nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒08‒25
27 papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. How enterprise strategies are related to innovation and productivity change: An empirical study of Japanese manufacturing firms By Fujii, Hidemichi; Kazuma, Edamura; Sumikura, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoko; Fukuzawa, Naomi; Managi, Shunsuke
  2. Knowledge Absorption in the Development of Export Products By Warda, Peter; Johansson, Börje
  3. Competitive Advantages from University Research Parks By Link, Albert N.
  4. Investigating the Effects of ICT on Innovation and Performance of European Hospitals: An Exploratory Study By Spyros Arvanitis; Euripidis N. Loukis
  5. The 2013 EU Survey on Industrial R&D Investment Trends By Alexander Tübke; Fernando Hervás; Jörg Zimmermann
  6. Transforming Arab Economies : Traveling Knowledge and Innovation Road, Overview By World Bank
  7. Intangible investment and Technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Derya Fındık; Aysıt Tansel
  8. Regional distribution and layout evolution of technological innovation in the new energy electric vehicles industry of China By Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang
  9. Global Engagement and the Occupational Structure of Firms By Davidson, Carl; Heyman, Fredrik; Matusz, Steven; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Zhu, Susan Chun
  10. Is Productivity Growth Correlated with Improvements in Management Quality? An empirical study using interview surveys in Korea and Japan By MIYAGAWA Tsutomu; Keun LEE; EDAMURA Kazuma; YoungGak KIM; Hosung JUNG
  11. On the Economic Impact of University Proof of Concept Centers By Hayter, Christopher S.; Link, Albert N.
  12. The Impact of ICT on Productivity: Evidence from Turkish Manufacturing Industry By Kılıçaslan, Yılmaz; Kayış, Aliye Atay; Sickles, Robin; Üçdoğruk, Yeşim
  13. The role of universities in regional development: conceptual models and policy institutions in the UK, Sweden and Austria By Trippl, Michaela; Sinozic, Tanja; Lawton Smith , Helen
  14. Perspectives on Cluster Evolution: Critical Review and Future Research Issues By Trippl, Michaela; Grillitsch, Markus; Isaksen, Arne; Sinozic, Tanja
  15. Can firms learn by observing? Evidence from cross-border M&As By Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian; Waisman , Maya
  16. Good and bad FDI: The growth effects of greenfield investment and mergers and acquisitions in developing countries By Philipp Harms; Pierre-Guillaume Méon
  17. Industry space and skill-relatedness of economic activities : comparative case studies of three eastern German automotive regions By Otto, Anne; Weyh, Antje
  18. Foreign direct investment and local spillovers in the apparel sector in Sub-Saharan Africa By Staritz, Cornelia
  19. Export performance and geography in Croatia By Artuc, Erhan; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
  20. From access to acceptance: The costs of crossing borders in the global economy By Sarianna M. Lundan
  21. Acquisitions, Productivity, and Profitability: Evidence from the Japanese Cotton Spinning Industry By Tetsuji Okazaki; Chad Syverson; Atsushi Ohyama; Serguey Braguinsky
  22. Heterogeneous policies, heterogenous technologies : the case of renewable energy By Francesco Nicolli; Francesco Vona
  23. Integrating border regions : connectivity and competitiveness in South Asia By Cali, Massimiliano; Farole, Thomas; Kunaka, Charles; Wagle, Swarnim
  24. Competitive Small and Medium Enterprises : A Diagnostic to Help Design Smart SME Policy By Parth S. Tewari; David Skilling; Pranav Kumar; Zack Wu
  25. Global Connectivity and Export Performance By Jean-François Arvis; Ben Shepherd
  26. Measuring the Competitiveness of China's Processed Exports By THORBECKE, Willem
  27. Can Entrepreneurship Training Improve Work Opportunities for College Graduates? By World Bank

  1. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Kazuma, Edamura; Sumikura, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoko; Fukuzawa, Naomi; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study analyzes the total factor productivity of 1,067 Japanese manufacturing firms. In production estimation, we employ the directional distance function and Luenberger productivity indicator. Research and development strategy survey data are used to analyze the determinant factors related to improvements in innovation and productivity. Our results indicate that increasing technology and knowledge through a “black box” process is related to an increase in productivity. Furthermore, the protection and management of production knowledge and expertise is a valid method of increasing global technical change.
    Keywords: Innovation, productivity change, R&D strategy, directional distance function, Japanese manufacturing firms
    JEL: D24 J24 O38 O47
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Warda, Peter (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) KTH, Sweden); Johansson, Börje (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) KTH, and Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Sweden)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze how firms’ knowledge absorption capacity – given the knowledge environment – affects the development, adoption and introduction of new export products among Swedish manufacturing firms. Our model formulation builds on theoretical arguments which imply that firms can influence the usefulness of their knowledge environment by establishing formal and informal networks with input suppliers (especially suppliers of knowledge-intensive business services) and by exploiting their absorptive capacity. The model suggests that the higher the knowledge absorption in firms, the higher the introduction frequency of new export products. In particular, it is the conjunction of a high absorptive capacity and a high external knowledge potential that makes certain firms successful introducers of new export products.
    Keywords: Absorptive capacity; innovation; exports; manufacturing; knowledge; Sweden
    JEL: D21 D24 F23 L60 R30
    Date: 2014–08–11
  3. By: Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The flow of knowledge from a university research park is not a new theme in the academic domain, but those studies that have focused on the prevalence of this phenomenon in the United States have been somewhat limited in the availability of data related to both the genesis of the park as well as to the performance of the park. The performance measures that I focus on in this paper are two: patents received and scholarly publications emanating from the research conducted by in-park firms. To place those flows of knowledge in perspective, I compare such in-park firm performance to matched pairs of off-park firms in an effort toward quantifying the impact of a firm being located in a university research park. My analysis shows that on average performance is greater among on-park firms than among off-park firms thus making a suggestive case that the environment created by a university research park confers competitive advantages in the form of new flows of knowledge.
    Keywords: research park; science park; innovation; patents; technology; competitive advantage
    JEL: O31 O33 O34 R11
    Date: 2014–08–14
  4. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Euripidis N. Loukis (University of the Aegean, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Greece)
    Abstract: Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. In this paper is presented an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries, which were collected in the course of the e-Business Survey of the European Union. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance that are taken into consideration in this study. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of ‘soft’ ICT investment), as right-hand variables, while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures. The study contributes threefold to literature. First, it is to our knowledge the first comprehensive study of this kind for European hospitals. Second, it analyzes the effects of various types of ICT on innovation and (ICT-enabled) economic performance of hospitals in an integrated framework. Third, it is based on relatively detailed information on ICT infrastructure and specific ICT applications, both health-specific and general, and also ICT personnel, examining and comparing their effects on innovation and economic performance.
    Keywords: hospitals, innovation, performance, ICT use
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Alexander Tübke (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fernando Hervás (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Jörg Zimmermann (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the eigth survey on trends in industrial R&D investment. These are based on 172 responses of mainly larger companies from the 1000 EU-based companies in the 2012 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. These 172 companies are responsible for R&D investment worth € 62 billion, constituting around 41% of the total R&D investment by the 1000 EU Scoreboard companies. The main conclusion is that, between 2013-15, the responding companies expect to increase their R&D investments by 2.6 % on average per year. Due to decreased expectations in the automobiles & parts sector, this is a third lower than in the previous survey. The responding companies carry out a quarter of their R&D outside the EU. Their expectations for R&D investment for the next three years show continued participation of European companies in the global economy, in particular growth opportunities in emerging economies, while maintaining an R&D focus in the EU. Two thirds of the European companies in the sample chose their home country as the most attractive location for R&D, and identified the US, Germany, China and India as the most attractive locations outside their home country. Knowledge-sharing, human resources, proximity to other company sites and market demand make countries attractive for R&D activities. Comparing the attractiveness for R&D activities of the surveyed companies among eight EU countries, quality of R&D personnel and knowledge-sharing opportunities with universities and public organisations are most frequently stated among the top three. Comparing the attractiveness of the EU to the US, the proximity factor is leading before knowledge sharing opportunities and R&D personnel. Comparing the attractiveness of the EU to the one of China and India, for the EU geographic proximity to other company sites and technology poles & incubators is a factor for attractiveness.
    Keywords: R&D investment expectations, EU Scoreboard, internationalisation, knowledge-sharing
    Date: 2014–02
  6. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Knowledge for Development Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Private Sector Development - E-Business Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Policy and Strategies Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Knowledge Economy Agriculture
    Date: 2013–09
  7. By: Derya Fındık (Department of Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Aysıt Tansel (Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: intangible investment, software investment, efficiency
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang
    Abstract: Based on the initial stage situation of new energy electric vehicles (electric vehicles) industry in China, this paper uses patents retrieval and literatures polymerization methods to analyze the technological innovation status quo and the regional distribution features in the electric vehicles industry at home and abroad. Then, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is applied to quantifiably evaluate technological innovation efficiency of the 17 major producing areas of electric vehicles. Furthermore, the layout trend of technological innovation is summarized; the regional distribution strategy of technological innovation in the domestic electric vehicles industry is also explored.
    Keywords: New energy electric vehicles, Technological innovation, Regional distribution
    JEL: Q20
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Davidson, Carl (Michigan State University); Heyman, Fredrik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics); Matusz, Steven (Michigan State University); Sjöholm, Fredrik (Department of Economics, Lund University); Zhu, Susan Chun (Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Engagement in foreign markets can have an impact on firm organization and on the type of occupations that a firm needs. We examine the effect of globalization on the occupational mix using detailed Swedish data that cover all firms and a representative sample of the labor force for 1997-2005. We find a robust relationship between a firm’s degree of international integration and its occupational mix. Multinationals, which are the most globally engaged firms, have a distribution of occupations skewed toward the more skilled. Non-multinational exporters have a distribution of occupations less skewed toward skilled compared to multinationals, but more skewed toward skilled occupations compared to Swedish non-exporters (which are the least globally engaged). Moreover, firms tend to have an even more skill intensive distribution of occupations when they mainly export to far away markets, or when they export differentiated goods. Our results are little changed (1) when we control for firm size, productivity, capital intensity, and firm age, (2) when we control for offshoring and R&D expenditures; (3) when we use alternative methods to rank occupations, or (4) when we conduct alternative robustness tests. In addition, the results are very similar for manufacturing and non-manufacturing, and for foreign and Swedish multinationals. We interpret our results using a decomposition motivated by recent theoretical models of selection into exporting and FDI.
    Keywords: Occupational mix; Globalization; Multinational Enterprises; Export; Firms
    JEL: F14 F16 J20
    Date: 2014–06–02
  10. By: MIYAGAWA Tsutomu; Keun LEE; EDAMURA Kazuma; YoungGak KIM; Hosung JUNG
    Abstract: Bloom and Van Reenen (2007) show that differences in management practices are correlated with productivity differences at the firm level. In this paper, we conducted similar interview surveys on management practices in Japanese and Korean firms in 2008 and 2012. We find that overall management scores in Japan—as an average of organizational and human resource management scores—are higher than those in Korea. However, the second survey shows that the gap in management scores between the two countries has shrunken over time. In addition, the average management quality in Korean large firms has surpassed that of Japanese large firms. This result is consistent with the literature comparing big businesses in Korea and Japan. This study also compares additional aspects of management styles, such as speed in decision making and the role of various communication channels, which is not done in the literature. When we estimate a production function including management score using all samples, we find a positive and significant relationship between management scores and productivity. Most estimation results show that organizational management scores are correlated with firm performances in Japanese firms, while human resource management scores are correlated with performance in Korean firms. We also find that management practices are correlated with improvements in capital and labor efficiencies. In the case of Japan, better organizational management practices in the past improve current firm performance. Our results show that the Japanese government and firms should promote management reforms to restore international competitiveness.
    Date: 2014–08
  11. By: Hayter, Christopher S. (Arizona State University); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: University proof of concept centers (PoCCs) are an organizational innovation intended to improve the dissemination and commercialization of new knowledge to industry. During the past 15 years, at least 32 university-affiliated PoCCs have been established at universities within the United States. Despite this recent growth, little systematic empirical research exists relating to the organization or impact of PoCCs. Analyzing data published by the Association of University Technology Managers, we find that universities affiliated with a PoCC enjoy a positive and statistically significant increase in the number of spinoffs established each year after adoption. While additional research is needed, our findings are consistent with the presumption that PoCCs may offer a promising new tool for regional and national economic development.
    Keywords: proof of concept centers; innovation; economic development
    JEL: O22 O31
    Date: 2014–08–19
  12. By: Kılıçaslan, Yılmaz (Department of Economics, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey); Kayış, Aliye Atay (Department of Econometrics, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.); Sickles, Robin (Department of Economics, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.); Üçdoğruk, Yeşim (Department of Economics, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore the impact of ICT on output and/or productivity growth in Turkish manufacturing. The analysis is based on the firm level data obtain from Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) and covers the period from 2003 to 2010. Two different methodologies are used in exploring the impact of ICT on output growth or productivity. The first method is what is called “growth accounting”. This methodology decomposes output/productivity growth into its sources and shows how much of the growth is due to production factor changes or TFP. The second approach to TFP calculation and ICT impact analysis will be an econometric approach. Econometric modeling will be based both on static and dynamic panel data analysis, i.e. Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM). Our preliminary findings show that the impact of ICT capital is twice larger than that of conventional capital.
    Keywords: Productivity, TFP, ICT, manufacturing industry, Turkey
    JEL: D24 L60 O14
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sinozic, Tanja (Institute for Multilevel Governance and Development, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Lawton Smith , Helen (Department of Management; Birkbeck, University of London)
    Abstract: The literature on universities’ contributions to regional development is broad and diverse. A precise understanding of how regions can potentially draw advantages from various university activities and the role of public policy institutions (imperatives and incentives) in promoting such activities is still missing. The aim of this paper is to advance a more nuanced view on universities’ contributions to regional economic and societal development. We identify and review four conceptual models: (i) the entrepreneurial university model, (ii) the regional innovation system model, (iii) the mode 2 university model, and (iv) the engaged university model. The paper demonstrates that these four models emphasise very different activities and outputs by which universities are seen to benefit their regions. We also find that these models differ markedly with respect to the policy implications that can be drawn. Analysing public policy imperatives and incentives in the UK, Austria and Sweden the paper highlights that in the UK national policies encourage and have resulted in all four university models. In Sweden and Austria policy institutions tend to privilege in particular the RIS university model, whilst at the same time there is some evidence for increasing support of the entrepreneurial university model.
    Keywords: universities; regional development; public policy; UK; Sweden; Austria
    JEL: I28 R10 R58
    Date: 2014–07–29
  14. By: Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University); Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Isaksen, Arne (Department of Working Life and Innovation, University of Agder); Sinozic, Tanja (Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: The past two decades have witnessed an ever-growing scholarly interest in regional clusters. The focus of research has mainly been on why clusters exist and what characteristics “functioning” clusters hold. Although the interest in more dynamic views on clusters is not new, in recent years, however, more attention has been paid to providing better explanations of how clusters change and develop over time, giving rise to an increasing popularity of different variants of the cluster life cycle approach. This article offers a critical review of various cluster life cycle models. We discuss the key ideas and arguments put forward by their main protagonists and we identify several shortcomings – such as the problematic predefinition of development phases, indifference to context-specific factors and neglect of multi-scalar impacts – that surround these models. Based on this critical assessment the article identifies several core issues for future research. In particular, we argue that there is a need to gain a better understanding of the context sensitivity of cluster evolution, to explore how cluster development paths are influenced by a multiplicity of factors and processes at various spatial scales and their interactions, and to investigate the role of human agents and to unravel how they shape the long-term development of regional clusters.
    Keywords: cluster evolution; life cycle approaches; context sensitivity; multi-scalar frameworks; human agency
    JEL: P48 R10 R11 R50 R58
    Date: 2014–07–23
  15. By: Francis, Bill B. (Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); Hasan, Iftekhar (Fordham University and Bank of Finland); Sun, Xian (Johns Hopkins University); Waisman , Maya (Fordham University)
    Abstract: In the presence of high uncertainty and limited experience, can observing the actions of other acquiring predecessors help firms make better acquisition decisions? Using a sample of cross-border M&As conducted by US acquirers in developing countries, we document a positive and significant relationship between an acquirer’s performance and its predecessors’ acquisition activity. This relationship is especially pronounced in the prevalence of news events about the outcome of predecessors’ acquisitions, when predecessors consist of US peers from the same industry and/or when targets are based in culturally distant countries. Our findings shed light on one channel through which information spillovers across industries and acquiring firms could be a key driver of value creation in developing market cross-border M&As.
    Keywords: learning; observing; cross-border M&As performance
    JEL: D23 D83 G14 G32 G34
    Date: 2014–07–09
  16. By: Philipp Harms; Pierre-Guillaume Méon
    Abstract: We explore the effect of foreign direct investment on economic growth in developing countries, distinguishing between mergers and acquisitions (“M&As”) and “greenfield” investment. A simple model underlines that, unlike greenfield investment, M&As partly represent a rent accruing to previous owners, and do not necessarily contribute to expanding the host country’s capital stock. Greenfield FDI should therefore have a stronger impact on growth than M&A sales. This hypothesis is supported by our empirical results, which show that greenfield FDI enhances growth, while M&As have no effect, at best, in a panel of up to 78 developing and emerging countries over 1987-2005.
    Keywords: Growth; foreign direct investmen; mergers and acquisitions; greenfield investment
    JEL: F21 F23 F43 O16
    Date: 2014–08–20
  17. By: Otto, Anne (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Weyh, Antje (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "The resilience and growth prospects of a region depend crucially on the extent to which industry-specific human capital can be redeployed across the industries of a regional economy. To this end, we present a toolbox to analyse a region's industrial structure, development prospects and economic resilience. With the help of this toolbox human capital similarities, or skill-relatedness, among industries are highlighted. The core of these analyses is the so-called industry space, a network that connects industries with similar human capital requirements. For the time period 1999 to 2008, a regional comparative analysis of three eastern German automobile regions, namely south-west Saxony (SWS), Eisenach region (EIS) and Leipzig region (LEI), is conducted. The objective is to highlight similarities and differences in the composition of the general automobile-oriented knowledge bases between these regions. In addition, the region-specific growth prospects of economic activities, in general and with a closer look at car manufacturers and automotive suppliers, are scrutinized and evaluated in greater detail for each region. This regional comparison is complemented by an investigation of the regional and industrial origins of labour inflows and by a simulation of labour shifts between shrinking and growing industries to figure out as to what extent redundant labour can be reallocated between skillrelated pairs of industries in each region under examination." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Resilienz, Automobilindustrie, Regionalentwicklung, Qualifikationsstruktur, Wirtschaftszweige, Zulieferer, Netzwerk, Wirtschaftsstruktur, Innovation, Eisenach, Leipzig, Südwestsachsen, Sachsen, Thüringen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Date: 2014–08–18
  18. By: Staritz, Cornelia
    Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the apparel sector in several Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has experienced significant growth in the context of preferential market access. But expectations of FDI leading to spillovers to the local economy and the development of locally-embedded apparel export industries have not materialized. A shift from FDI attraction through fiscal incentives to more strategic industrial policies that target FDI spillovers, local value added and linkages is urgently needed for broader local development effects. --
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Artuc, Erhan; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
    Abstract: This paper uses the gravity model to analyze whether the varying export performance of Croatian counties can be explained by their proximity to border gates, ports, and other county-specific characteristics. The analysis finds that longer distances to border gates increase trade frictions significantly for many product categories, although these frictions have been decreasing between 2007 and 2012. The paper analyzes the county specific factors that are associated with variation in export performance, net of distance. Results show that exports are strongly and positively correlated with motorway and road density, the size of the labor force, low-skill ratio, and the number of patents. These variables are also associated with a greater diversity of exports in terms of products and destinations. Several general policy implications are highlighted. The significant association between motorway and road density and export volume, number of destinations, as well as the diversity of exported products may indicate that improvements in connectivity and facilitation of transport could still play a significant role in enhancing regional trade outcomes. Similarly, good performance in research and development may significantly help to spur competitiveness and allow local producers to enter new markets in products and destinations, which in turn can increase the level of diversification and boost resilience to global economic shocks.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Free Trade,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Trade Policy,Tax Law
    Date: 2014–08–01
  20. By: Sarianna M. Lundan (University of Bremen - International Management and Governance & ZenTra)
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the different kinds of distance-related barriers related to crossborder investment. Expanding the economic footprint of the firm comes at the cost of a corresponding increase in the complexity of coordination. Different forms of governance, whether inside the firm or as part of its network of external relationships, have the aim of reducing uncertainty and creating a more predictable environment. The impact of conventional distancerelated barriers, as well as the more difficult institutional barriers reflecting differences in norms and beliefs, on the costs and methods of coordination adopted by multinational firms are explored.
    Keywords: transnational firms, foreign investment, governance, entry barriers, institutional distance
    JEL: F21 F23 M16
    Date: 2014–06
  21. By: Tetsuji Okazaki (University of Tokyo); Chad Syverson (University of Chicago Booth School of Business and NBER); Atsushi Ohyama (Hokkaido University); Serguey Braguinsky (Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: We explore how changes in ownership and managerial control affect the productivity and profitability of producers. Using detailed operational, financial, and ownership data from the Japanese cotton spinning industry at the turn of the last century, we find a more nuanced picture than the straightforward “higher productivity buys lower productivity†story commonly appealed to in the literature. Acquired firms’ production facilities were not on average less physically productive than the plants of the acquiring firms before acquisition, conditional on operating. They were much less profitable, however, due to consistently higher inventory levels and lower capacity utilization—differences which reflected problems in managing the uncertainties of demand. When purchased by more profitable firms, these less profitable acquired plants saw drops in inventories and gains in capacity utilization that raised both their productivity and profitability levels, consistent with acquiring owner/managers spreading their better demand management abilities across the acquired capital.
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Francesco Nicolli (Facoltà di Economia (Faculty of Economics)); Francesco Vona (OFCE)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and unbundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol – determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation.
    Keywords: renewable energy technology; environmental innovation; heterogenous policy effect; feedin tariff; renewable energy certificates; entry barrier
    JEL: Q34 Q42 Q48 Q51 Q58
    Date: 2014–07
  23. By: Cali, Massimiliano; Farole, Thomas; Kunaka, Charles; Wagle, Swarnim
    Abstract: Deeper regional integration can be beneficial especially for regions along international borders. It can open up new markets on opposite sides of borders and give consumers wider access to cheaper goods. This paper uses data from five contiguous districts of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh in the northeast of the subcontinent to measure the degrees of trade complementarity between districts. The paper illustrates that the regions are underexploiting the potential of intraregional commerce. Price wedges of up to 90 percent in some important consumption products along with measures of complementarity between households'production and consumption suggest the potential for relatively large gains from deeper trade integration. Furthermore, an examination of a specific supply chain of tea highlights factors that help industries scale up, aided by institutions such as an organized auction and decent physical and legal infrastructure. However, districts alike in geography but located across international boundaries face different development prospects, suggesting that gains from reduced"thickness of borders"would not accrue automatically. Much rests on developing intrinsic industry competitiveness at home, including the reform of regulatory and business practices and infrastructural bottlenecks that prevent agglomeration of local economies.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Markets and Market Access,Economic Theory&Research,Regional Economic Development,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2014–07–01
  24. By: Parth S. Tewari; David Skilling; Pranav Kumar; Zack Wu
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Microfinance Small Scale Enterprise Private Sector Development - E-Business Private Sector Development - Small and Medium Size Enterprises Environmental Economics and Policies Industry Environment
    Date: 2013–05
  25. By: Jean-François Arvis; Ben Shepherd
    Keywords: Private Sector Development - E-Business Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Economic Theory and Research Transport Economics Policy and Planning Geographical Information Systems Macroeconomics and Economic Growth Transport
    Date: 2013–03
  26. By: THORBECKE, Willem
    Abstract: China's surplus in processing trade remains large. Processed exports are final goods produced using parts and components that are imported duty free. Since much of the value added of these exports comes from East Asia, exchange rates throughout the region should affect their foreign currency prices. This paper presents data on value-added exchange rates for processed exports over the 1993-2013 period and reports that they significantly affect exports. While the renminbi (RMB) appreciated by 36% between the beginning of 2005 and the end of 2013, exchange rates in supply chain countries have depreciated. This has mitigated the effect of the RMB appreciation on the price competitiveness of processed exports.
    Date: 2014–08
  27. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Educational Sciences Tertiary Education Secondary Education Teaching and Learning Education - Primary Education
    Date: 2013–04

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