nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒10‒17
forty-nine papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation performance as a factor of socio-economic development in Kazakhstan By Aizhan Samambayeva; Manuel Fernández Grela
  2. Taxation Of R&D: Review Of Practices By Galina A. Kitova
  3. Innovation, Agglomeration, and Knowledge Spillovers: An Empirical Study of Finnish and Swedish Firms By Yih-Luan CHYI; Kuei-Yen LIAO
  4. Models of Innovation in Global ICT Firms: The Emerging Global Innovation Ecosystems By Martin Fransman
  5. Novel Applications of Existing Econometric Instruments to Analyse Regional Innovation Systems: The Spanish Case By Mikel Buesa; Thomas Baumert; Joost Heijs; Monica Marti­nez Pellitero
  6. Modelling the Intra-metropolitan Location of Foreign Investment Firms in Istanbul By Sevkiye Sence Turk; Lale Berkoz
  8. Productivity & Efficiency: Evidence from the Chinese regional economies Creation Date: 1997 By Y. Wu
  9. Impact Analysis of Regional Knowledge Subsidy: a CGE Approach Applied to Sardinia By Patrizio LECCA; Giorgio GARAU
  10. The Location Determinants of the ICT Sector across Italy By Andrea LASAGNI; Fabio SFORZI
  11. Firms' Export Behavior and the Role of Bank' Overseas Information By INUI Tomohiko; ITO Keiko; MIYAKAWA Daisuke; SHOJI Keishi
  12. The Productive Efficiency of Chinese Iron and Steel Firms: A stochastic frontier analysis Creation Date: 1995 By Y. Wu
  13. Sectoral Leadership in International Competitiveness By Elsa Cristina VAZ
  14. Enterprises in the Philippines: Dynamism and Constraints to Employment Growth By Khor, Niny; Sebastian, Iva; Aldaba, Rafaelita
  15. Explaining Industrial Localization and Countries´ Specialization in the European Union: An Empirical Investigation By Astrid KRENZ; Gerhard RÜBEL
  16. Firms’ Strategies and the Effects of Antidumping Policy By CHEN Kun-Ming; CHEN Tsai-Chia
  17. The "twin Deficits", Are-they Really Twins? an Empirical Investigation in the Case of a Small Developing Economy By Wissem Ajili
  18. Climate Policy and Induced R&D: How Great is the Effect? By Leslie SHIELL; Nikita LYSSENKO
  19. Trade Liberalization, Agglomeration and Public Policies: the Case of the European Regional Policies By Susana IRANZO
  21. The role of social-economic development of industrial clusters By Qazanfar Suleymanov; Suleymanov Qazanfar; Bakhishov Azar; Akhmadova Akima; Agayeva Khanim
  22. How much can foreign multinationals affect the Chinese economy? A dynamic general equilibrium analysis of Japanese FDI By María C. Latorre; Nobuhiro Hosoe
  23. Innovative Potential Regional Evaluation in the Czech Republic By Milan Viturka
  24. Competition in the Provision of Local Public Goods By Alexandra Petermann Reifschneider
  25. Human Capital Accumulation and Geography: Empirical Evidence in the European Union By Jesús López-Rodríguez; J. Andrés Faíña
  26. The Spatial Distrubution of Service Firms in Istanbul Metropolitan Area By Ebru Kerimoglu; Hale Ciraci
  27. Redundancy and Firm Characteristics in Chinese State-owned Enterprises Creation Date: 1998 By Y. Wu
  28. Determinants of Incoming Cross-Border M&A: Evidence from European Transition Economies By Josipa VIŠIC; Blanka ŠKRABIC
  29. Export Performance and Economic Growth: Co-integration and causality analysis for Malaysia, 1966-96 Creation Date: 1999 By M.A.B. Siddique; E.A. Selvanathan
  30. Global Metal Markets: Accounting for performance (Part 3/3) Creation Date: 1995 By R.A. Greig
  31. An Evaluation Of Earnings Management : The Case Of Tunisian Companies By Sonia Sayari; Abdelwahed OMRI
  32. Regional Tourism Satellite Account (RTSA) and Economic Effects in Finnish Regions By Juha-Pekka Konttinen
  33. ICT in a Model of Technology Embedded in Investment By Sebastian de RAMON
  34. Concentration of Talent and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Spanish Autonomous Communities By Burhan Can KARAHASAN; Ebru KERIMOGLU
  35. Regional perspectives and distributional effects of European regional policies By Andrea Bonfiglio; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte; Beatrice Camaioni
  36. Scale and Structure Effects of Final Demand Shocks: Measuring Interindustry Linkages in National and Regional Economies By Joao Lopes; J. F. Amaral; J. Dias
  37. A Comparative Study on Resource Saving Technology Based on OECD I-O Database By Takatoshi Watanabe; Mitsuru Shimoda; Kiyoshi Fujikawa
  38. Volatility Spillovers from Australia's major trading partners across the GFC By David E. Allen; Michael McAleer; Abhay K. Singh
  39. Human Capital and Regional Wage Gaps By Enrique LOPEZ-BAZO; Elisabet MOTELLON
  40. Dynamic Strategies for Successful Online Crowdfunding By Zhuoxin Li; Jason A. Duan
  41. Ecologie industrielle et développement territorial durable : le rôle des services Industrial ecology and sustainable territorial development: The role of service By Blandine LAPERCHE; Antje BURMEISTER; Céline MERLIN BROGNIART; Fédoua KASMI
  42. Filing Strategies and Patent Value By Bruno VAN POTTELSBERGHE; Nicolas VAN ZEEBROECK
  43. "Made in China" - How Does it Affect Measures of Competitiveness? By Konstantins Benkovskis; Julia Woerz
  44. Public transport reliability and commuter strategy By Guillaume Monchambert; André De Palma
  46. The Development of Trade and Foreign Direct Investment under the Influence of the Barcelona Process – An Initial Assessmentt By Arno BAECKER
  47. Time Series Analysis of Strategic Pricing Behavior in the Brazilian Gasoline Markets: modeling volatility By Silvinha Vasconcelos; Claudio Roberto Fóffano VASCONCELOS
  48. Human Capital Theory, Returns to Education and On-the-job Learning: Evidence from Canadian Data By Mohsen BOUAISSA
  49. Inter-industry labor reallocation and task distance By Ayako Kondo; Saori Naganuma

  1. By: Aizhan Samambayeva; Manuel Fernández Grela
    Abstract: Relationship between innovation performance and economic development is well-recognised all over the world (Mairesse, Lotti, & Mairesse, 2009, Grossman & Helpman, 1990, Hall, 2001). There are numerous of studies confirming that innovation development leads to economic growth, better productivity and increase in sustainable competitiveness. The assessment contributes to theoretical analysis on innovation and significantly broadens knowledge of innovation performance in developing countries. But the most considerable contribution is made to innovation system of Kazakhstan, which is very poor researched and published. Results of the study provide strengths and weaknesses of innovation performance in Kazakhstan and its position in the global landscape, which can be useful information for future policy making to improve social and economic development of the region. Besides The European Innovation Scoreboard, the most prominent innovation measurement indices are: 1. OECD Science, Technology, and Industry Scoreboard 2013 2. The World Bank’s Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) 2012 3. The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 Taking into account data availability and level of innovation development, European Innovation Scoreboard is most appropriate tool to measure innovation performance in Kazakhstan. For example, The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report is difficult to implement due to comprehensive nature of data required that is not publicly available. Moreover, some innovation indicators used in scoreboard are elaborated particularly for developed and sophisticated innovation system. Therefore they include variables that have interpretation value only in case of developed countries. European Innovation Scoreboard is not optimal choice to measure innovation performance in Kazakhstan. However, perfect fitting to Kazakhstan’s economy innovation measurement is unlikely will be comparable for other countries as well. Our goal was to find innovation measurement (scoreboard) that can satisfy our targets to elaborate innovation indicators that can be easily interpreted, providing exhaustive analysis of innovation situation in Kazakhstan; and to be able benchmark the country with similar economies (catching-up countries). According to Archibugi, Denni, & Filippetti (2009), European Innovation Scoreboard shoud be considered as measure of innovation performance rather than others. Because it takes into account new forms of innovation. Others mostly represent current endowment of country to develop its competitiveness and growth through technological innovations. The methodology includes 29 indicators, grouped over 7 different innovation dimensions and 3 major groups of dimensions. The group of “Enablers” captures the main drivers of innovation that are external to the firm and it is divided into two dimensions: “Human resources” and “Finance and support”, capturing in total 9 indicators. Some indicators are subject to national context. Therefore, more detailed information about issues regarding the calculation of the indicators is presented in the whole version of the paper. The results of study revealed relative competitiveness of the region in supply of human capital. However, the rapid pace of economic development requires highly skilled workforce, especially technical and engineering specialist, in order to support innovation performance in the country. Besides the importance of participation in long-life learning for on-going technical development and innovation, this number is extremely low in Kazakhstan. The main factors hampering innovation performance are insufficient R&D investments (public and private), poor infrastructure, weal linkages between main stakeholders of innovation process. This everything is a result of inefficient public policy on innovation and historical and cultural circumstances. The study has found that generally the innovation performance of the region is similar to that of the country. The indicator of the country and region are slightly different. Unsurprisingly, the indicators have shown that the region is placed at the bottom of catching-up countries. The current research was limited to evaluate factors related to qualitative characteristics of the indicator. Moreover, measuring regional innovation performance showed that more progress is needed on the availability and quality of innovation data at regional level. In general, research showed that innovation level of the country is very low even in comparison with catching-up countries. It can be explained by economic model where output is mainly driven by increased used of labour and capital. As a result a low demand for knowledge and weak linkages between key actors. “Knowledge producing and processing sectors and actors so far remain largely isolated from one another, and their activities are structurally mismatched. This may be explained by the lack of incentives in the business sector to innovate, as innovation is often not seen as necessary to maintain or develop competitive advantages. In addition, the commercial orientation of public R&D capacities (knowledge supply) remains limited. This vicious cycle seems to have locked the national innovation system into a suboptimal, low knowledge intensity equilibrium (Innovation performance review of Kazakhstan, 2012)” See above See above
    Keywords: Kazakhstan, Socio-economic development, Socio-economic development
    Date: 2014–10–01
  2. By: Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years R&D tax incentives have been characterized by increasing scale and spread on innovation activity. Approaches to integrated R&D tax incentives into "recipes" for long-term growth and competitiveness were developed and tested in many countries. For exam-ple, only 12 OECD members employed R&D tax incentives in 1995, but 27 members do so in 2013 (as well as Brazil, China, India, Russia and other countries). And their share of total government expenditure on R&D (direct and tax) by OECD member countries reached at least a third. These trends have accompanied the development and testing of approaches to estimate the costs of tax support for R&D (including tax expenditures) and its effects and to ensure that they are internationally compatible. As for Russia, there are no officially accepted estimates of the scale and effectiveness of R&D and innovation tax support yet, though efforts to calculate them have been under way since 2010. This paper includes the current state of empirical research of tax support for R&D and in-novation in the Russian Federation, as well as a survey of the demand for its tools from research institutes, universities performing R&D, and manufacturing enterprises, which was conducted in 2012-2013. The results obtained demonstrate the power of empirical analysis and optimization of R&D and innovation tax incentives in the Russian Federation, against the background of the field's best practices and current trends.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, tax incentives, tax expenditures, demand for R&D and in-novation tax incentives.
    JEL: H21 H22 H25
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Yih-Luan CHYI; Kuei-Yen LIAO
  4. By: Martin Fransman (University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: This report focuses on the changing models of innovation adopted by some of the largest and most innovative global ICT companies in the world, including Apple, BT, Google, Microsoft, Skype, Telefonica and Vodafone. One of the main contributions of this report is to demonstrate that, in order to understand these innovation models, it is necessary at the same time to understand the dynamics of innovation at sector level. Beginning with an analysis of the innovation process in the ICT ecosystem, the author drills down into the company global innovation ecosystems that have been created by these global companies. In addition, he explores some of the implications that proliferating company global innovation ecosystems have for government policy. He concludes that whilst innovation is changing the world, changing global circumstances are in turn transforming the innovation model in companies, both large and small, around the world.
    Keywords: innovation, ICT
    JEL: L1 L22 L63 L86
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Mikel Buesa; Thomas Baumert; Joost Heijs; Monica Marti­nez Pellitero
  6. By: Sevkiye Sence Turk; Lale Berkoz
  7. By: Graziella Bonanno (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: Are Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Research & Development (R&D) productive inputs or efficiency determinants? This is the topic of this paper which analyses a sample of 2691 Italian manufacturing firms over the period 2007-2009. The empirical setting is based on a production function estimated through the Stochastic Frontier (SF) approach. ICT and R&D are used once as inputs, once as efficiency determinants (Coelli et al., 1999). The results show that the rates of return of ICT and R&D investments are quite high (0.08 for ICT and 0.04 for R&D) when they enter into the model only as inputs. We also documented that ICT and R&D contribute positively to explain the efficiency scores.
    Keywords: ICT, R&D, Stochastic Frontier Approach, efficiency
    JEL: D22 D24 L69 O39
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Y. Wu
  9. By: Patrizio LECCA; Giorgio GARAU
  10. By: Andrea LASAGNI; Fabio SFORZI
  11. By: INUI Tomohiko; ITO Keiko; MIYAKAWA Daisuke; SHOJI Keishi
    Abstract: This paper examines how firms’ decision to start exporting is affected by the availability of information on export markets. Unlike existing studies which focus on information sharing among firms, we are interested in the information provided by firms’ main bank. Specifically, using a unique dataset containing information on both Japanese firms’ export activities and their main banks’ experience in transacting with other exporting firms, we examine whether main banks act as a conduit of information on export markets. We find that information spillovers through main banks positively affect client firms’ decision to start exporting (extensive margin), implying that information on foreign markets provided by banks substantially reduces the fixed entry cost of exporting. On the other hand, we do not find any evidence that information provided by banks has an effect on the export volume or on the growth rate of exports (intensive margin). Our results highlight that channels of information spillovers other than those examined in the literature so far may be of considerable importance.
    Date: 2013–03
  12. By: Y. Wu
  13. By: Elsa Cristina VAZ
  14. By: Khor, Niny (Asian Development Bank); Sebastian, Iva (Asian Development Bank); Aldaba, Rafaelita (Philippine Institute for Development Studies)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyze the factors affecting the growth of enterprises in the Philippines, as measured from the expansion of employment. The paper contributes to the literature in two ways. First, it attempts to provide a comprehensive background of the various policies and legislations that affect firms in the country. Second, using micro-level data of the firms in 2009, we correlate the observed growth of these firms with reported constraints in the business environment within which these firms operate, to investigate which ones are binding constraints. We find significant correlations between a subset of these indicators of business climates and the issues raised in previous literature, and the effects vary across firms of different sizes. Given the challenging global climate in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009, more than a third of these firms expanded their payroll and majority saw growth in real sales. Amidst a sea of subjective self-reported responses, we manage to find certain empirical regularities that withstand a battery of robustness checks. These correlations between a subset of indicators for business climates and the growth or expansion of firms may shed some light on future potential policies to assist these firms, as well as provide directions for further research.
    Keywords: SMEs; enterprise; employment; constraints; growth
    JEL: D20 D24 L25
    Date: 2013–02–01
  15. By: Astrid KRENZ; Gerhard RÜBEL
  16. By: CHEN Kun-Ming; CHEN Tsai-Chia
  17. By: Wissem Ajili
  18. By: Leslie SHIELL; Nikita LYSSENKO
  19. By: Susana IRANZO
  20. By: Nancy Bouchra Hanna (German University of Cairo, Egypt); Raghda El-Ebrashi (German University of Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: Organizations operate to ensure valuable return to its shareholders. Yet, they are not the only party affected by and interested in organization’s operations (Smith, 2007). Society has been expecting more responsible and ethical roles from organizations, especially, during the last fifty years. No longer organizations should be ethical, but rather engage in what is known “social responsibility” or have “corporate citizenship” (Lantos, 2001). Keith Davis, in 1960 defined social responsibility as “decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic and technical interest” (Dennis et al., 1998: 387). Since then, many practices have been developed assessing organization’s social impact and role (Meehan et al., 2006) and the term “CSR” or “Corporate social responsibility” was found in organizations’ reports, on their websites or part of their mission statements (Scott, 2007). CSR recently have been considered as new organizational innovation (McManus, 2008) and consequently it became of wide interest between researchers. It is no longer viewed as indication of organizations’ social role but rather as a competitive edge making CSR an integral part of organizations’ strategies (Galbreath, 2009; Gyves and O’Higgins, 2008; Porter and Kramer, 2002). Managers need CSR to be aligned with their mission, organizational strategic issues, market, customer needs, resources and competitive advantage. As highlighted by Prahalad and Hamel (1990) and the resource-based view (Barney, 1991), activities should be linked to organizational core competencies and resources to enhance long-term competitiveness. And since CSR is considered a valuable, rare, non-imitable resource (Galbreath, 2009; Gyves and O’Higgins, 2008) -by boosting both financial and non-financial indicators such as sales, customer satisfaction, productivity and technological capabilities (Smith, 2007; Moir, 2001; Galbreath, 2010; Gallego-Alvarez et al., 2011)- it is crucial to link CSR to the organizations’ strategic direction and functions. A tool used to translate organizational strategy into financial and non-financial objectives is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and it includes four main perspectives: financial, customer, internal process and learning and growth (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). This paper introduces a developed framework explaining the process of linking CSR to the organizational strategy through each of the four dimensions in the BSC. The framework highlights: (1) the different stakeholders’ expectations from the firm; (2) how CSR could improve competitiveness through the core competence model; and, (3) how CSR’s financial and non-financial benefits could be integrated in the BSC’s dimensions.
    Date: 2013–09
  21. By: Qazanfar Suleymanov; Suleymanov Qazanfar; Bakhishov Azar; Akhmadova Akima; Agayeva Khanim
    Abstract: In this article, both the global and local economic development has been studied on the basis of international experience in the use of industrial clusters . The study is based on the use of natural features and built-in facilities for industrial cluster efficiency of the economy , there are both positives and negatives to both . The efficiency of the industrial clusters in certain areas of their activities during the creation process manifests itself.To this end, the article, the negative effects of industrial clusters isifadənin - enhance the value of the labor, the rise in the price of land and real estate, environmental impacts , etc. izomorizm technology has been well studied . As a result, increases the role of the regional economic integration process and the country into one of the world's leading economic developed.
    Keywords: Azerbaijan, Socio-economic development, Socio-economic development
    Date: 2014–10–01
  22. By: María C. Latorre (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dpto.); Nobuhiro Hosoe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: We analyze the impacts of a sharp fall Japanese of foreign direct investment (FDI) to China that occurred after the worldwide financial crisis in 2009. The study is conducted by means of a three-region (Japan, China, and the rest of the world (ROW)) recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with multinational enterprises (MNEs) driven by FDI. Our simulation experiment showed that the FDI fall would cause price rises of Japanese affiliates’ goods and a depreciation of the renminbi. These two forces with the FDI fall would heavily reduce exports and production of Japanese MNE affiliates, while increasing those in Chinese manufacturing. This, however, does not mean that China would be a gainer, because it would experience a contraction in its service sector. Its losses in its service sector would exceed the gains in the manufacturing sectors. Therefore, overall China would lose due to the FDI fall.
    Date: 2014–09
  23. By: Milan Viturka
  24. By: Alexandra Petermann Reifschneider
  25. By: Jesús López-Rodríguez; J. Andrés Faíña
  26. By: Ebru Kerimoglu; Hale Ciraci
  27. By: Y. Wu
  28. By: Josipa VIŠIC; Blanka ŠKRABIC
  29. By: M.A.B. Siddique; E.A. Selvanathan
  30. By: R.A. Greig
  31. By: Sonia Sayari; Abdelwahed OMRI
  32. By: Juha-Pekka Konttinen
  33. By: Sebastian de RAMON
  34. By: Burhan Can KARAHASAN; Ebru KERIMOGLU
  35. By: Andrea Bonfiglio; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte; Beatrice Camaioni
    Abstract: A major objective of this study is to analyse the evolutionary patterns of regional linkages and disparities across the EU space, especially those related to rural and peripheral/remote regions. In particular, this report assesses the economy-wide effects, in terms of GDP and employment, induced, at the European level, by the 2007-2011 CAP payments and by the possible future scenarios concerning the next programming period (2014-2020). A multiregional closed I-O approach applied at a NUTS-3 level is adopted. Particular attention focuses on the (re-) distributive effects produced by spatial and sectoral relationships. In defining regional policy, the knowledge of spillover effects is particularly strategic in that it can assist policy makers in better calibrating allocation of funds among regions and evaluating distribution of final policy effects more correctly. With reference to the next programming period, three main scenarios are analysed. Two are based on different and extreme shares of funds apportioned to basic payments. They are in turn divided into sub-scenarios based on three different criteria of regional distribution of funds devoted to basic payments: utilized agricultural area, agricultural value added and historical payments. A third scenario assumes the suppression of the actual framework based on two pillars and the transfer of all available funds to rural development policy. Results indicate that intersectoral and interregional linkages, which characterise the EU economic space, redirect a large part of effects, for any policy framework and scenario considered, from rural regions and from primary and secondary sectors (representing the main targets of policy) to urban and tertiary sectors, respectively. Moreover, they reveal that the best option for MSs in allocating basic payments among regions would be a criterion based on eligible hectares, which is the general principle on which the new CAP is based, since it would produce higher and more balanced distribution of effects among all regions. They also suggest that a total rethinking of the CAP by introducing only a single co-financed policy would lead to higher contribution to reduction in differences between rural and urban regions. Finally, the analysis shows that the policy decision taken for the 2014-2020 programming period to redistribute funds in favour of poorer regions not only is fair from an equity point of view but can also produce economic advantages for the regions directly penalised by a fund reallocation.
    Keywords: Demographic change, Ecological innovation, Economic growth path, EU integration, New technologies, Social capital as growth driver, Socio-ecological transition, Sustainable growth
    JEL: O18 Q01 R11 R58
    Date: 2014–09
  36. By: Joao Lopes; J. F. Amaral; J. Dias
  37. By: Takatoshi Watanabe; Mitsuru Shimoda; Kiyoshi Fujikawa
  38. By: David E. Allen (School of Accounting, Finance and Economics Edith Cowan University, Australia.); Michael McAleer (Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands, Department of Quantitative Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, and Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University.); Abhay K. Singh (School of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Edith Cowan University)
    Abstract: This paper features an analysis of volatility spillover effects from Australia's major trading partners, namely, China, Japan, Korea and the United States, for a period running from 12th September 2002 to 9th September 2012. This captures the impact of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). These markets are represented by the following major indices: The Shanghai composite and the Hangseng. (In the case of China, as both China and Hong Kong appear in Australian trade statistics), the S&P500 index, the Nikkei225 and the Kospi index. We apply the Diebold and Yilmaz (2009) Spillover Index, constructed in a VAR framework, to assess spillovers across these markets in returns and in volatilities. The analysis confirms that the US and Hong Kong markets have the greatest in uence on the Australian one. We then move to a GARCH framework to apply further analysis and apply a tri-variate Cholesky-GARCH model to explore the effects from the US and Chinese market, as represented by the Hang Seng Index.
    Keywords: Volatility Spillover Index, VAR analysis, Variance Decomposition, Cholesky-GARCH.
    JEL: G11 C02
    Date: 2014
  39. By: Enrique LOPEZ-BAZO; Elisabet MOTELLON
  40. By: Zhuoxin Li (McCombs School of Business, The University of Texas at Austin, 2110 Speedway Stop B6500, Austin, Texas, 78712); Jason A. Duan (McCombs School of Business, The University of Texas at Austin, 2110 Speedway Stop B6700, Austin, Texas, 78712)
    Abstract: Crowdfunding is a fast emerging internet fundraising mechanism for soliciting capital from the crowd to support entrepreneurial ventures. This paper empirically investigates the dynamics of investors’ backing behaviors in the presence of network externalities and a finite time window. The proposed model captures how investors dynamically update their expectations on the prospect of a project based on its current funding status and time progress. Model estimation shows that investors are more likely to back a project that has already attracted a critical mass of funding (positive network externalities). For the same amount of achieved funding, the backing propensity declines over time (negative time effects). These two opposing forces give rise to a critical mass of funding the project must attain on time to achieve successful funding by the deadline. Counterfactual simulations show that projects may fail to attain the critical mass because of unfavorable shocks in investor visits at the early stage of the funding cycle. We derive dynamic seeding strategies for project owners to maximize the likelihood of funding success.
    Keywords: crowdfunding; group buying; entrepreneurship; network externality; hazards model; Bayesian inference
    JEL: D12 C81 L26 L86
    Date: 2014–09
  41. By: Blandine LAPERCHE (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI); Antje BURMEISTER (IFSRTAR, RRI); Céline MERLIN BROGNIART (Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI); Fédoua KASMI (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI)
    Abstract: Potentiellement créatrice d’effets d’agglomération favorisant la génération et l’attractivité d’activités nouvelles, l’écologie industrielle peut être considérée comme un vecteur de développement territorial durable. Mais il est nécessaire de pallier aux difficultés (techniques, économiques, informationnelles…) liées à la mise en oeuvre des symbioses industrielles. Nous étudions le rôle que peuvent jouer les activités de services, publiques et privées, dans la réduction de ces difficultés. Par leurs fonctions relatives à l’organisation des relations marchandes, à l’acquisition ou au maintien des capacités par les agents ou encore à l’aide à la décision, les services peuvent réduire les coûts de transaction engendrés par la mise en oeuvre de symbioses industrielles et accompagner les décisions stratégiques des entreprises. Industrial ecology may generate agglomeration effects favorable to business development and territorial attractiveness. As such, it may be considered as a tool for sustainable territorial development. But it is necessary to reduce the (technical, economic, informational…) difficulties ensuing from the implementation of industrial symbiosis. We study the role that service activities, whether public or private, play in the reduction of these difficulties. Through their functions linked to the organization of market relations, to the acquisition and the strengthening of agents’ capabilities and to decision support, services can reduce transaction costs ensuing from the implementation of industrial symbiosis and be a support to strategic decisions of enterprises.
    Keywords: écologie industrielle, symbiose industrielle, activités de service
    JEL: Q57 Q01 L84
    Date: 2014–06
  43. By: Konstantins Benkovskis; Julia Woerz
    Abstract: We propose a comprehensive analysis of a country's price and non-price competitiveness that accounts for changes in the value added content of trade by combining two datasets – highly disaggregated trade data from UN Comtrade and internationally integrated supply and use tables from the WIOD. When we focus attention on the traditional measure of gross exports of goods, the analysis shows that advanced economies lost non-price competitiveness relative to emerging economies over the period from 1995 to 2011. This picture changes when the fragmentation of production is considered. We find that the relative quality of production from the US, Canada, Germany and the UK, when tracing value added in exports, remained unchanged or even increased over this period. Likewise, the seemingly unchanged or improving relative quality of Brazil, Russia and India's export goods largely arose from outsourcing rather than from improvements in the quality of domestic production. However, gains in Chinese non-price competitiveness remain impressive even after accounting for global value chain integration.
    Keywords: value added content of trade, fragmentation, non-price competitiveness, China, BRIC, G7
    JEL: C43 F12 F15 L15 O47
    Date: 2014–09–22
  44. By: Guillaume Monchambert (ENS Cachan - École Normale Supérieure de Cachan - École normale supérieure (ENS) - Cachan); André De Palma (ENS Cachan - École Normale Supérieure de Cachan - École normale supérieure (ENS) - Cachan)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the two-way implication between punctuality level of public transport and commuter behavior. We consider a modal competition between public transport and an alternative mode. Commuters may choose different strategies to minimize their journey cost. In particular, when the bus becomes less punctual, more potential bus users arrive late at the bus stop. We show that punctuality increases with the alternative mode fare through a price effect. This specificity can be viewed as an extension of the Mohring effect. In the general case, the punctuality of a bus is lower at equilibrium than at optimum. According to the alternative mode operating cost, the bus attracts too many (small cost) or too few (large cost) customers.
    Keywords: public transport; reliability; duopoly; welfare; Mohring e ect; schedule delay
    Date: 2014–02–15
  45. By: Jacqueline Kirk (Nottingham University Business School, UK)
    Abstract: Responsible business indices have become increasingly important in both academic and empirical fields of corporate social responsibility (CSR) with a growing number of organisations purporting to record CSR practice in this manner; FTSE4Good, Dow Jones, Domini and Business in the Community (BITC) to name but a few. The perceived purpose of such indices is extremely diverse. Designed initially as measurement tools for investors or methods of promoting responsible business practice, indices are also used by many organisations to measure progress overtime, benchmark practices against peers or communicate CSR practices. Thus far the main body of literature in this area has explored indices’ financial impact, validity in gaining and conveying legitimacy or social impact in promoting responsible business practices. However, there seems to be little research exploring the dynamic nature of the organisations behind such indices, their various stakeholders and the changes they have undergone over time. The following paper addresses this theoretical gap through an exploration of the organisational dynamics of one of the UK’s most prominent CSR indices; BITC’s Corporate Responsibility (CR) Index. BITC is a business led charity founded in 1982. Each year since 2002 they have produced a CR index which benchmarks organisations in terms of their responsible business practice. The index has undergone many alterations over its 11 year history and is again on the precipice of transformation. This paper applies stakeholder analysis to map the organisational dynamics, interests and power relations that influence index development, arguing that networks and agency within the organisation and the organisation’s membership have an integral effect on change. The paper concludes by signposting how network theory may be applied to these various interests groups and power relations to add value to the analysis of stakeholders and our understanding of organisational change.
    Date: 2013–09
  46. By: Arno BAECKER
  47. By: Silvinha Vasconcelos; Claudio Roberto Fóffano VASCONCELOS
  48. By: Mohsen BOUAISSA
  49. By: Ayako Kondo (Yokohama National University); Saori Naganuma (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the factors preventing inter-industry labor reallocation by estimating the determinants of inter-industry worker flow and earnings change after a job change. We find that the difference in required tasks is an important reason for reduction in earnings after an inter-industry job change, and the fear of earnings losses may prevent workers from moving to industries requiring a different set of tasks. Also, more workers switch to industries with which their previous industry had larger transactions, although it affects earnings changes only marginally. On the other hand, industry performance does not affect labor inflow or wage changes significantly for inter-industry job changes. Furthermore, earnings loss associated with a move to a distant industry is not necessarily smaller for workers who are relatively more likely to move to a distant industry.
    Keywords: inter-industry labor mobility; task specific human capital
    JEL: J62 J21
    Date: 2014–09–30

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