nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒11‒01
23 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Inter-firm R&D cooperation in local innovation networks: The case of Italian technological districts By Otello Ardovino; Luca Pennacchio
  2. The Role of Communicators in Innovation Clusters By Bettina Blasini; Rani Jeanne Dang; Tim Minshall; Letizia Mortara
  3. The dynamics of knowledge-intensive sectors' knowledge base: Evidence from Biotechnology and Telecommunications By Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro; Pier-Paolo Saviotti
  4. Network Determinants of a Collaborative Funding System: The Case of the German Innovation Policy By Florian Umlauf
  5. The determinants of R&D persistence in SMEs By Juan A. Máñez; María E. Rochina-Barrachina; Amparo Sanchis-Llopis; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  6. The Role of Institutional Characteristics in Knowledge Transfer: A Comparative Analysis of Two Italian Universities. By Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo
  7. The 2013 PREDICT report: An Analysis of ICT R&D in the EU and beyond By Matilde Mas; Juan Fernández de Guevara Radoselovics
  8. Productivity Evolution of Chinese Large and Small Firms in the Era of Globalisation By Yifan ZHANG
  9. Exports, R&D and Productivity: A test of the Bustos-model with enterprise data from France, Italy and Spain By Joachim Wagner
  11. Do spinoff dynamics or agglomeration externalities drive industry clustering? A reappraisal of Steven Klepper’s work By Ron Boschma
  12. Education and Human Capital Development to Strengthen R & D Capacity in ASEAN By Tereso S. Tullao, Jr.; Christopher James Cabuay
  14. Innovation in education and re-industrialisation in Europe By Paola Mengoli; Margherita russo
  15. Innovative Activity in the Caribbean: Drivers, Benefits, and Obstacles By Preeya Mohan; Eric Strobl; Patrick Watson
  16. Cities and Green Growth: The Case of the Chicago Tri-State Metropolitan Area By OECD
  17. Competition, Selectivity and Innovation in the Higher Educational Market By Lynne Pepall; Dan Richard
  18. The Performance of Foreign Direct Investment in China: A preliminary analysis Creation Date: 1998 By Y. Wu
  19. Promoting the Financing of SMEs and Start-ups in Korea By Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
  21. Distinguishing patterns of learning and incusion through patterns of network formation in developing agricultural clusters By Matias Ramirez; Paloma Bernal; Ian Clarke; Ivan Hernandez
  22. Regional labor markets in Brazil: the role of skills and agglomeration economies By Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi
  23. The Theory of Competition and the Analysis of Trade Unions: The influence of Alfred Marshall Creation Date: 1982 By A. Petridis

  1. By: Otello Ardovino; Luca Pennacchio
    Abstract: This paper explores the drivers of inter-firm R&D collaborations in a particular type of innovation network, the technological districts created in Italy under a specific public policy to promote innovation. The empirical analysis used an original database containing information on research projects activated by the districts and on the characteristics of participating firms. The main results show that districts with governance oriented towards market logic and districts that include several universities foster a stronger cooperation among firms than other districts. In addition, network effects such as structural embeddedness and interlocking directorate greatly influence the propensity to cooperate. Lastly, knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity of firms also play an important role in shaping collaboration strategies. Some considerations about the effectiveness of public policy also emerge from the analysis. In particular technological districts foster research collaborations among small firms and between small and large firms. The latter type of cooperation could be very important to enhance the innovation capabilities of small firms and their performance.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation, innovation networks, firm behaviour, dyadic regession.
    JEL: L14 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–10–09
  2. By: Bettina Blasini (Engineering Department - University of Cambridge); Rani Jeanne Dang (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS), IIE - Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Université de Gothenburg, Suède - Université de Gothenburg, Suède); Tim Minshall (Engineering Department - University of Cambridge); Letizia Mortara (Engineering Department - University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: Innovation clusters continue to be an important focus of economic development policies in many nations. Leading innovation clusters demonstrate that regional concentration strengthens the innovative capability and can lead to successful competitiveness on a global level, as demonstrated by regions such as Silicon Valley (US), Cambridge (UK) and Sophia Antipolis (France). However the successful creation of clusters still presents a challenge to policy makers as efforts to do so regularly fail. The development of innovation clusters has therefore received much academic and policymaker attention. While past research has examined a variety of factors as drivers for clustering effects, the role of communication within the cluster - and, specifically, the role of key individual communicators - in underpinning successful cluster development has received almost no academic attention. In this chapter, we will draw upon the relevant literature to develop a conceptual framework that will underpin research on this important topic by investigating the role of communicators in innovation clusters. Building on communication theories, the framework suggests that there are four influence-levels that shape and impact the role of communications in innovation clusters: the Individual Level, the Organizational Level, the Cluster Level and the Context. The interdisciplinary view on clustering effects contributes valuable insight to both communication studies and cluster theories. The framework developed within this chapter provides a structure to aid future research on the role of communicators within innovation clusters.
    Keywords: Innovation clusters, communications framework, journalist; communicators
    Date: 2013–12–05
  3. By: Jackie Krafft (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Pier-Paolo Saviotti (GAEL - Grenoble Applied Economic laboratory - Aucune)
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a methodology to represent and measure knowledge which takes into account knowledge heterogeneity and its sectoral level theoretical and empirical implications in knowledge intensive environments. We draw on work on recombinant knowledge, extending the approach to include the way the dynamics of technological knowledge creation evolves according to a life cycle; testing the existence of concepts such as technological paradigms; mapping the characteristics of the search process in the phases of exploration and exploitation during this technology life cycle and detecting the differences in sectoral evolution that can be explained by the properties of the knowledge base. We use European Patent Office data (1981-2005) to propose some operational metrics for the knowledge base and its evolution in two knowledge intensive sectors: biotechnology and telecommunications. Our empirical results show that there are interesting and meaningful differences across sectors, which are linked to the different phases of the technology life cycles.
    Keywords: Knowledge base, knowledge intensive sectors, variety, coherence, cognitive distance, technological classes, patents
    Date: 2014–06–12
  4. By: Florian Umlauf (University of Bremen)
    Abstract: The granting of publicly subsidized joint projects has become a popular policy instrument in Germany and other developed countries. However, little is known about how an emerging subsidization network affects the overall allocation process of further project grants. Employing a database that contains all funded R and D projects of the German federal government, this paper analyzes the extent to which the funding network tends to reproduce itself. The results of an empirical model show that participation within a collaborative project does not raise, per se, the chance of an enterprise obtaining another project grant. Rather, it is important to hold central positions within the network or have access to a diverse external knowledge base to receive anew project grant.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, project allocation, network determinants, cooperation, R and D
    JEL: H32 L53 L60 O38
    Date: 2014–10–08
  5. By: Juan A. Máñez (Universitat de València and ERI-CES, Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain); María E. Rochina-Barrachina (Universitat de València and ERI-CES, Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain); Amparo Sanchis-Llopis (Universitat de València and ERI-CES, Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (Universitat de València and ERI-CES, Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the sources of persistence in conducting R&D activities by SMEs. The data used is a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms drawn from the Survey of Business Strategies (ESEE), for the period 1990-2011. We estimate discrete time proportional hazard models accounting for firm observed and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results are consistent with a process of learning associated with the accumulation of R&D capital and with a self-sustained effect of engagement in R&D activities. In addition, we obtain that persistence in R&D in SMEs is also related to the success-breeds-success, sunk costs and demand-pull hypotheses. Finally, our findings also uncover some interesting differences in the underlying drivers of R&D persistence of SMEs as compared to their larger counterparts.
    Keywords: SMEs, R&D activities, persistence, learning, success-breeds-success, sunk costs, demand-pull, discrete time survival models
    JEL: C41 L60 O31
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo (University of Turin)
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Matilde Mas (Ivie - Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas); Juan Fernández de Guevara Radoselovics (Ivie - Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas Author-Workplace-Homepage:
    Abstract: The 2013 PREDICT report provides an overview of the importance of the EU ICT sector and its R&D performance. The report gives detailed information on the progress made by the ICT sector comprising both ICT manufacturing and ICT service. The analysis is carried out by comparing EU Member State with other non-EU economies that are currently leading the world economy, including both developed and emerging economies. The report found the trends that the EU ICT sector had a reduction in its share in total value added, business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD), R&D personnel and R&D researchers over the period 2006-2010, while its share in terms of employment remained stable. The EU ICT services sector performed better than the ICT manufacturing sector since the former showed more positive results in the observed variables than the economy in general. Finally, the US kept the lead in all variables —but especially in labour productivity and BERD intensity— widening the gap with the EU.
    Keywords: ICT; information and communication technologies; R&D, BERD, ICT manufacturing, ICT services; Europe; US, Asia, indicators.
    JEL: O30 O32 O52
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Yifan ZHANG (Lingan University, Hong Kong)
    Abstract: Using a large firm-level dataset from the Chinese manufacturing industry, this paper studies the productivity gap and productivity convergence between large and small firms in China. We find that small firms are less productive relative to large firms, but the productivity gap became smaller over the sample period 1999–2007. Based on static and dynamic Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions, we distinguish the endowment effect from the return effect, and quantify the impacts of exports and FDI on the productivity gap and productivity convergence.
    Keywords: China, Small firms, Productivity, Globalisation
    JEL: F11 L22 O53
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Joachim Wagner (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper uses comparable firm level data from France, Italy and Spain to test a hypothesis derived by Bustos (AER 2011) in a model that explains the decision of heterogeneous firms to export and to engage in R&D. Using a non-parametric test for first order stochastic dominance it is shown that, in line with this hypothesis, the productivity distribution of firms with exports and R&D dominates that of exporters without R&D, which in turn dominates that of firms that neither export nor engage in R&D. These results are in line with findings for Argentina reported by Bustos, and with findings for Germany and Denmark. The model, therefore, seems to be useful to guide empirical work on the relation between exports, R&D and productivity.
    Keywords: Exports, R&D, productivity, EFIGE data, France, Italy, Spain
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2014–10
  10. By: Pablo Legna (Buenos Aires University, Argentina)
    Abstract: One of the most fundamental questions that are made about the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – and in a broader sense about Sustainable Development (SD) – is whether these concepts can help to boost competitiveness in organizations. This question is of utmost importance if you want to promote the development of CSR actions in enterprises since it would provide a very powerful reason for its implementation. There is no single answer to this question. There is a growing body of evidence showing that businesses which tended to apply SD have competitive advantages in various aspects with respect to companies that are not involved in the issue. However this result cannot be generalized to, or are easily adoptable by all organizations since there are many factors, both internal and external, that affect the competitiveness of a company, sector, region or country. To properly analyze the phenomenon of competitiveness arising from sustainable development, we must investigate various factors that are interdependent, which makes the performance in certain areas of a country or region directly influence firms embedded in it. This paper analyzes which are the key elements of CSR influencing competitiveness at both macro (country, region) as micro level (company, organization). Competitiveness factors are explained in a theoretical model that we called Sustainable Competitiveness Pyramid. The first Part of the Sustainable Competitiveness Pyramid is given by the macro-level capabilities of national governments. It consists of a competitive base that conforms to the government's ability to create appropriate macroeconomic environment to attract investment. The second stratum of Sustainable Competitiveness Pyramid consists of generating government institutions with a greater image of transparency so as to ensure legal certainty and effectiveness. The third level of the pyramid formed by the competitive Apex emphasizes technology, information and communications infrastructure. The other part of the Sustainable Competitiveness Pyramid is related to the usufruct by the companies of the conditions set by governments for a better development of productive activities. Sustainable competitiveness of organizations is determined by its ability to properly leverage the competitive windows generated by the CSR actions and involve in Sustainable Development.
    Date: 2013–09
  11. By: Ron Boschma
    Abstract: Klepper’s theory of industry clustering based on organizational reproduction and inheritance through spinoffs challenged the Marshallian view on industry clustering. The paper provides an assessment of Klepper’s theoretical and empirical work on industry clustering. We explore how ‘new’ his spinoff theory on industry clustering was, and we investigate the impact of Klepper’s theory on the economic geography community. Klepper’s work has inspired especially very recent literature on regional branching that argues that new industries grow out of and recombine capabilities from local related industries. Finally, the paper discusses what questions on industry location are still left open or in need of more evidence in the context of Klepper’s theory.
    Keywords: Klepper, spinoff dynamics, agglomeration economies, Marshall, industry clustering, evolutionary economic geography
    JEL: B15 B52 O18 R11
    Date: 2014–09
  12. By: Tereso S. Tullao, Jr. (De La Salle University); Christopher James Cabuay (De La Salle University)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief raises some policy issues regarding the capacity of the ASEAN region’s education system in producing knowledge capital as it looks into the opportunities and challenges faced by the sector. This is critical for ASEAN to enable it to attain its quest to be a base for innovation. Among the issues that ASEAN has to confront in achieving this goal relate to the development of financing schemes for various types of education, improvement in the level of investments in research and development, and revisit of the way teaching is conducted in the 21st century, especially in certain disciplines crucial to engendering innovation for growth and development.
    Date: 2014–01
  13. By: Florence Honore
    Abstract: Start-ups founded by team members with prior shared experience in incumbent firms tend to perform better than other start-ups. While the prior shared experience brings relevant knowledge and coherent routines, the knowledge is also by definition redundant and can corner the new firms in local search and limit innovation. I propose that start-ups may mitigate the negative aspects of shared prior experience by including in the founding team individuals with extensive experience in multiple prior jobs or industries – i.e., job hoppers. I find that job hoppers positively moderate the effect of shared experience on performance. I also find that job hoppers who bring knowledge from outside the start-up industry are beneficial to teams with prior shared experience within the start-up industry and that job hoppers who bring knowledge from the start-up industry are beneficial to teams with prior shared experience outside the start-up industry. Consequently, the job-hoppers may embody both the positive disruptive effect and the introduction of relevant complementary knowledge. With these results, the paper uncovers a novel mechanism that underlies the knowledge complementarities in founding teams.
    Date: 2014–10
  14. By: Paola Mengoli; Margherita russo
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss innovations in education, with a focus on those oriented towards knowledge-driven re-industrialisation in Europe. We first introduce the specific education needs for re- industrialisation with regard (a) to young peo-ple’s knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and (b) to specific training needs of mid-level technicians. Then we pro- pose the adoption of a context-based approach to place science and technology with- in young people’s daily lives and to promote links between science, technology and society. In particular, we propose the use of robotics labs to improve context-based approach to technology education. We suggest action-research as a feasible practice to boost bottom-up changes in teaching and learning activities, and we focus on the university initiative Officina Emilia as an exemplar of such actions, as the initiative involves university researchers, manufacturing and services companies, education agencies, civil society. The paper offers some concluding remarks on two main in-gredients that can support a more appropriate set of education and training activities to enhance knowledge-driven re-industrialisation: first, the need to allow the emer-gence of hybrid places fostering innovation, with the involvement of different agents; second, the robotics labs, among others, as a means to foster a multidiscipli-nary perspective, crucial for the new challenges that education faces in supporting re- industrialization.
    Keywords: innovation in education; knowledge driven reindustrialization in Europe; technology context-based education; robotics and innovation in education
    JEL: I21 J24 I28 R1
    Date: 2014–07
  15. By: Preeya Mohan; Eric Strobl; Patrick Watson
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of innovation and the benefits from it in making firms more productive in the Caribbean. To this end we use a rich firm level dataset covering 14 different countries and various non-parametric, semi- parametric and parametric statistical tools. Our results show that, while firms may be productive for many reasons, there are substantial productivity benefits resulting from investment in innovation. Moreover, these benefits do not appear to be particularly low compared to what prevails in other developing countries. However, there is some indication that factors that would normally encourage innovation investment, such as patent protection, public subsidies, or cooperation among innovators, may not bear fruit.
    Date: 2014–09–25
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: This working paper assesses opportunities and policies for green growth in the Chicago Tri-State Metropolitan Area. It first examines the Chicago metro-region's economic and environmental performance and potential constraints to regional growth, and identifies emerging regional specialisations in green products and services. This is followed by a review of sector-specific policies that can contribute to green jobs, green firms and urban attractiveness, with particular attention to energy-efficient buildings, the wind energy industry, public transportation, and the water and waste sectors. Finally, the working paper considers the role of workforce, innovation and governance policies, focusing on skill shortages and skill mismatches in the regional labour market, ways to make the most of the region's innovation assets, and opportunities for regional institutional co-ordination.
    Keywords: sustainable development, innovation, transport, renewable energy, climate change, energy efficiency, green technologies, green growth, green economy, urban sustainability, cities, multi-level governance, metro-region, Chicago, Indiana, Illinois, green cities, Milwaukee, urban development, regional clusters, attractiveness, Wisconsin
    JEL: O18 O44 Q01 Q55 Q58 R11 R58
    Date: 2013–05–03
  17. By: Lynne Pepall; Dan Richard
    Abstract: Recent innovations in digital learning and web-based technologies have enable scalability in educational services that has previously not been feasible presenting a potential disruption of traditional higher education markets. This paper explores the impact of these innovations in vertically differentiated market with network externalities. Students differ in their ability to benefit from educational services. We describe how selective and non-selective institutions compete for students through tuition price and admission criteria and consider how free non-credentialed educational services (MOOCs) affect the market equilibrium. Our model also helps explain why selective institutions are frequently also the proprietors of MOOCs.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Vertical Differentiation, Network Effects
    JEL: D43 I23
  18. By: Y. Wu
  19. By: Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
    Abstract: The Korean government has made fostering a “creative economy” a top priority. The goal is to shift Korea's economic paradigm to one based on innovation in which new start-ups and venture businesses play a key role. However, the venture capital market is still at an early stage of development. To make venture investment a growth driver, it is important to expand the role of business angels, activate the merger-andacquisition market and foster entrepreneurship. A creative economy also depends on making SMEs, which account for 87% of employment, more dynamic. The productivity gap between large firms and SMEs, which benefit from a wide range of public support, is widening. SME policies should be streamlined and improved to promote market-based financing and reduce the negative effects of government funding programmes, which discourage the expansion of SMEs. Promouvoir le financement des PME et des jeunes entreprises en Corée Le gouvernement coréen a érigé en priorité la promotion d'une « économie créative ». L'objectif est que la Corée adopte un nouveau paradigme économique fondé sur l'innovation, suivant lequel les jeunes entreprises et les entreprises à risque joueraient un rôle clé. Le marché du capital-risque est cependant encore à un stade précoce de son développement. Pour que l’investissement en capital-risque soit vecteur de croissance, il est primordial de renforcer le rôle des investisseurs providentiels, de développer le marché des fusions-acquisitions et de favoriser l’entrepreneuriat. Une économie créatrice est aussi une économie qui dynamise les PME, lesquelles représentent 87 % de l’emploi. L'écart de productivité entre les grandes entreprises et les PME, qui bénéficient d'un large éventail d'aides publiques, se creuse. Les politiques en faveur des PME doivent être rationnalisées et optimisées pour promouvoir les financements de marché et atténuer l’impact négatif des aides publiques, qui n’incitent pas les PME à se développer.
    Keywords: Korea, entrepreneurship, venture business, SMEs, start-ups, crowd-funding, mergers and acquisitions, KONEX, credit guarantees, venture capital investment, business angels, creative economy, KOSDAQ, non-tangible collateral, IPOs, KOSDAQ, KONEX, investissements en capital-risque, investisseurs providentiels, Corée, économie créative, garanties de crédit, introductions en bourse, garantie non tangible, financement participatif, jeunes entreprises, fusion et acquisition, entrepreneuriat, entreprises à risque
    JEL: L25 L26 M13
    Date: 2014–09–16
  20. By: Nikolas J. Zolas
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how firms decide where to patent in a heterogeneous firm model of trade with endogenous rival entry. In the model, innovating firms compete with rival firms on price, where rivals force the innovating firm to reduce markups and lower the innovating firm's probability of obtaining monopolistic profits. Patenting allows the innovating firm to reduce the number of rival rms by increasing their fixed overhead costs, thereby providing higher expected profits and increased markups from reduced competition. Countries with higher states of technology, more competition and better patent protection have a greater proportion of entrants who patent. Industries tend to follow a U-shaped pattern of patenting where industries with high heterogeneity in production and low substitution, along with industries with low heterogeneity in production and high substitution patent more frequently. Using a generalized framework of the model, I estimate market-based measures of country-level patent protection, which when compared with other IP indices, suggests that not enough international patenting is taking place. Finally, I test the predictions of the model using a newly available technology-to-industry concordance on bilateral patent flows and show that firms are increasingly sensitive to foreign IP protection. Countries that choose to maximize their IP protection can increase the number of foreign patents by almost 10%.
    Keywords: Patents, international trade, heterogeneous rms, endogenous markups, intellectual property, imperfect competition
    JEL: F12 F29 O34 L11
    Date: 2014–09
  21. By: Matias Ramirez (SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK); Paloma Bernal (SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK); Ian Clarke (University of Greenwich); Ivan Hernandez (Universidad Nacional, Colombia)
    Date: 2014–10
  22. By: Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi
    Abstract: This paper aims to discuss how agglomerations economies are present in the equilibrium outcomes of the Brazilian formal labor market. There has been a wide discussion on how to correctly identify agglomeration economies given all the different types of endogeneity found in the labor market relationships, as well as taking into account all the relevant aspects that may affect the results. We make use of an individual-firm panel database from the Ministry of Labor (RAIS - Annual Report on Social Information) with information for six years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012). With the panel data setting, it is not only possible to account for individual unobserved characteristics constant in time, but also for sector and area effects. Moreover, by identifying skills according to the occupational position of the individuals in each firm, it is possible to control for the proximity to different skill levels (in the sector and municipality) to account for different levels of production knowledge externalities. Individual fixed effects control the potential endogeneity of the labor quality. In the case of labor quantity endogeneity, even if there is no consensus of how to best control for it, instruments based on long time lags are considered. The results show that there is a positive and significant effect of density over wages (Urban Economics literature), even when controlling for other relevant characteristics. Moreover, a measure of market potential, related to the New Economic Geography literature, does not capture this positive relationship with wages in the same way, changing sign in a specific setting. Finally, considering a quantile regression approach, there is an indication that agglomeration economies reinforce wage inequality, with a higher effect for the upper part of the wage distribution.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies; regional labor markets; wage equation
    JEL: R23 E24 R30
    Date: 2014–10–06
  23. By: A. Petridis

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