nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2015‒01‒03
seventeen papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. University knowledge and firm innovation. Evidence from European countries By Andrea Bellucci; Luca Pennacchio
  2. Export, R&D and New Products. A Model and a Test on European Industries By Dario Guarascio; Mario Pianta; Francesco Bogliacino
  3. The Effects of the Government Research and Development Support Policies on the Local Firm¡¯s Innovative Performance By Deokho Cho; Kyunghee Choi
  4. Intra and extra regional openness: The role of ?trust? builders as Open Innovation Intermediaries By Igone Porto; Jose Ramón Otegi
  5. “Cooperation in R&D, firm size and type of partnership: Evidence for the Spanish automotive industry” By Erika Raquel Badillo; Francisco Llorente; Rosina Moreno
  6. “Cooperation in R&D, firm size and type of partnership: Evidence for the Spanish automotive industry” By Erika Raquel Badillo; Francisco Llorente; Rosina Moreno
  7. R&D Internationalisation and the Global Financial Crisis By Dachs, Bernhard; Zahradnik, Georg
  8. Inter-regional Collaboration in Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3). S3 Working Paper Series no 6/2014. By Elvira Uyarra; Jens Sörvik; Inger Midtkandal
  9. The impact of knowledge spillovers on regional total factor productivity. New empirical evidence from selected European countries By Paula Puskarova; Philipp Piribauer
  10. Entrepreneurial Clusters and the Co-agglomeration of Related Industries: Spinouts in Portuguese Plastics and Molds By Rui Baptista; Carla Costa
  11. Cairo Transport App Challenge : Leveraging ICT Entrepreneurship and Open Innovation to Solve Daily Challenges By Cecilia Paradi-Guilford; Naomi Halewood; Eman Fouad Wahby; Nehal Hassan El Kouesney; Carlo M. Rossotto
  12. Human capital development, knowledge spillovers and local growth: Is there a quality effect of university efficiency? By Zotti, Roberto; Barra, Cristian
  13. Population Allocation in Resource-Based Economy Areas and Entrepreneurship Support By Evgenya Bukharova; Irina Vorontsova; Irina Ferova; Ludmila Vitkovskaya
  14. University research alliances, absorptive capacity, and the contribution of startups to employment growths By Toole, Andrew A.; Czarnitzki, Dirk; Rammer, Christian
  15. Regional Economic Development and Competitiveness: A Study of Leading and Competitive Sectors of Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa Region, Turkey By Zühal Çelebi Deniz
  16. Regional productivity growth in Europe: a Schumpeterian perspective By Roberto Basile
  17. Clustering of Territorial Areas: A Multi-Criteria Districting Problem By Maria da Conceição Rego; Rui Fragoso; Vladimir Bushenkov

  1. By: Andrea Bellucci; Luca Pennacchio
    Abstract: In recent decades firms have intensified the exploration of external sources of knowledge to enhance their innovation capabilities. This paper presents an empirical analysis of the factors that affect the importance of academic knowledge for firms’ innovative activities. An integrated approach that simultaneously considers country-level and firm-level factors is adopted. Regarding the former factors, the analysis shows that the entrepreneurial orientation of university and the quality of academic research increase the importance of knowledge transfers from universities to firms. This suggests that the environmental and institutional context contribute to explain cross-national disparities in university-industry interactions and in the effectiveness of knowledge transfer. In regard to the latter factors, the results indicate that firms oriented toward open search strategies and radical innovations are more likely to draw knowledge from universities. Furthermore, firms belonging to high technology sectors and firms with high absorptive capacity place greater value on the various links with universities. With respect to firm size the estimates show an inverted U-shaped relation with the importance of universities as a source of knowledge. However, the greatest benefits from interacting with universities are achieved by small and young research-active firms.
    Keywords: Innovation, industry-university links, knowledge transfer, university entrepreneurial orientation
    JEL: O32 O33 L20
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: Dario Guarascio (Sapienza University of Rome); Mario Pianta (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Francesco Bogliacino (Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
    Abstract: In this article we extend the model developed by Bogliacino and Pianta (2013a, 2013b) on the link between R&D, innovation and economic performance, considering the impact of innovation of export success. We develop a simultaneous three equation model in order to investigate the existence of a ‘virtuous circle’ between industries’ R&D, share of product innovators and export market shares. We investigate empirically – at the industry level – three key relationships affecting the dynamics of innovation and export performance: first, the capacity of firms to translate their R&D efforts in new products; second, the role of innovation as a determinant of export market shares; third, the export success as a driver of new R&D efforts. The model is tested for 38 manufacturing and service sectors of six European countries over three time periods from 1995 to 2010. The model effectively accounts for the dynamics of R&D efforts, innovation and international performances of European industries. Moreover, important differences across countries emerge when we split our sample in a Northern group – Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom – and a Southern group – France, Italy and Spain. We find that the ‘virtuous circle’ between innovation and competitiveness holds for Northern economies only, while Southern industries fail to translate innovation efforts into export success.
    Keywords: Export, R&D, Innovation, Three Stages Least Squares,Europe
    JEL: F12 F14 O31 O33 O52
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Deokho Cho; Kyunghee Choi
    Abstract: This study basically focuses on the analysis of the net effect of the government R&D support program on the local firms' technology development and its performance. And then it examines whether and how much R&D raises the effects of local firms' technology development and its performance. It basically tries to investigate the net effect of government's R&D support policies. Especially, it focuses on analyzing the net effects of R&D support policies on the innovative performance of local firms in the Gyeongbuk area where these policies were implemented for the first time in Korea. And more specifically it evaluates the performance of the government R&D support policies, using the propensity score matching in order to control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study finally suggests the R&D support policy alternatives and gives some lessons to the other policies and areas.
    Keywords: Innovation; Propensity Score Method; Regional Development; Logit Model
    Date: 2014–11
  4. By: Igone Porto; Jose Ramón Otegi
    Abstract: The role of intermediaries in innovation processes has been analyzed in the literature from a dual point of view of the firm`s performances. Being considered actors involved in the knowledge diffusion and technology transfer, intermediaries are considered collaborators of small and large enterprises, as active members of industrial policy. Intermediaries are supposed to be capable of developing a variety of activities such as partners identifying, technology selection, supplier's election, or counsel in decisions making process. Besides this, the state of the art has deeply analyzed the role of public and private organizations as intermediaries, focusing on different perspectives of the innovation process. A diversity of names can be identified in the literature to refer to these intermediaries. However, the performance of these players is considered fuzzy, taking into account the potential they could achieve. In this research, a case study is proposed, where the figure of Agents of Proximity is presented. These agents perform voluntary work in developing projects of technological optimization of the firms they work with. Firstly, in order to improve the individual competitiveness of those firms. Secondly, knitting relationships between firms settle in the region they work in, in order to improve the competitiveness of the territory. These agents are people, the economic players have confidence in, mainly because of the careers these proximity actors have developed. This figure is contrasted in the region of Durango, in the Basque country (Spain). The county has a strong specialization in the metal-mechanical industry, with a high orientation towards the automotive market. The crisis has highly impacted on the region with job destruction and SMEs closures. This has generated a inter-territorial cooperation movement between inner existing players of the county: Productive subsystem, -where the value chain firms can be identified-, Knowledge Generation Subsystem ?where 2 vocational trainings, the technological center AZTERLAN, and the Automotive Intelligence Center, AIC, are located. And Institutional Subsystem, where public development agencies and associations that strengthen social capital and regional values are included.
    Keywords: cooperation; intermediation; facilitation; competitiveness
    JEL: L14 L31 O14 O22 O32
    Date: 2014–11
  5. By: Erika Raquel Badillo (Department of Econometrics. University of Barcelona); Francisco Llorente (Department of Econometrics. University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (Department of Econometrics. University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse cooperation in R&D in the automobile industry in Spain. It first examines to what extent firms cooperate with external actors in the field of technological innovation, and if so, with what type of cooperation partner, paying special attention to the differentiation according to the size of the firms. Second, it aims to study how the firm’s size may affect not only the decision of cooperating but also with which type of partner, while controlling for other determinants that have been considered in the literature as main drivers of collaborative activities in R&D. We use data provided by the Technological Innovation Panel in the 2006-2008 period for firms in the automotive sector. We estimate a bivariate probit model that takes into account the two types of cooperation mostly present in the automotive industry, vertical and institutional, explicitly considering the interdependencies that may arise in the simultaneous choice of both.
    Keywords: Innovation, Cooperation in R&D, Partnership, Firm size, Automotive Industry JEL classification: D22, O32, L24, L62
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Erika Raquel Badillo (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Francisco Llorente (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse cooperation in R&D in the automobile industry in Spain. It first examines to what extent firms cooperate with external actors in the field of technological innovation, and if so, with what type of cooperation partner, paying special attention to the differentiation according to the size of the firms. Second, it aims to study how the firm’s size may affect not only the decision of cooperating but also with which type of partner, while controlling for other determinants that have been considered in the literature as main drivers of collaborative activities in R&D. We use data provided by the Technological Innovation Panel in the 2006-2008 period for firms in the automotive sector. We estimate a bivariate probit model that takes into account the two types of cooperation mostly present in the automotive industry, vertical and institutional, explicitly considering the interdependencies that may arise in the simultaneous choice of both.
    Keywords: Innovation, Cooperation in R&D, Partnership, Firm size, Automotive Industry JEL classification: D22, O32, L24, L62
    Date: 2014–11
  7. By: Dachs, Bernhard; Zahradnik, Georg
    Abstract: This paper asks if – and how – the global financial crisis of 2008/09 has affected overseas R&D activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Based on a data set of OECD countries, we find that the share of MNEs on total business R&D expenditure decreased for the first time since 2001 in many countries. Data for 2011 indicate that R&D internationalisation is picking up again, but has not yet reached pre-crisis levels. The impact of the crisis on foreign-owned firms may be explained by their higher export intensity, more demand-driven R&D, the concentration of MNE activity in R&D intensive manufacturing industries, and a smaller effect of public R&D support provided via stimulus packages after 2007. The crisis led to a modest re-location of MNE R&D activity from the European Union to emerging economies. The shares of the European Union on total overseas R&D activities of US firms indeed decreased between 2007 and 2011, while shares of emerging economies increased; however, in absolute terms, the gains of emerging economies only small and rather a continuation of a trend which started well before 2008.
    Keywords: global financial crisis, multinational enterprises, internationalisation, R&D, innovation, foreign-owend firms
    JEL: F23 O30 O33
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: Elvira Uyarra (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research); Jens Sörvik (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Inger Midtkandal (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The objective of this Smart Specialisation (S3) Platform Working Paper is to examine the role of inter-regional collaboration in national or regional Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3). It provides a conceptualisation of inter-regional collaboration within the framework of RIS3. It draws from the literature on innovation policy to develop an analytical framework to better understand the multiple dimensions of inter-regional collaboration, namely the why, what, where, who and how of collaboration; and explores how inter-regional collaboration varies according to the six steps of the RIS3 process. Finally, it looks at experiences of inter-regional collaboration for innovation in the Baltic Sea region within this framework.
    Keywords: Inter-regional collaboration, Smart Specialisation, innovation policy, regional development, Baltic Sea Region, dimensions of collaboration, trans-national collaboration
    Date: 2014–11
  9. By: Paula Puskarova; Philipp Piribauer
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the contribution of knowledge capital and its determinant - human capital - to total factor productivity differences among regions within a regression framework in general and the impact of their spillovers on regional total factor productivity in particular. The focus is laid on interregional spillovers between the Western and Eastern EU and namely, within the triangle of capital regions Vienna-Budapest-Bratislava. The results challenge some previous empirical studies in the sense that once the human capital is accounted for, the significance and magnitude of spillovers from conventional reservoirs of knowledge - patent stocks - falls. Vienna appears to be the largest contributor to the productivity increases in Bratislava. Budapest's productivity seems to be sensitive to knowledge and human capital endowments of EU, but not those of Vienna. Keywords: knowledge capital, knowledge spillover, human capital, human capital spillover, total factor productivity, spatial panel
    Keywords: knowledge capital; knowledge spillover; human capital; human capital spillover; total factor productivity; spatial panel
    JEL: O33 O47 R12
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Rui Baptista; Carla Costa
    Abstract: The success of ?entrepreneurial clusters' has led policymakers towards extensive efforts to seed local entrepreneurship. A particularly important determinant of the ?supply of entrepreneurs' are industry linkages within cities or regions. Indeed, studies consistently find that the most powerful predictor of future entrepreneurship for a city or region is the presence and strength of incumbent firms in the same or in related industries. This study examines how co-agglomeration (or collocation) of entrepreneurial firms in related industries influences cluster growth. Two types of effects are considered that may drive collocation: the inheritance of capabilities from local incumbents by spinout founders; and agglomeration benefits stemming from local access to supply-side spillovers. These effects are examined for the Portuguese molds and plastics industries. If agglomeration economies explain industry collocation, one would expect firms from related industries to collocate in the agglomerated region. Firms locating in the agglomerated region should perform better than firms located elsewhere, independently of their background. If heritage is the main force behind collocation, then spinouts will locate close to parent firms regardless of their region of origin. Spinouts from parent firms in the same or a related industry perform better than other startups. Our methodology is twofold. We first present a historical account of the evolution of the Portuguese molds and plastics industries, focusing on the location and genealogy of firms. Second, we conduct an econometric analysis of detailed data on firms, founders, and workers in the Portuguese molds and plastics industries covering the period 1986-2009. In order to test the predictions derived from agglomeration and organizational heritage theories, two main types of models are estimated, regarding: I. the probability of firms in molds and plastics industries cross-spawning entrants in those industries; II. the determinants of the performance of entrants, according to their geographical origin and founder background (i.e. spinouts vs. independent startups), using survival and sales growth models. Results suggest that the transmission of capabilities from parent firms to spinouts locating in the same region is the foremost driver of collocation and performance for the molds and plastic injection industries. The presence of the plastics industry has a positive impact on the molds industry but not the inverse, implying that while collocation with molds is not a requirement for the plastics industry to flourish, collocation with plastics is important for the molds industry.
    Keywords: Clusters; Spinouts; Regional development; Agglomeration Economies; Organizational Heritage
    JEL: L26 M13 R30
    Date: 2014–11
  11. By: Cecilia Paradi-Guilford; Naomi Halewood; Eman Fouad Wahby; Nehal Hassan El Kouesney; Carlo M. Rossotto
    Keywords: Education - Knowledge for Development Transport Economics Policy and Planning Technology Industry Private Sector Development - E-Business Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Policy and Strategies Transport Industry
    Date: 2013–03
  12. By: Zotti, Roberto; Barra, Cristian
    Abstract: In this paper, we test whether economic growth depends on human capital development using data disaggregated at territorial level and propose the use of efficiency estimates, measured using a non-parametric technique, as an alternative quality measure of higher education institutions (HEIs). The nature of knowledge spillovers is also taken into account to examine the existence of geographically localized spillovers, from the presence of efficient universities, on local growth. Results show that the efficiency of universities has a positive and significant effect on GDP per worker. Moreover, we find evidence that productivity gains are larger in areas in which the most efficient universities are located, suggesting that investment in tertiary education may affect geographical distribution of economic activity as well as its level.
    Keywords: Human capital; Higher education; Knowledge spillovers; Local economic development; Non-parametric technique.
    JEL: C14 C67 I21 I23
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Evgenya Bukharova; Irina Vorontsova; Irina Ferova; Ludmila Vitkovskaya
    Abstract: Population Allocation in Resource-Based Economy Areas and Entrepreneurship Support Evgenya Bukharova, Irina Vorontsova Irina Ferova Ludmila Vitkovskaya Siberian Federal University Key words: urban and rural areas, population allocation pattern, urban agglomerations, territorial clusters, distribution of productive forces, territorial asymmetry of economic development Russian President Vladimir Putin placed an emphasis on priority development of the resource regions of Eastern Siberia: this is related to the large-scale development of natural resources and to the development of modern manufacturing industries. In this context, it is necessary to solve the problem of rational territorial distribution of new industries, taking into account the current territorial structure. ? The present stage of the new industrialization in Siberian regions will be accompanied by stiff competition for human capital on the background of the increasing role of human capital in today's economy. ? The system of focal allocation of population in resource regions with a significant differentiation of living and business conditions, which was established in previous years, usually does not coincide with the future allocation scheme. In the Krasnoyarsk Krai alone large investment projects will lead to increasing the share of the Krasnoyarsk Krai`s territories, actively involved in economic development. ? Imperfect mechanisms for institutional support of business in the regions and forms of territorial organization of production limit the investment attractiveness of the regions. The example of Krasnoyarsk Krai was taken as a regional model for conducting the analysis of influence factors and proposing approaches to strategic development of territorial settlement patterns: ? Core settlements - small towns are "points of growth" in new places of concentration of economic activity in which investment projects stimulate the economic development of the territory. ? The formation of an optimal backbone for the population allocation system in these areas will require the use of intra-regional shift work, which will facilitate the involvement of working population of the already existing settlements of the Krai into economic activities. ? It is necessary to accelerate the process of formation of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration as a business center, which multifunctional environment and its integrative properties are crucial: in Krasnoyarsk, one will observe not only the concentration of activity, but the concentration of development and concentration of conditions for the innovative development. ? The improvements of the territorial organization of production are associated with the creation of regional clusters as a form of inter-sectoral cooperation of economic activities.
    Keywords: urban and rural areas; population allocation pattern; urban agglomerations; territorial clusters; distribution of productive forces; territorial asymmetry of economic development; R12; R58
    Date: 2014–11
  14. By: Toole, Andrew A.; Czarnitzki, Dirk; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: This paper examines how university research alliances and other cooperative links with universities contribute to startup employment growth. We argue that 'scientific absorptive capacity' at the startup is critical for reaping the benefits from university research alliances, but not necessarily for other university connections. We also estimate the aggregate employment contribution from startup firms and attribute those employment gains to university research alliances and other university connections. We find significant contributions to employment growth from university research alliances and other university connections, but scientific absorptive capacity is critical for university research alliances. Only 7% of the startup population maintained a university research alliance, but among these firms, 3.4% of their total jobs created were attributable to their alliances. These results suggest university connections are quite important for job growth and university research alliances contributed substantially to job creation for those firms that had such alliances.
    Keywords: Academic Entrepreneurship,Startups,Firm performance,Technology Transfer,University Spinoff Policy,Human Capital
    JEL: L25 L26 J24
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Zühal Çelebi Deniz
    Abstract: Disparities across regions and provinces are on the agenda of both developed and developing countries. Differences in terms of development and income between regions are becoming more important policy challenge particularly in developing countries. As a developing country, inter-regional disparities are seen intensively at east-west direction in Turkey. In recent years with the process of harmonization with the European Union policies, inter-regional disparities problem and regional development policy issues came to the fore in Turkey. In this paper, Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa region, located in Southeast Anatolia, the largest region with respect to population identified as regional growth poles by Ministry of Development, is discussed in the framework of regional economic development and competitiveness. Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa Region is the seventh largest region in Turkey according to population, but socio-economic development rank of the region is 23 between 26 NUTS 2 regions in Turkey. According to economic base model, local economy shapes regions' size and welfare level. "Information about an area's future population is incomplete without a parallel understanding of the local economy that largely shapes its future.' (Klosterman, 1990) In this context, the aim of this paper is two-fold. First is to analyze the regional economy of Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa using the economic base approach to identify main sources of regional economic growth and the driving forces of the local economy. Second is to identify competitiveness of the region by comparing the regional economy with the national economic growth. As method of the study; in order to determine the basic and leading sectors of regional economy, location quotient technique was used. Then shift-share analysis was used to examine competitiveness of the region and to see economic projection of region. Finally findings and results of the two analyses were compared. The findings showed that the region has a rapidly growing economy depend on "agriculture", "construction", "mining", "transportation and storage" and "human health" sectors and also for manufacturing industry "food products", "textiles", "non-metallic products" and "wood products" are basic sub-manufacturing sectors. But results of shift-share analysis showed that regional economy offers competitive advantages especially in "agriculture", "transportation and storage", "trade and wholesale" and sub-service sectors related to "urbanization economies" and "tourism" sector. Although the region has some basic/exporter manufacturing sectors increasing their concentration, the regional economy have low competitiveness for attracting investment in manufacturing. Therefore, in this period many of the manufacturing industry investments have shifted to other more competitive regions.
    Keywords: Regional development; economic growth; competitiveness; economic base; shift-share analysis
    Date: 2014–11
  16. By: Roberto Basile (Facoltà di Economia (Faculty of Economics), Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli (Naples Second University))
    Abstract: Using data for the European regions at NUTS-2 level, we test the predictions of a microfounded Schumpeterian growth model with technological interdependence recently developed by Ertur and Koch (2011, EK11). Spatial interdependence is identified by means ofa semiparametric geoadditive spatial autoregressive model which permits us to disentanglethe effect of nonlinearities, spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. A control function approach is applied to estimate this particular SAR-type model using the spatial lag of the quality of regional governance and of its components (corruption, rule of law, government effectiveness and accountability) as instrumental variables for the endogenous term Wy. The results corroborate the predictions of EK11’s model: R&D investments and R&D spillovers are important divers of regional growth in Europe. However, spillover effects are much lower after controlling for spatial unobserved heterogeneity. Moreover, important nonlinearities in the effect of physical capital investments emerge, putting into question the strong homogeneity assumption and suggesting a threshold effect in growth behavior.
    Keywords: Regional growth, spatial dependence, nonlinearities, semiparametric models
    JEL: R11 R12 C14
    Date: 2014–11
  17. By: Maria da Conceição Rego; Rui Fragoso; Vladimir Bushenkov
    Abstract: Endogenous resources, economic profile and socio-economic issues are the criteria that define the level of development and identifying features of a territorial unit. The territorial units that organize the country, in political and administrative terms ? parishes and counties ?, have a hierarchical structure, which initially reflected the organization of productive activities as well as the traditional State organization. The success of development policies addressed to territorial agglomerates depends on the homogeneity of their territorial units. In this context, the clustering of territorial areas can be stated as a multi-criteria districting problem. Thus, this paper aims to propose a framework for obtaining homogenous territorial clusters based on a Pareto frontier that includes multiple criteria related to territories' endogenous resources, economic profile and socio-cultural features. This framework is developed in two phases. First, the criteria correlated with development at the territorial unit level are determined through statistical and econometric methods. Then, a multi-criteria approach is developed to allocate each territorial unit to a territorial agglomerate, according to the Pareto frontier established. The framework is applied to a set of parishes and counties of the Central Alentejo region in southern Portugal. Results are presented and discussed in the scope of a regional development strategy. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show us the most important variables in explaining the differences in development in the area considered. We conclude, as expected, that the more elderly the population or the higher the school drop-out rate, the lower the area's development. On the other hand, the greater the active population or the rate of employment in tertiary social activities, the greater is the development. In the 2nd part of the analysis, we started from the current situation in terms of administrative organization of parishes. The results of the Max-p-model show that tests to increase the homogeneity between parishes, using the variables of population size and area, it is possible to reduce the disparity between parishes, reducing the number of units. The simulations show that the number of parishes may be lower if the variable of analysis is population size. This result takes into account the wide disparity of the population in current parishes, as well as the small number of inhabitants in most places.
    Keywords: Alentejo; Cluster; Districting; Multi-criteria
    JEL: C31 R12
    Date: 2014–11

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