efficiently enabling vast economies of scale. Results also reveal that the promotion of service oriented activities which are a main source of the domestic value added content in manufacturing exports is of key importance for Austria’s competitiveness on the global market. In particular we found a mutual integration of EU enlargement countries of 2004 and Austria: Austria’s intermediate exports are mainly characterized by high knowledge- and service-intensive manufacturing goods, while the EU enlargement countries of 2004 specialize in low-skilled employment and less knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: Global value chains, international trade network, input-output modelling, value added in trade
    JEL: O52 F14 C67 O47
    Date: 2015–04
  17. By: Muriel Fadairo (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France); Cintya Lanchimba (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France; National Polytechnic School of Quito, Ecuador); Josef Windsperger (University of Vienna, Austria, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna)
    Abstract: Multi-unit franchising (MUF) is a governance form inside franchising networks where the franchisor transfers to the franchisees the right to own and operate more than one outlet. While previous empirical literature has revealed various advantages of MUF as compared to single-unit franchising (SUF), we study the impact of this governance form on the network performance, taking into account different contexts. Our results from propensity score matching show that MUF leads to higher performance. However, non-parametric estimations highlight thresholds suggesting that a mix of SUF and MUF is a more efficient governance form than a pure MUF network.
    Keywords: Network governance, franchising, propensity score matching, nonparametric regressions
    JEL: M21 L14 C14
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Maria Thompson (Universidade do Minho, NIPE)
    Abstract: Multidisciplinary innovation is the engine of growth of an increasing number of economies. Innovation output depends increasingly on information sharing and cooperation between creative agents. Sharing and cooperation requires the existence of generalised trust. Social capital consists of trust and trust-based networks. Our main goal is to illustrate theoretically the importance of social capital to the growth of an innovation economy.
    Keywords: Innovation, Social Capital, Economic Growth
    JEL: O00 O31 O41
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Zemtsov S.P (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Pavlov P.N (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Sorokina A.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The article presents the results of management quality survey in Russian clusters that reveals specifics of cluster support policy in Russia. We compare 22 Russian clusters, supported by the Government, using series of indicators measuring cooperation intensity of cluster participants and activity of cluster management teams. We introduce a description of the typical Russian innovative territorial cluster, based on the average values of the indicators. Our analysis revealed that international communications, information about funding and training courses are highly useful tools to improve collaborations among cluster participants. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring cluster performance by the cluster scale index, cluster development index and cluster management efficiency index. In conclusion, we formulate recommendations for cluster policy improvement in Russia, based on our analysis of indicators’ correlations and comparison between the results of our research and the similar researches in other countries. This analysis will be useful for researchers and policymakers from countries, where cluster policy recently became a popular topic.
    Keywords: cluster policy; Russian regions; innovations; quality of management; cluster management team
    JEL: O32 O38 L14
    Date: 2015–04
  20. By: Luca Papi (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze economcihe e Sociali, MoFiR); Emma Sarno (Universit… di Napoli "L'Orientale"); Alberto Zazzaro (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, MoFiR)
    Abstract: The evolution of the banking industry has always been affected by recurrent waves of technological, regulatory and organizational changes. All such changes have significant effects on the spatial organization of banks, the interconnectedness of geographical credit markets and the core-periphery structure of banking industry. In this chapter, we review the literature on the effects of geographical distances between the key actors of the credit market (the borrowing firm, the lending branch, the lending bank, and rival banks) on lending relationships and interbank competition. Using the metrics and graph techniques for network analysis we then provide evidence concerning the evolving geographical network of bank organizations in Italy.
    Keywords: Distances in credit markets, network analysis, spatial organization of banks
    JEL: G2
    Date: 2015–04
  21. By: Haskel, J; Goodridge, P; Hughes, A; Wallis, G
    Date: 2015–04–09
  22. By: Karthik, D.; George, Rejie; Singla, Chitra
    Abstract: Despite decades of research, the relationship between international diversification (ID) and performance (P) represents a quandary in the field of International Business.. Though, there seems to be some consensus among scholars on the non-linear nature of the relationship; researchers in the field continue to urge further work in the field for a more nuanced approach to study this relationship. This paper takes a step forward to address that call by arguing that the underlying relationship between ID and P is contingent upon product diversification (PD) of the firm. In particular, we hypothesize and provide evidence that the ID and P relationship is positively moderated by PD when the firm has both high levels of both ID and PD or low levels of both ID and PD.
  23. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: CSR activities as applicable under the new company law in India may be used as sustainability strategy by the business. In order to comply with the mandate and with a positive mind set to augment implied benefits thereof, author investigates selected business scenarios to find an optimal pattern of CSR activities that may have long term beneficial impact to the critical stakeholders. This strategic framework propose sustainability model over triple bottom line by addressing holistic issues in the business process: internal & external stakeholders, active & passive stakeholder, and living & non-living stakeholders. The first part of the paper includes the outset and the context of the subject matter of research. The second part list out the activities covered under CSR of new legislation. The third part of the paper links activities, its impact and the beneficiary. The final part after discussing the framework of cost-benefit analysis builds a broad inclusive model for strategy formulation
    Keywords: Indian Companies Act 2013, CSR, Sustainability, Sustainable Development
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2015–04–03
  24. By: Singh, Manjari; Jain, Rekha
    Abstract: We have looked at the relationship between organisational processes/ mechanisms for development, adoption and implementation of national knowledge network in the institutes of higher education and research and the organisational and individual level outcomes in those institutes. Our findings, based on regression analysis in a quantitative study covering 112 faculty members from user institutes show strong support for a positive relationship between organisational processes/ mechanisms and organisational level outcomes as well as between organisational processes/ mechanisms and individual level outcomes. We also found that need for high bandwidth and advanced computing resources and ecosystem or support for NKN in the user institutes positively strengthens the relationship between organisational processes/ mechanisms for NKN and individual level outcomes.
  25. By: Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph; Zhang, Hongxu
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how organisational closure can inform strategic foresight. Design/methodology/approach – We draw insights from illustrative cases, i.e. Swissair, Sabena and Cameroon Airlines to illustrate our theoretical analysis. Findings – The study shed light on the effects of internal and external factors in precipitating business closures. We established that top executives’ hubris, resistance to change and over-reliance on external consultants are some of precursors to organisational closure. Research limitations/implications – Our analysis provides a range of strategies that organisations can pursue to learn from other firms’ closure and improve their survivability and chances of future success. Originality/value – In spite of a growing body of literature on strategic foresight and organisational closure, the literature has largely developed in isolation and as such our understanding of the relationship between strategic foresight and organisational closure as remained severely limited. The paper integrates these two streams of research to enrich our understanding of how firms can learn from others to improve their strategic foresight.
    Keywords: Business failure: strategic foresight
    JEL: L1 L2 M0 M2
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Iwona Kowalska (Warsaw University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Globalization, negative demographic trends, new sources of knowledge and volatile job market are the determining factors behind the change in approach to the education system in Poland. Formal, non-formal and informal education is the sine qua non of the implementation of a knowledge-based economy in Poland. This process, however, requires an in-depth analysis of the funding of education. So far there have been no Polish publications analyzing the funding of the three aforementioned forms of education. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess the possibilities to implement knowledge-based economy with regard to the current funding of formal, non-formal and informal education in Poland. The study involved the analysis of national and EU documents on subject and object oriented funding of educational tasks and procedures for determining the amount of funding allocated to these tasks. The analysis showed that the barrier inhibiting the implementation of knowledge-based economy is the lack of legal regulations enabling the implementation of new solutions for financing education in Poland. These solutions involve the effective joint funding from the state budget, local government budgets and private funds (provided by employers and learners). This requires urgent conceptual work and initiating implementation projects in the area of public finance in Poland.
    Keywords: finance; education; economy; knowledge; system
    JEL: G18 H52 I22
    Date: 2015–04
  27. By: Welter, Friederike; Smallbone, David
    Abstract: The paper reviews the current discussion on institutional change and institutional entrepreneurship. Specifically, it focuses on institutional change agents, by which we mean individuals whose actions can be shown to have contributed to formal or informal institutional change, to the benefit of the wider economy or society as well as to themselves. It aims to explore their antecedents and behaviours, and the contingent factors contributing to institutional change, both intentionally and unintentionally. We find that the concept of institutional entrepreneurship does not provide an adequate conceptual underpinning for incorporating human agency into institutionalised theory. We therefore argue that a focus on institutional change agents may be more productive. Whilst institutional theory recognises the impact of institutions on entrepreneurs and individuals, this paper draws attention to the role of human agency for institutional change. Institutional change can happen intentionally and as an unintended by-product of entrepreneurial or organisational 'path-dependent' behaviour. The implication of this is that it is not only intentional behaviour which contributes to institutional change, but rather any entrepreneurial behaviour which implicitly or explicitly questions existing institutions. Thus, the paper adds to the current debate on institutional entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: institutional entrepreneurship,human agency,entrepreneurship context
    JEL: B52 D02 L26
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Manuel G. Ch\'avez-Angeles; Patricia S. S\'anchez-Medina
    Abstract: In many developing countries intellectual property infringement and the commerce of pirate goods is an entrepreneurial activity. Digital piracy is very often the only media for having access to music, cinema, books and software. At the same time, bio-prospecting and infringement of indigenous knowledge rights by international consortiums is usual in places with high biodiversity. In these arenas transnational actors interact with local communities. Accusations of piracy often go both ways. This article analyzes the case of southeast Mexico. Using a war of attrition game theory model it explains different situations of intellectual property rights piracy and protection. It analyzes different levels of interaction and institutional settings from the global to the very local. The article proposes free IP zones as a solution of IP disputes. The formation of technological local clusters through Free Intellectual Property Zones (FIPZ) would allow firms to copy and share de facto public domain content for developing new products inside the FIPZ. Enforcement of intellectual property could be pursuit outside of the FIPZ. FIPZ are envisioned as a new type of a sui generis intellectual property regime.
    Date: 2015–04
  29. By: Andrew B. Bernard; Andreas Moxnes; Yukiko U. Saito
    Abstract: This paper examines the importance of buyer-supplier relationships, geography and the structure of the production network in firm performance. We develop a simple model where firms can outsource tasks and search for suppliers in different locations. Low search and outsourcing costs lead firms to search more and find better suppliers. This in turn drives down the firm's marginal production costs. We test the theory by exploiting the opening of a high-speed (Shinkansen) train line in Japan which lowered the cost of passenger travel but left shipping costs unchanged. Using an exhaustive dataset on firms' buyer-seller linkages, we find significant improvements in firm performance as well as creation of new buyer-seller links, consistent with the model.
    JEL: D22 D85 F14 L10 L14 R12
    Date: 2015–04
  30. By: Shimeng Liu
    Abstract: This paper estimates the short- and long-run effects of universities on geographic clustering of economic activity, labor market composition and local productivity and presents evidence of local spillovers from universities. I treat the designation of land-grant universities in the 1860s as a natural experiment after controlling for the confounding factors with a combination of synthetic control methods and event-study analyses. Three key results are obtained. First, the designation increased local population density by 6 percent within 10 years and 45 percent in 80 years. Second, the designation did not change the relative size of local manufacturing sector. Third, the designation enhanced local manufacturing output per worker by $2136 (1840 dollars; 57 percent) in 80 years while the short-run effects were negligible. This positive effect on the productivity in non-education sectors suggests the existence of local spillovers from universities. Over an 80-year horizon, my results indicate that the increase in manufacturing productivity reflects both the impact of direct spillovers from universities and general agglomeration economies that arise from the increase in population.
    Keywords: Land-Grant Universities, Short- and Long-Run Effects, Spillovers
    Date: 2015
  31. By: Aleksandra Kordalska (Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics); Magdalena Olczyk (Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics)
    Abstract: The Global Competitiveness Index is treated as a standard to measure the competitiveness of countries. Leaders look at it to make policy and resource allocation decisions because global competitiveness is expected to be related to economic growth. However, studies which analyze the empirical relationship between these two economic categories are very rare. It is still an open question in the literature whether economic growth can be used to predict future global competitiveness or the other way round. This paper empirically tests the relationship between the GCI and the economic growth rate by using a panel Granger causality analysis based on annual data for 114 countries divided into five groups by income criteria and covering the period 2006-2014. We confirm a strong unidirectional causality among the countries analyzed, i.e. GDP growth causes global competitiveness. Additionally, we find that the GCI is not successful in predicting economic growth for the majority of the 114 counties, with the exception of few large economies such as China, India, the United States and Russia.
    Keywords: Global Competitiveness Index; economic growth; panel Granger causality test
    JEL: O40 O57 C23 F43
    Date: 2015–04
  32. By: Borislava Mircheva; Dirk Muir
    Abstract: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden form a tightly integrated region which has strong ties with the euro area as well as some exposure to Russia. Using the IMF’s Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF), we examine spillovers the region could face, focusing on possible scenarios from the rest of the euro area and Russia, and the fall in global oil prices. We show that the spillovers from these scenarios differ in magnitude and impact, regardless of the high degree of integration among the four Nordic economies. These differences are driven by the fact that Denmark and Finland have no independent monetary policy, and Denmark and Norway are net energy exporters while Finland and Sweden are energy importers. We infer lessons for policy from the outcomes.
    Keywords: Spillovers;Denmark;Finland;Sweden;Norway;Russian Federation;Oil prices;Economic integration;Monetary policy;Fiscal policy;Cross country analysis;General equilibrium models;Spillovers; monetary policy; fiscal policy; dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models; Nordic countries
    Date: 2015–03–27

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