nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒09‒29
twenty-six papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Service productivity, technology and organization - Converting theory to praxis By Viitamo, Esa
  2. Efectos de derrames horizontales de productividad de las empresas transnacionales en la industria manufacturera uruguaya, 1997-2008 By Gastón Carracelas
  3. R&D Spillovers on a Salop Circle By Fabio Lamantia; Mario Pezzino
  4. Technology Spillovers and International Borders: A Spatial Econometric Analysis By Amjad Naveed; Nisar Ahmad
  5. Aligning knowledge sharing strategy with organizational culture By Thierno Tounkara; Pierre-Emmanuel Arduin
  6. Science, Innovation and National Growth By Thomas Brenner
  7. Productivity spillovers of organization capital By Inklaar, Robert Christiaan; Chen, Wen
  8. Fragmenting global business processes: A protection for proprietary information By Julien Gooris; Carine Peeters
  9. What Most Affects A Firm' s Costs: Internal or External Factors, or Both? By Fumitoshi Mizutani; Eri Nakamura
  10. Cultural diversity at the top: Does it increase innovation and firm performance? By Nikos Bozionelos; Thomas Hoyland
  11. Problems reproduction competitiveness of the modern industry/ Проблемы воспроизводственной конкурентоспособности современной промышленности By Dmitry Edelev
  12. Emotional and Social Intelligence and Leadership Development in the Higher Education. An exploratory study By Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi
  13. Organizational Field Comprising Competitive Relationships: The Case of the ``Galapagos Syndrome" in the Japanese Mobile Phone Industry By Satoko Uenishi; Noboru Matsushima
  14. Foreign Market Experience, Learning by Hiring and Firm Export By Jaan Masso; Kärt Rõigas; Priit Vahter
  15. Liquidity management strategies in the Czech banking sector By Jana Lastuvkova
  16. The World Trade Web: A Multiple-Network Perspective By Paolo Sgrignoli
  17. The Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity: 1996-2013 By Fairlie, Robert
  18. Heterogeneous policies, heterogenous technologies : the case of renewable energy By Francesco Nicolli; Francesco Vona
  19. The Impact of Information Provision on Agglomeration Bonus Performance: An Experimental Study on Local Networks By Banerjee, Simanti; de Vries, Frans P.; Hanley, Nick; van Soest, Daan
  20. Innovation on the seed market : the role of IPRs and commercialisation rules By Adrien Hervouet; Marc Baudry
  21. Strategic Disclosure of Demand Information by Duopolists: Theory and Experiment By Jos Jansen; Andreas Pollak
  22. Import of Institutions and Economic Value Transformation: The Interactions among the Economic Agents in Georgia By Nino Papachashvili; Lela Jamagidze
  23. Productivity Growth and International Competitiveness By Gu, Wulong; Yan, Beiling
  24. Dynamic effects of anticipated and temporary tax changes in a R&D-based growth model By Kizuku Takao
  25. The Discriminatory Effect of Domestic Regulations on International Trade in Services: Evidence from Firm-Level Data By Matthieu Crozet; Emmanuel Milet; Daniel Mirza
  26. Using a multi-criteria decision aid methodology to implement sustainable development principles within an Organization By Myriam Merad; Nicolas Dechy; Lisa Serir; Michel Grabisch; Frédéric Marcel

  1. By: Viitamo, Esa
    Abstract: The growth of services - leveraged by the servitization of manufacturing - stresses the urgency of novel approaches and metrics in assessing the performance of services. Building on the statistical and socio-economic paradigms, this paper outlines the microeconomic frame for the integrative analysis of service productivity. The integrative frame is further refined with the complementary premises of the organization theory. Organizations enable link descriptive theorizing of services to the real world contexts that are influenced by uncertainties and the bounded rationality of the business managers. The contingency argument implies that when technology, strategy and the organization of a service firm are mutually consistent, it is possible to address the intangible aspects of service productivity through the tangible characteristics of the firm’s organization and the underlying strategy. The organizational method in the analysis of service productivity is illustrated by the productivity regimes of two Nordic banking corporations. The empirical findings suggest that the propositions of the organization theory may have a wider validity across organization types. The paper makes tentative propositions how the productivity regime of a business corporation shows up in its inter-firm relations and network strategies.
    Keywords: productivity, service, organization, networks
    Date: 2014–09–04
  2. By: Gastón Carracelas (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the existence of intra-industry productivity spillovers on Uruguayan manufacturing firms associated with the increased presence of transnational companies. We perform an econometric estimation bi-stage using a panel of manufacturing firms for the period 1997-2008. In the first stage, we estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) using different econometric techniques (Olley & Pakes, 1996; Blundell & Bond, 1998; Levinsohn & Petrin, 2003). In the second stage, we estimate the effect of the increasing presence of transnational companies in the sector on TFP of domestic firms. We make modifications to the base model in order to analyze the effects of the existence of heterogeneous spillovers based on the "absorptive capacity" of domestic firms and the technology-intensive sectors. We also analyze the effects of the recent process of FDI inflows on two keys sectors: Food-beverages and wood-paper. The results indicate that there are no effects of significant productivity spillovers for the average manufacturing sector. However, the large domestic firms with absorbing capacity receive spillovers significantly higher than other large manufacturing firms, while the evidence indicates that there are positive spillovers in low-technology sectors. The effects on the food-beverage sector are significantly lower than those observed on other industrial sectors, while, in the wood-paper sector there are evidence of larger effects.
    Keywords: tfp, transnational corporations, productivity spillovers.
    JEL: F23
    Date: 2013–08
  3. By: Fabio Lamantia; Mario Pezzino
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Amjad Naveed (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark); Nisar Ahmad (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: The borders of the EU are open for the movement of resources but still there can be some strong negative effects of international borders on productivity and knowledge spillovers compared to the internal regional borders. These negative effects could be due to language barriers, cultural differences, local rules and regulation, legal issues, property rights, etc. These effects of international borders have economic significance that needs to be controlled when analyzing the regional knowledge spillovers. This aspect related to international borders has not been fully taken into account in the existing literature related to knowledge spillovers. Ignoring this effect might under or overestimate the effect of knowledge and technology spillovers. The results show that technology and knowledge spillovers are mainly coming from internal neighbor regions only, whereas spillovers across the international borders are statistically insignificant. Moreover, the results show that not properly incorporating border effects will lead to inaccurate estimates of the spillovers.
    Keywords: total factor productivity, knowledge spillovers, European regions, spatial econometrics, Extended Spatial Durbin Model
    JEL: C31 D24 O49 O52 R10
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Thierno Tounkara (DSI - Département Systèmes d'Information - Institut Mines-Télécom - Télécom Ecole de Management); Pierre-Emmanuel Arduin (HEUDIASYC - Heuristique et Diagnostic des Systèmes Complexes - CNRS : UMR7253 - Université de Technologie de Compiègne)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the importance of organizational and cultural contexts in the efficiency of knowledge sharing strategies and particularly strategies based on the use of Information Systems to support knowledge sharing activities. Relying not only on our theoretical investigations, but also on industrial fieldworks, we propose a framework which helps Identify, given dominant characteristics of the organizational and cultural contexts, information system functionalities to develop or to promote in order to support knowledge sharing. A case study illustrates the use of our framework and the implications of this work are finally discussed at the end of this paper.
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Thomas Brenner (Economic Geography and Location Research, Philipps-University, Marburg)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of public research (publications) and innovation output (patents) on national economic growth with the help of a GMM panel regression including 114 countries. Effects on productivity growth and capital and labor inputs are distinguished. Furthermore, different time lags are examined for the various analyzed effects and two time periods as well as less and more developed countries are studied separately. The results confirm the effect of innovation output on productivity for more developed countries. Simultaneously, innovation output is found to have negative impacts on capital and labor inputs, while public research is found to have positive impacts on labor inputs.
    Keywords: national growth, innovation, public research, growth
    JEL: O11 O31 E10 C23
    Date: 2014–09–14
  7. By: Inklaar, Robert Christiaan; Chen, Wen (Groningen University)
    Abstract: Investments in organization capital may impact productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms ? like investments in research and development. In this paper, we test whether there are (positive) know-how spillovers and (negative) business-stealing productivity spillovers for a panel of 1266 U.S. manufacturing firms over the period 1982?2011. We only find evidence of negative spillovers on product-market rivals. This implies that firms invest more in organization capital than would be socially optimal and that existing estimates of the importance of organization capital for productivity growth are overstated.
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Julien Gooris; Carine Peeters
    Abstract: With the progress of information and communication technologies, the cost and efforts to remotely exchange information have drastically fallen. It has created new opportunities to leverage comparative advantages by reorganizing value chains along the geographic dimension and by reconsidering the organizational boundaries of the firm (i.e. the governance model of operations). However the global disaggregation of the firm’s processes tends to increase the dispersion of firm’s proprietary information and knowledge across locations and intermediate producers. Firms are potentially exposed to higher levels of misappropriation hazard and forced to elaborate protection strategies to mitigate that risk. This study shows that firms adjust the fragmentation of activities entrusted to foreign services production units to adapt their information and knowledge protection strategy to the availability of strong legal protection (from the local institutions) or internal control mechanisms. We hypothesize and empirically support that, when the above mechanisms are not available, firms use the substitute protection mechanism of fragmenting global business processes across multiple services production units. Through their capabilities to integrate the multiple fragments that compose production processes, firms can exploit the complementarities between these fragments while reducing the misappropriation hazard of individual fragments. We find also that the propensity to turn to this alternative protection mechanism increases with firm’s host country specific experience and with the alternative value of the proprietary information.
    Keywords: Fragmentation;Misappropriation;Services;Information;Institutional environment;Outsourcing
    JEL: F23 O34 L8
    Date: 2014–09
  9. By: Fumitoshi Mizutani (Graduate School of Business Administration, Kobe University); Eri Nakamura (Graduate School of Business Administration, Kobe University)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of internal and external factors most affect a firm' s costs. We consider governance structure and business diversification strategy as internal factors and regulation and competition as external factors. By using 358 observations comprised of Japanese firms from public utility and manufacturing industries from 1989 to 2002, we estimate the translog cost function. The main findings are as follows: (i) The governance factor has an important effect on a firm' s cost structure. As the ratio of foreign shareholders increases and there is more dependence on one main bank, the costs of a firm decrease. (ii) The rate of increase in total costs for diversification is relatively low. A 1% increase in business segments leads to only a 0.1 or 0.2% increase in total costs. (iii) The regulation factor does not affect the cost structure. (iv) Compared with the regulation factor, the competition factor shows a quite clear effect on a firm's cost reduction. Overall, our empirical result suggests that governance structure as an internal factor and competition as an external factor are especially important for cost reduction.
    Keywords: Governance, Diversification Strategy, Regulation, Competition, Japanese Firms
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Nikos Bozionelos (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Thomas Hoyland (HUBS - Hull University Business School - Hull University)
    Abstract: The article focuses on cultural diversity and whether it has economic value. Though it is undisputed that cultural diversity within a country increases entrepreneurial behaviour the question that remains is whether this heightened entrepreneurial activity results in greater economic achievements. The article reports on a study that was carried out within the London area that presented an ideal setting given that London is a "super-diverse" city with intense economic activity. The results showed that ethnic diversity in the team of owners and partners of firms was indeed associated with greater innovativeness. This was in line with the view that diversity brings a variety of perspectives, skills and ways of thinking that in turn are translated into greater novelty in products or services and ways of performing tasks. On the other hand, however, ethnic diversity at the top did not translate into success at bringing innovations to the market, neither to revenue growth. Neither did the idea that diversity would be especially beneficial for innovation in knowledge-intensive industries find support. Finally, the data suggested that immigrants become entrepreneurs by choice rather than due to lack of better alternatives. The findings of the study raise the serious question of why the greater innovativeness that diversity brings does not generally translate into market and economic success, which opens new avenues for future research.
    Keywords: Diversity; Super-diversity; Global cities; Innovativeness; Market success; Economic success; Discrimination; Financial institutions
    Date: 2014–05–01
  11. By: Dmitry Edelev (Modern trading "North-South" Department - Moscow State University of Food Production)
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of current trends in industry development of reproduction structures. Infrastructure functional role of industry is growing in development of national economy. This role is estimated not only by a a direct contribution to a value added, but also by creation of a network of the new reproduction economic relations.
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi
    Abstract: Our study aims to contribute to the literature on leadership development through the lifespan, by providing an empirical evidence of the dynamic processes related to leadership development in early stages. This research advances the understanding on how higher education institutions can introduce a systematic approach to support leadership identity formation and self-regulation as primary outcome of leadership development process, by taking into account that individuals may undertake different developmental trajectories. We suggest that the implementation of the Intentional Change Theory in the academic context, which aims to help students to attain their desired professional future and to increase their self-awareness, could support leadership identity formation. Through the case study of the CaÕ Foscari Competency Centre (CFCC) of University of Venice (Italy), we discuss how the process of early identity formation and regulation of two groups of students, who have expressed a different intent about their job, may differ. Findings show some differences in the values and in the competency portfolio between the two groups of students. These differences suggest two different developmental trajectories of students aiming at an entrepreneurial career and students who expressed a different intent.
    Keywords: Emotional and social intelligence competencies; Intentional change theory; Higher education; Leadership identity formation and self-regulation.
    JEL: I23 J24 M12 M51 M53
    Date: 2014–08
  13. By: Satoko Uenishi (Graduate School of Business Administration, Kobe University); Noboru Matsushima (Graduate School of Business Administration, Kobe University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the ``Galapagos syndrome" in the Japanese mobile phone industry from the perspective of organizational institutionalism. In general, the Galapagos syndrome emerged because the Japanese companies ignored the international standards and focused on domestic markets for product development. Organizational institutionalism explains the diffusions of technology-related international standards to achieve social legitimacy, rather than the mere compliance with technical requirements. However, Japanese firms were active in obtaining international standards. To explain this situation, we reviewed the studies on diffusion in organizational institutionalism. During the review process, there was confusion with the idea of isomorphism and this led to two ways of understanding it: isomorphism as homogeneity and as the origin of competition. By revisiting the pioneering theory of organizational institutionalism by Weber, we can explain the Galapagos syndrome on the basis of the latter understanding of isomorphism; that is, the incorporation of international standards creates competitive relationships between the Japanese firms. By rearranging the logical implications to explain isomorphism and standards, we can conclude that the Galapagos syndrome results from differentiated practices related to the incorporation of international standards.
    Keywords: Organizational Institutionalism, Isomorphism, Galapagos, Standards, Mobile Phone
    Date: 2013–03
  14. By: Jaan Masso; Kärt Rõigas; Priit Vahter
    Abstract: Export experience of managers and other top specialists is among the key drivers of export decisions in firms. We show evidence of this regularity based on employer-employee level data from the manufacturing industry in Estonia. We find that hiring managers and other high-wage employees with prior experience in exporting to a specific geographical region is associated with a higher probability of export entry to that region. However, there is little evidence of significant effects on export intensity. Notably, the relationship between export experience and a firm’s export decisions is usually stronger if the prior export experience is from an exporter that is located nearby in the product space. Our findings suggest that the contribution of prior trade experience of employees and the firm’s productivity as drivers of export market entry are of comparable magnitude.
    Keywords: export experience, export entry, labour mobility, learning-to-export
    JEL: F10 F14 J31
    Date: 2014–09–16
  15. By: Jana Lastuvkova (Department of Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the evaluation of the liquidity development in the banking sector of the Czech Republic. The evaluation is carried out using specific method of measurement - gross liquidity flows and their overall reallocation. This method allows determining liquidity for the banking sector as well as for the individual groups. The method is also based on liquidity flows, in addition in two forms - positive and negative, is thus the dynamic assessment of the liquidity in a perspective of its creation and outflow. This takes into account current trends in requirements for measuring and monitoring liquidity risk. Evaluation of the flows is supplemented by a correlation analysis to determine the main factors of the liquidity development. The results suggest that the studied groups of banks have different characteristics and are influenced by different factors. Medium-sized group of banks, standing between the two other groups, does not show a clear strategy of its own, but takes elements from the other two groups of banks.
    Keywords: Czech banking sector, measurement of the bank liquidity, liquidity flows, liquidity strategies
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2014–08
  16. By: Paolo Sgrignoli
    Abstract: International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most intense IM flows, direct/indirect network effects are studied and a stronger competitive effect of third country migrants is identified for a specific product class. In the case of FDI, first correlations between the two networks are identified, highlighting how they can be mostly explained by countries economic/demographic size and geographical distance. Then, using the Heckman selection model with a gravity equation, (non-linear) components arising from distance, position in the Global Supply Chain and presence of Regional Trade Agreements are studied. Finally, it is shown how IT and FDI correlation changes with sectors: they are complements in manufacturing, but substitutes in services.
    Date: 2014–09
  17. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: The Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity is a leading indicator of new business creation in the United States.  Capturing new business owners in their first month of significant business activity, this measure provides the earliest documentation of new business development across the country.  The percentage of the adult, non-business owner population that starts a business each month is measured using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS).The Index captures all types of business activity and is based on nationally-representative sample sizes of more than an half million observations each year. In addition to this overall rate of entrepreneurial activity, separate estimates for specific demographic groups, states, and select metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are presented.  The Index provides the only national measure of the rate of business creation by specific population groups.
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, entrepreneurship, business creation, self-employment
    Date: 2014–09–12
  18. By: Francesco Nicolli (Università di Ferrara); Francesco Vona (OFCE Sciences Po, Skema Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and unbundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol – determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation.
    Date: 2014–07
  19. By: Banerjee, Simanti; de Vries, Frans P.; Hanley, Nick; van Soest, Daan
    Abstract: The Agglomeration Bonus (AB) is a mechanism to induce adjacent landowners to spatially coordinate their land use for the delivery of ecosystem services from farmland. This paper uses laboratory experiments to explore the performance of the AB in achieving the socially optimal land management configuration in a local network environment where the information available to subjects varies. The AB poses a coordination problem between two Nash equilibria: a Pareto dominant and a risk dominant equilibrium. The experiments indicate that if subjects are informed about both their direct and indirect neighbors’ actions, they are more likely to coordinate on the Pareto dominant equilibrium relative to the case where subjects have information about their direct neighbors’ action only. However, the extra information can only delay – and not prevent – the transition to the socially inferior risk dominant Nash equilibrium. In the long run, the AB mechanism may only be partially effective in enhancing delivery of ecosystem services on farming landscapes featuring local networks.
    Keywords: Agglomeration bonus, agri-environment schemes, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, information spillovers, Payments for Ecosystem Services, spatial coordination,
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Adrien Hervouet (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272); Marc Baudry (EconomiX - CNRS : UMR7166 - Université Paris X - Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense)
    Abstract: This article deals with the impact of legislation in the seed sector on incentives for variety creation. The first category of rules consists in intellectual property rights and is intended to address a problem of sequential innovation and R&D investments. The second category concerns commercial rules that are intended to correct a problem of adverse selection. We propose a dynamic model of market equilibrium with vertical product differentiation that enables us to take into account the economic consequences of imposing either Plant Breeders' Rights (PBRs) or patents as IPRs and either compulsory registration or minimum standards as commercialisation rules. The main result is that the combination of minimum standards and PBRs (patents) provides higher incentives for sequential and initial innovation and may be preferred by a public regulator when sunk investment costs are low (high) and the probability of R&D success is sufficiently high (low).
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights; Plant Breeders' Rights; Catalogue; Product differentiation; Seed market; Biodiversity
    Date: 2014–09–03
  21. By: Jos Jansen; Andreas Pollak
    Abstract: We study the strategic disclosure of demand information and product-market strategies of duopolists. In a setting where firms may fail to receive information, we show that firms selectively disclose information in equilibrium in order to influence their competitor's product-market strategy. Subsequently, we analyze the firms' behavior in a laboratory experiment. We find that subjects often use selective disclosure strategies, and this finding appears to be robust to changes in the information structure, the mode of competition, and the degree of product differentiation. Moreover, subjects in our experiment display product-market conduct that is largely consistent with theoretical predictions.
    Keywords: duopoly, Cournot competition, Bertrand competition, information disclosure, incomplete information, common value, product differentiation, asymmetry, skewed distribution, laboratory experiment
    JEL: C92 D22 D82 D83 L13 M4
    Date: 2014–09–01
  22. By: Nino Papachashvili (Ivane Javahkishvili Tbilisi State University); Lela Jamagidze (Ivane Javahkishvili Tbilisi State University)
    Abstract: The present work discusses the decisions of economic agents and the interactions among them in Georgia‟s transformation economy from new institutional point of view. European integration is an irreversible economic orientation of Georgia, which influences both formal and informal institution formation. The authors argue that the analysis of the economic value formation aspects of the ongoing process of Europeanization is important for the understanding of the stage by stage outcomes of this process. The Association Agreement between Georgia and the EU represents Georgia‟s Europeanization action plan. The Agreement stresses that European values represent the cornerstone of economic integration and political association. The implementation of the Association Agreement will bring concrete benefits in terms of increased opportunities for small and medium sized businesses, access to the European education, strengthened rule of law, etc. The authors argue that the success of modernization depend on the one hand, institution imports and on the work of these institutions on the other. The foundation of their effective work will be those value constructs that the society holds. The success of institution implementation depends on pace of the increase in the number of people, who use them. The faster the realization of the need and benefits of the observation of certain “rules of the game”, the faster they will be institutionalized. Institutional adaptation gives the economic agents broader opportunities for their economic activities and they adopt new strategies of behavior related to the changes of the institutional framework. Adaptability to the imported institutions depends on the economic values of the economic agents and the benefits of the implementation of the new institutions. The present study incorporates economic values in the analysis of the economic agent interactions against the background of Europeanization. The authors offer a theoretical approach to pose the problem and evaluate the behavior of economic agents in the context of importing European institutions and values in Georgia. The nature of the interactions among the economic agents significantly defines the smooth functioning of the economic system. The authors emphasize that study of the economic agent behavior (state and businesses) in institution import and economic value transformation context will enable to identify the challenges of the adaptation process.
    Keywords: import of instituions; transition economy
    Date: 2014–09
  23. By: Gu, Wulong; Yan, Beiling
    Abstract: This paper presents estimates of effective multifactor productivity (MFP) growth for Canada, the United States, Australia, Japan and selected European Union (EU) countries, based on the EU KLEMS productivity database and the World Input-Output Tables. Effective MFP growth captures the impact of the productivity gains in upstream industries on the productivity growth and international competitiveness of domestic industries, thereby providing an appropriate measure of productivity growth and international competitiveness in the production of final demand products such as consumption, investment and export products. A substantial portion of MFP growth, especially for small, open economies such as Canada?s, is attributable to gains in the production of intermediate inputs in foreign countries. Productivity growth tends to be higher in investment and export products than for the production of consumption products. Technical progress and productivity growth in foreign countries have made a larger contribution to production growth in investment and export products than in consumption products. The analysis provides empirical evidence consistent with the hypothesis that effective MFP growth is a more informative relevant indicator of international competitiveness than is standard MFP growth.
    Keywords: Economic accounts, International trade, Productivity accounts
    Date: 2014–09–09
  24. By: Kizuku Takao
    Abstract: Tax changes are often announced before their implementation and are not permanent, but rather only temporary. Accordingly, R&D firms will optimally adjust their investment decisions to fit tax schedule changes. This study analyzes how changes in various tax rates relevant to corporate activities affect growth and welfare, considering their methods of implementation. For this purpose, we consider adjustment costs involved in the investment process and allow firms to make a forward looking investment decision in a R&D-based endogenous growth model. Calibrating the model with U.S. data, we find that a dividend tax cut reduces the level of welfare irrespective of implementation method. On the other hand, a capital gains tax cut and a rise in the R&D tax credit rate enhance the level of welfare irrespective of implementation. However, the announcement of these tax changes prior to implementation reduces their effectiveness.
    Date: 2014–08
  25. By: Matthieu Crozet (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales); Emmanuel Milet (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Daniel Mirza (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales, GERCIE - Université François Rabelais - Tours)
    Abstract: In order to promote international trade in services, the WTO-GATS aims at progressively eliminating discriminatory regulations, which apply to foreign suppliers, byguaranteeing equal national treatment. This paper looks instead at the trade effect of domestic regulations, which apply to all firms indifferently and do not intend to exclude foreign suppliers. We propose a theory-based empirical test to determine whether or not these domestic regulations affect foreign suppliers more than local ones. We take this test to the data by using French firm-level exports of professional services to OECD countries. Our econometric results show that domestic regulations in the importing markets matter significantly for trade in services. They reduce both the decision to export and the individual exports. These results tend to prove that domestic regulations are de facto discriminatory even if they are not de jure.
    Keywords: Trade in services; domestic regulations; firm heterogeneity
    Date: 2013–02
  26. By: Myriam Merad (INERIS - Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques - INERIS); Nicolas Dechy (INERIS - Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques - INERIS); Lisa Serir (FEMTO-ST - Franche-Comté Électronique Mécanique, Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies - CNRS : UMR6174 - Université de Franche-Comté - Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques); Michel Grabisch (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Frédéric Marcel (INERIS - Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques - INERIS)
    Abstract: The implementation of Sustainable Development (SD) within an Organization is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to deal with conflicting and incommensurable aspects such as environmental, economic and social dimensions. In this paper we have used a Multi-Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) methodology to cope with these difficulties. MCDA methodology offers the opportunity to avoid monetary valuation of the different dimensions of the SD. These dimensions are not substitutable for one another and all have a role to play. There is an abundance of possible aggregation procedures in MCDA methodology. In this paper we have proposed an innovative method to choose a suitable aggregation procedure for SD problems. Real life case studies of the implementation of an outranking approach (i.e., ELECTRE) and of a mono-criterion synthesis approach (i.e., MAUT approaches based on the Choquet integral) were done to respectively rank 22 SD strategic actions within an expertise Institute and rank 20 practical operational actions to control energy consumption of the Institute's buildings.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development indicators; Sustainable Development action plan; Multi-Criteria Decision Aid; ELECTRE; Choquet Integral
    Date: 2013

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