nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒08‒16
thirty-one papers chosen by
João José de Matos Ferreira
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The effects of R&D intensity and tax incentives on firms’ growth - empirical evidence from world's top R&D spending firms between 2003 and 2012 By Tiago Soares; Samuel Pereira; Elísio Brandão
  2. Openness and innovation performance: are small firms different? By Priit Vahter; James H. Love; Stephen Roper
  3. Innovative capacity and export perfor mance: Exploring heterogeneity along the export intensity distribution By Chiara Piccardo; Anna Bottasso; Luigi Benfratello
  4. Spatial Aspects of Innovation Activity in the US By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karkalakos, Sotiris
  5. Foreign Direct Investment and Domestic Entrepreneurship: Blessing or Curse? By Saul Estrin; Seçil Hülya Danakol; Paul Reynolds; Utz Weitzel
  6. Globalization and The Knowledge Driven Economy By Antonelli, Cristiano; Fassio, Claudio
  7. Import Competition, Domestic Regulation and Firm-Level Productivity Growth in the OECD By Sarah Ben Yahmed; Sean Dougherty
  8. La performance à l’export des entreprises dans les économies en voie de développement By Hind El Makrini
  9. Competition as a Discovery Procedure: Schumpeter Meets Hayek in a Model of Innovation By Pedro Bento
  10. Bank loan application success by SMEs: the role of ownership structure and innovation By Peter van der Zwan
  11. The Effects of Greenfield FDI and Cross-border M&As on Total Factor Productivity By Ayesha Ashraf; Dierk Herzer; Peter Nunnenkamp
  12. Does Private Tutoring Increase Students' Academic Performance? Evidence from Turkey By Berberoglu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
  13. Labor Pooling as a Determinant of Industrial Agglomeration By Najam uz Zehra Gardezi
  14. European competitiveness: A semi-parametric stochastic metafrontier analysis at the firm level By Michel Dumont; Bruno Merlevede; Glenn Rayp; Marijn Verschelde
  15. Has Financial Liberalization Improved Economic Efficiency in the Republic of Korea? Evidence from Firm-Level and Industry-Level Data By Jungsoo Park; Yung Chul Park
  16. Localisation of industrial activity across England’s LEPs: 2008 & 2012 By Michael Anyadike-Danes; Karen Bonner; Cord-Christian Drews; Mark Hart
  17. Regional economies - shape, performance and drivers By Eaqub, Shamubeel; Stephenson, John
  18. The adoption of IPM practices by small scale producers: the case of greenhouse tomato growers in Turkey By Magali Aubert; Jean Marie Codron; Sylvain Rousset; Murat Yercan
  19. Trade Frictions and Market Access of Developing Countries : A Product-Level Empirical Investigation By Eugene Bempong-Nyantakyi; Steven Husted; Shuichiro Nishioka
  20. Determinants of Capital Structure in Non-Financial Companies By Kühnhausen, Fabian; Stieber, Harald W.
  21. What makes an efficient theme for a creativity session? By Sophie Hooge; Albert David
  22. Competitividad de la industria de bienes de equipo de España y Alemania (1993-2008): ventaja absoluta y costes relativos By Fahd Boundi Chraki
  23. Results of the German Software Industry Survey 2013 By Pussep, Anton; Schief, Markus; Weiblen, Tobias; Leimbach, Timo; Peltonen, Juhana; Rönkkö, Mikko; Buxmann, Peter
  24. Dynamics in two networks based on stocks of the US stock market By Leonidas Sandoval Junior
  25. Product Innovation in Response to Environmental Standards and Competitive Advantage: A Hedonic Analysis of Refrigerators in the Japanese Retail Market By Kimitaka Nishitani; Munehiko Itoh
  26. New Strategy for Poverty Eradication in Brazil: the Emergence of the Brasil Sem Miséria Plan By Rômulo Paes-Sousa
  27. The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance By Julia Bredtmann; Carsten J. Crede; Sebastian Otten
  28. The known unknowns of governance By Rodolphe Desbordes; Gary Koop
  29. Health, Work and Working Conditions: A Review of the European Economic Literature By Thomas Barnay
  30. Resource Allocation and Inefficiency in the Financial Sector By Kinda Hachem
  31. Structural social capital and health in Italy By Damiano Fiorillo; Fabio Sabatini

  1. By: Tiago Soares (FEP-UP, School of Economics and Management, University of Porto); Samuel Pereira (FEP-UP, School of Economics and Management, University of Porto); Elísio Brandão (FEP-UP, School of Economics and Management, University of Porto)
    Abstract: R&D expenditures made by companies, and governmental policies oriented for the promotion of these expenditures in the private sector, are nowadays considered variables that have an impact on firms’ growth in the medium term. This study aims at understanding the simultaneous influence of R&D investment and R&D tax incentives on firms’ growth, for different technological and knowledge-intensity industries. For that, a panel data of 1127 firms belonging to 35 different industries from 21 OECD countries, during the period between 2003 and 2012, was used. The results of the econometric estimation confirm, as foreseen in the literature, the positive effect for firms’ net sales growth of their investment in R&D and of tax policies that benefit the firms which perform these types of activities, particularly in high-tech firms. The results also returned a positive effect of R&D intensity in firms’ growth in the period before crisis (2003 - 2007) and a negative and significant crossover effect of R&D tax credits and R&D intensity in firms’ growth for the period before crisis. The two factors remain insignificant in crisis period, suggesting that other factors gained a more powerful explanation of a firm’s growth in that period.
    Keywords: R&D investment, R&D tax credits, firm’s growth
    JEL: H20 H30 H81 O32
    Date: 2014–07
  2. By: Priit Vahter (University of Tartu, Estonia); James H. Love (Aston Business School); Stephen Roper (Warwick University Business School)
    Abstract: Traditionally, literature on open innovation has concentrated on analysis of larger firms. We explore whether and how the benefits of openness in innovation are different for small firms (less than 50 employees) compared to medium and large ones. Using panel data over a long time period (1994-2008) from Irish manufacturing plants, we find that small plants have on average significantly lower levels of openness, a pattern which has not changed significantly since the early 1990s. However, the effect of ‘breadth’ of openness (i.e. variety of innovation linkages) on innovation performance is stronger for small firms than for larger firms. For small firms (with 10-49 employees) external linkages account for around 40 per cent of innovative sales compared to around 25 per cent in larger firms. Small plants also reach the limits to benefitting from openness at lower levels of breadth of openness than larger firms. Our results suggest that small firms can gain significantly from adopting an open innovation strategy, but for such firms appropriate partner choice is a particularly important issue.
    Keywords: open innovation, SMEs, boundary-spanning linkages, learning effects, Ireland
    JEL: O31 O32 L25
    Date: 2013–11–01
  3. By: Chiara Piccardo (Università di Genova); Anna Bottasso (Università di Genova); Luigi Benfratello (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF)
    Abstract: This paper sheds additional light on the relationship between firm level innovative capacity and export intensity. By drawing from the recent literature on exporters' heterogeneity, we apply quantile regression techniques to a sample of Italian firms in order to verify whether the effect of innovative capacity – measured by R&D expenditures – varies along the conditional distribution of the export intensity, after controlling for censoring and potential endogeneity of the innovation variable. We confirm that R&D expenditures positively affect export intensity and we find that such effect has a bell shaped pattern along its conditional distribution: firms characterized by export intensity of about 60% can take highest advantage from investing in R&D activity. Overall results prove to be robust to several specification checks and suggest not only that firms innovative capacity helps to explain heterogeneity in export intensity performance, but also that its positive effect differs across the export to sales ratio distribution.
    Keywords: Exports, R&D, quantile regression, endogeneity, distance to the frontier
    JEL: F14 O32 D22 C31 C36
    Date: 2014–08–04
  4. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karkalakos, Sotiris
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of spatial concentration of innovation activity on local production of patents in the US. In doing so, we augment the standard knowledge production function with a structure that allows for spatial effects, accounting along with bilateral also for multilateral influences across states. Our findings corroborate with past evidence on the important role of state’s own R&D stock and human capital in producing new inventions. In addition, external knowledge, via spatial interactions, is also a purveyor of local innovation production. The effect is stronger when we consider spatial influences from all states, in particular from the most innovative ones, and to a lesser extent from close neighboring states. Finally, spillovers are more likely to occur between states with similar technological specialization, which share common technological knowledge and pour similar technological effort.
    Keywords: patents, innovation, knowledge production, spatial
    JEL: C21 O31 R12
    Date: 2014–08–10
  5. By: Saul Estrin; Seçil Hülya Danakol; Paul Reynolds; Utz Weitzel
    Abstract: This paper explores the effects of foreign direct investment, measured by mergers and acquisitions, on domestic entrepreneurial entry. We use a micro‐panel of more than two thousand individuals disaggregated by industry in seventy countries including both developed and developing economies, 2000‐2009. The theory yields ambiguous predictions about the relationship between FDI and entrepreneurship; positive spillovers via dissemination of technology or negative because of crowding out. Our empirical analysis is conducted at three levels of aggregation. We find the relationship between FDI and domestic entrepreneurship in aggregate and intra‐industry to be negative. Policies need to consider how to counteract this effect.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment, entrepreneurship, new firm entry, spillovers
    JEL: F23 M13 L26
    Date: 2014–05
  6. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; Fassio, Claudio (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper implements the Schumpeterian notion of creative reaction to articulate and test the hypothesis that the shift to the knowledge economy in advanced economies is the result of the creative reaction of firms, caught in out - of - equilibrium conditions by the fast globalization of product and factor markets since the last decades of the XX century. Advanced countries specialized in the generation and exploitation of knowledge because of its relative abundance stemming from their sophisticated knowledge governance mechanisms and the larges tock of knowledg. On its turn this had strong ositive effects on TFP . The empirical analysis confirms that in advanced economies the specialization in knowledge - based activities substituted the previous specialization in mass-manufacturing activities supporting the increase of TFP. The new specialization in knowledge intensive activities has been stronger the larger was the exposition to international trade, the intensity of patent activities and the revenue per capita.
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Sarah Ben Yahmed (IEP Aix-en-Provence - Sciences Po Aix - Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Aix-en-Provence - Aix Marseille Université - Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques [FNSP], GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille III - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - CNRS : UMR7316); Sean Dougherty (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, OCDE - Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques - OCDE)
    Abstract: This paper examines how import penetration affects firms' productivity growth taking into account the heterogeneity in firms' distance to the efficiency frontier and country differences in product market regulation.
    Keywords: Firm productivity growth ; Behind-the-border regulatory barriers ; Product market regulation ; Import competition, international trade
    Date: 2014–03–14
  8. By: Hind El Makrini
    Abstract: We study the export performance of firms from developing countries based on the resource based view (RBV) of a firm. Drawing on the extant literature review, we found firm size, research and development (R&D) expenditure, advertising expenditure and business group affiliation to be important factors of export performance. A quantitative design was particularly used in this study. A two-stage least square estimation (G2SLS) was employed on a sample of 168 Moroccan SMEs over a period of four years from 2009 to 2013. Morocco is an illustrative case of a developing country where export performance studies are very limited. The findings suggest that export sales and domestic sales are interdependent and influence each other. R&D expenditure and business group affiliation have positive and significant impacts on export sales, while advertising expenditure has a negative and significant influence on export sales. The study has useful managerial implications for academics, practitioners and public policy makers, providing guidelines and interesting recommendations for a better export performance.
    Keywords: Developing economies, Export performance, Moroccan SMEs, Resource-based View (RBV), Two-stage least square estimation (G2SLS).
    Date: 2014–07–24
  9. By: Pedro Bento (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: I incorporate an insight of Friedrich Hayek - that competition allows a thousand flowers to bloom, and discovers the best among them - into a model of Schumpeterian innovation. Firms face uncertainty about the optimal direction of innovation, so more innovations implies a higher expected value of the `best' innovation. The model accounts for two seemingly contradictory relationships reported in recent empirical studies - a positive relationship between competition and industry-level productivity growth, and an inverted-U relationship between competition and firm-level innovation. Notwithstanding the positive relationship between competition and growth, I find antitrust policy reduces industry-level growth.
    Keywords: competition, innovation, productivity growth, inverted-u, antitrust, regulation
    JEL: O31 O40 L41 L51
    Date: 2013–08
  10. By: Peter van der Zwan
    Abstract: This paper focuses on SMEs – firms with 250 employees at most – and the proportion of their requested loan that is granted by the bank. Financial data for SMEs in 38 European countries for 2011 are used (SMEs’ Access to Finance survey) to test the relationship between ownership structure and innovation on the one hand and loan application success on the other hand. The set of control variables includes firm age, firm size, past firm growth, expected firm growth, and sector orientation. Focusing on the determinants of access to finance is important because restricted access could hinder firm growth. It turns out that SMEs that are part of a business group and SMEs with a multiple ownership structure have higher probabilities of receiving the requested bank loan than SMEs with a single owner. There is some evidence that female owned business have more success regarding their loan applications than male owned businesses. Furthermore, SMEs that adopt product or process innovations are less likely to receive the requested loan than SMEs that do not display innovative behavior. The robustness of these findings across several model specifications is shown and the implications of the findings are discussed.
    Date: 2014–04–25
  11. By: Ayesha Ashraf; Dierk Herzer; Peter Nunnenkamp
    Abstract: Based on original survey data, this paper analyses and compares the role of personal traits and social capital in determining entrepreneurial intentions of students in Hong Kong and in Guangzhou (mainland China). The two cities are culturally closely related but differ strongly with respect to their formal institutions and the maturity of their business environment. Our findings suggest that the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among students in Hong Kong very much resemble those found in Western economies, whereas the entrepreneurial mindsets of students in Guangzhou differ substantially from previous findings
    Keywords: greenfield FDI; cross-border mergers and acquisitions; total factor productivity
    JEL: F21 F23 O47
    Date: 2014–07
  12. By: Berberoglu, Giray (Middle East Technical University); Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
    Keywords: private tutoring, academic performance, regression analysis, Turkey
    Date: 2014–07
  13. By: Najam uz Zehra Gardezi (Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the agglomeration behavior exhibited by manufacturing firms in Punjab. Employing a unique dataset, it constructs a distance-based measure of agglomeration to verify the existence of localization economies. The M function—the industry-level measure of concentration—is regressed on a number of industry characteristics that measure the presence of positive externalities. In particular, a measure of each industry’s potential for labor pooling is used to determine whether firms that experience greater fluctuations in employment are likely to be more concentrated. The results provide evidence of the importance of labor pooling in explaining the high level of concentration within industries.
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Michel Dumont (Federal Planning Bureau; Department of general economics, Ghent University); Bruno Merlevede (CERISE, Ghent University; Department of general economics, Ghent University); Glenn Rayp (SHERPPA, Ghent University; Department of general economics, Ghent University); Marijn Verschelde (SHERPPA, Ghent University; Department of general economics, Ghent University; Faculty of Economics and Business, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
    Abstract: In this paper a semiparametric stochastic metafrontier approach is used to obtain insight into firmlevel competitiveness in Europe. We differ from standard TFP studies at the firm level as we simultaneously allow for inefficiency, noise and do not impose a functional form on the input-output relation. Using AMADEUS firm-level data covering 10 manufacturing sectors from seven EU15 countries, (i) we document substantial, persistent differences in competitiveness (with Belgium and Germany as benchmark countries and Spain lagging behind) and a wide technology gap, (ii) we confirm the absence of convergence in TFP between the seven selected countries, (iii) we confirm that the technology gap is more pronounced for smaller firms, (iv) we highlight the role of post-entry growth for competitiveness.
    Keywords: competitiveness, cross-country analysis, firm heterogeneity, total factor productivity, post-entry growth
    JEL: C14 D24 L25 M13 O33
    Date: 2014–07
  15. By: Jungsoo Park (Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)); Yung Chul Park
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of financial liberalization on the lending behavior of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) before and after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, using panel regressions on Republic of Korea firm-level and industry-level data of the period 1991–2007. It also develops a financial liberalization index to incorporate the multifaceted nature of financial reform. Findings show that financial liberalization has led banks and NBFIs to allocate more of their loans to small and medium-sized firms with good performance histories, thereby helping these entities to improve their total factor productivity growth. This paper does not find similar effects of financial liberalization on efficiency at large firms or at the industry level. Heavier reliance on direct financing after the crisis has not improved the productivity of large firms.
    Keywords: Financial Liberalization, non-bank financial institutions, Lending Behavior, firm-level and industry-level data, Financial Reform, small and medium-sized firm, Total Factor Productivity Growth
    JEL: G20 O40
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Michael Anyadike-Danes (Aston Business School); Karen Bonner (Aston Business School); Cord-Christian Drews (Aston Business School); Mark Hart (Aston Business School)
    Abstract: BIS commissioned the Enterprise Research Centre (ERC) to use the new Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) as the sub-national spatial frame in England to provide data on industrial clusters. The analysis is designed as an information source for the LEPS as they prepare their new strategic economic plans. We use a very simple Location Quotient (LQ) measure which is designed to show the extent to which a particular activity is over- or under-represented in each LEP relative to the GB national average. We do this for 2008 and 2012 using the local unit or workplace version of the Office of National Statistics Business Structure Database. For the detailed 5-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) we present for each LEP two tables for each year. First, a table of the top 20 sectors by LQ score with details of the number of workplaces and total employment in the sector and the overall GB share of employment in the LEP. Second, a table of the top 20 sectors by jobs. Viewed together they provide an overall summary of the nature and scale of the clusters in each LEP and an indication of their importance in terms of jobs. The calculation of LQs is of course just a first step in the process of cluster identification since there are many other dimensions of a cluster it does not capture (for example the fact that strategically important supply chains extend beyond individual 5-digit SIC boundaries). A large LQ is not sufficient to indicate a policy-relevant cluster since many contribute only very small job numbers in a LEP. A commentary is provided for each of the 39 English LEPs, and although most activities are broadly distributed, there are some industries where particular LEPs have particular concentrations in terms of employment. The identification of these local concentrations of industrial activity is, of course, just a starting point for a much more detailed discussion in order to understand how the analysis can be interpreted and connected to local economic strategies. In particular, there is no simple 'read-through' from a ‘cluster’ identified by a high LQ to a strategic focus.
    Keywords: location quotients, industrial clusters, localisation of industry
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2013–12–01
  17. By: Eaqub, Shamubeel (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Stephenson, John (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research)
    Abstract: Economic performance is uneven across New Zealand’s regions. This paper highlights the similarities and differences in regional economies, the drivers of past performance, and how that performance is shared in the community (GDP versus household income, for example).
    Keywords: New Zealand; regional eocnomies
    JEL: H70
    Date: 2014–08–05
  18. By: Magali Aubert (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Jean Marie Codron (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Sylvain Rousset (Institut National de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture); Murat Yercan (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ege University)
    Abstract: In most competitive fresh fruit and vegetables chains, growers are faced with the need to comply with the requirements of increasingly safety demanding customers. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices have become a true solution for small scale growers that could not afford the cost of a GAP certificate. While literature on farmer adoption of IPM practices focuses on farmer and farm characteristics, only a few authors underline the importance of technology, marketing and pesticides safety control. Moreover, only a few papers have studied IPM adoption in developing or emerging countries. Our paper aims to fill this gap by focusing on Turkey, an emerging country with dominant small scale growers, where diffusion of IPM is still in its infancy. It also takes into account factors that go beyond the farmers and farm characteristics that are usually addressed by literature. 186 tomato growers have been surveyed in the province of Antalya, a region of Turkey supplying 85% of the national production of tomato grown under greenhouse. IPM adoption has been represented by two indicators : a counter of the eleven most salient IPM practices and a three-tier level of intensity of adoption (high, medium, low). Our analysis confirms most of our predictions and highlights the role of innovative factors such as technology, farming system characteristics, marketing and safety control.
    Keywords: integrated pest management, farmers, tomato, determinants of adoption, turkey, turquieproduit frais, fruit, legume frais, tomatesécurité sanitaire, lutte intégrée, gestion intégréepesticide
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Eugene Bempong-Nyantakyi (Whitworth University, School of Business); Steven Husted (University of Pittsburgh, Department of Economics); Shuichiro Nishioka (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of trade frictions, including tariffs and a variety of factors that raise trade costs, on export market access at the product level and, in particular, the role these frictions have on the ability of developing countries to access world markets. We find that a variety of trade frictions do serve to limit market access. We find distance and efficiency in trade facilitation are significant determinants of the probability of success in entering foreign markets. We examine whether there are any systematic development-related biases from these frictions that further limit market access for exporters from developing countries. Our results suggest that developing countries are not differentially impacted by these factors. In the spirit of an earlier study by Markusen and Wigle (1990), we also conduct a series of counterfactual exercises to see the impact of significant reductions in trade frictions on developing country market access. In contrast to their results, our findings show that reductions in tariffs do not greatly improve the number of new markets for developing countries. Our results suggest a traditional recommendation to resolve the market access problem for developing countries: expansion and diversification of the industrial base and productivity improvements in the handling of exports. Both are vital preconditions to increasing the number of export markets.
    Keywords: Trade Frictions, Market Access, Extensive Margin, Economic Development
    JEL: F12 F14 O19
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Kühnhausen, Fabian; Stieber, Harald W.
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate firm-, industry- and country-specific factors determining a firm's capital structure. The empirical validity of several capital structure theories has been ambiguous so far. We shed light on the main drivers of leverage and depict differences in industry and country characteristics. Using a short panel data set with a large cross-section, we are able to show that firm size, industry leverage, industry growth and tax shield positively affect leverage ratios, while profitability and liquidity have negative impacts. Moreover, our model is an improvement over Rajan and Zingales' (1995) four-factor core model in terms of explaining data variation. The results are robust against different panel estimators, decompositions and over time.
    Keywords: Capital Structure; Non-Financial Companies; Pecking Order Theory; Trade-off Theory
    JEL: F36 G14 G15 G18 G32
    Date: 2014–06–23
  21. By: Sophie Hooge (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Albert David (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS : UMR7088 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: Despite literature has widely investigated the logics of ideation, at early stages of innovation and product development processes (Bjork and Magnusson, 2009; Boeddrich, 2004; Girotra et al., 2010), very few contributions deal with the very starting point of the ideation process, i.e. the initial theme given to workshops participants. Nevertheless, scholars' works on the nature of stimuli and examples (Smith et al.,1993; Ward et al., 2004) underlined they could generate heterogeneous effects on the efficiency of the ideation stage. Moreover, whereas efficiency criteria for creativity sessions are well known (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration), creativity techniques focus on the improvement and monitoring of ideation management: the problem of designing the initial theme is seldom included in the design parameters of creativity sessions, as if it was not considered as an issue in research on creativity management. Yet, one consequence of the above mentioned literature results is that it should be a key efficiency factor: the formulation could play a key role in conditioning cognitive involvement of individuals and managerial goals achievement. This paper focuses on this specific problem of formulating an efficient theme for a creativity session and its implications on cognitive involvement of facilitators and participants, and the achievement of managerial goals of the session. Based on a single case study led through collaborative action research with the French postal service operator, our research analyses the impacts of the formulation in three innovative-oriented creativity workshops the authors have organized and steered from May to October 2013. The three workshops themes were built to experiment the impact of the theme formulation on: 1/ creativity techniques efficiency according traditional criteria and facilitators' cognitive involvement; and 2/ participants' satisfaction assessed through their ability to link the theme, thus the generated ideas, to the company's innovation strategy. The exploratory study confirms that the formulation of the theme has important consequences, both cognitive and managerial. A first set of results suggests two main dimensions to describe the nature and structure of a theme naming: the accuracy level of the formulation and the degree of conceptual tension. A second set of results is about concrete reasoning when designing the theme and implementing in the formulation links to the firm's strategy. A third set of results is about consequences of theme formulation on the way the creativity session is designed and steered. Key dimensions include: 1/ The degree of cognitive implication of facilitators; 2/ The nature of stimuli and idea generation techniques used during the session (generic versus custom-made); 3/ The degree of commitment of the actors (designers of the theme, facilitators and participants) to the organization's strategy, i.e. to what gives value to the output of the creativity session.
    Keywords: Creativity; theme formulation; cognitive involvement; performance
    Date: 2014–06–17
  22. By: Fahd Boundi Chraki (Departamento de Economía Aplicada I, Facultad de CC. Económicas y Empresariales. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón Madrid (Spain))
    Abstract: El presente trabajo realizará un análisis comparativo del sector de bienes de equipo de España y Alemania, con el objeto de desentrañar los determinantes de la competitividad de esta industria. La hipótesis central es la siguiente: la industria de bienes de equipo de Alemania es más competitiva debido a su mayor productividad real y sus menores costes relativos. De este modo, se partirá de la teoría clásica y marxiana de la formación de los precios, y el modelo de las ventajas absolutas de Anwar Shaikh. Para nuestro propósito, se calcularán los índices de tipo de cambio, los índices de costes laborales unitarios reales y la balanza comercial bilateral de los bienes de equipo.
    Abstract: This paper makes a comparative analysis of the capital goods industry in Spain and Germany, in order to explain the determinants of competitiveness in this industry. The main hypothesis is: the German capital goods industry is more competitive as result of its higher productivity and its lower relative costs. Thus, we will start from the classical and Marxian theory of price formation, and the model of the absolute advantages of Anwar Shaikh. For our purposes, we will calculate the exchange rates, the rates of real unit labor costs and the bilateral trade balance of goods.
    Keywords: Precios, Costes laborales, Productividad, Comercio exterior, Ventaja absoluta, Prices, Labor cost, Productivity, International trade, Absolute advantage.
    JEL: B00 B10 B30
    Date: 2014–07
  23. By: Pussep, Anton; Schief, Markus; Weiblen, Tobias; Leimbach, Timo; Peltonen, Juhana; Rönkkö, Mikko; Buxmann, Peter
    Abstract: This is the second year that we execute the Software Industry Survey in Germany and publish a report with the main results. As formulated in 2012, our goal is to investigate the current state of the German software industry on a yearly basis. Conclusions are made based on grounded data and empirical findings. We hope that this type of research will contribute to the work of both, practitioners and researchers.
    Date: 2013–08–12
  24. By: Leonidas Sandoval Junior
    Abstract: We follow the main stocks belonging to the New York Stock Exchange and to Nasdaq from 2003 to 2012, through years of normality and of crisis, and study the dynamics of networks built on two measures expressing relations between those stocks: correlation, which is symmetric and measures how similar two stocks behave, and Transfer Entropy, which is non-symmetric and measures the influence of the time series of one stock onto another in terms of the information that the time series of one stock transmits to the time series of another stock. The two measures are used in the creation of two networks that evolve in time, revealing how the relations between stocks and industrial sectors changed in times of crisis. The two networks are also used in conjunction with a dynamic model of the spreading of volatility in order to detect which are the stocks that are most likely to spread crises, according to the model. This information may be used in the building of policies aiming to reduce the effect of financial crises.
    Date: 2014–08
  25. By: Kimitaka Nishitani (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan); Munehiko Itoh (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze whether a manufacturer's product innovation in response to environmental standards produces a competitive advantage, as the Porter hypothesis suggests. If a product with environmentally friendly attributes that are innovated in response to environmental standards is preferred in the market, the product can receive a price premium for its attributes. The main findings from our hedonic price regression for refrigerators, using Japanese retail market data during the period 1998–2012, are as follows. First, the attribute-adjusted refrigerator price has decreased drastically in last 15 years, which implies that the fundamental value of "refrigerating" has been commoditized. Second, price premiums are found for products that have been innovated in response to environmental standards to be chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-free and use energy more efficiently. Third, the price premiums for these attributes show specific trends during this period. A CFC-free product initially received a high price premium; however, the premium decreased and became 0. On the other hand, although an energy-consumption-efficient product did not receive a high price premium initially, the price premium increased every time manufacturers faced new or revised environmental standards. These findings prove that product innovation in response to environmental standards can create a competitive advantage where product commoditization has occurred, and that the trends in the price premiums for environmentally friendly attributes are not unique for CFC-free and energy-consumption-efficient products.
    Keywords: Porter hypothesis, Environmental innovation, Hedonic price approach, POS data, CFC-free, Energy-consumption efficiency
    Date: 2014–07
  26. By: Rômulo Paes-Sousa (World Centre for Sustainable Development, RIO+ Centre)
    Abstract: New Strategy for Poverty Eradication in Brazil: the Emergence of the Brasil Sem Miséria Plan
    Date: 2014–03
  27. By: Julia Bredtmann (Aarhus University); Carsten J. Crede (University of East Anglia); Sebastian Otten (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women's soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations in labor force participation rates and life expectancies between the genders, which serve as measures for the countryÕs gender equality, are able to explain differences in the international success of male and female national soccer teams. Our results reveal that differences in male and female labor force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success.
    Date: 2014–08
  28. By: Rodolphe Desbordes (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Gary Koop (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Empirical researchers interested in how governance shapes various aspects of economic development frequently use the Worldwide Governance indicators (WGI). These variables come in the form of an estimate along with a standard error reflecting the uncertainty of this estimate. Existing empirical work simply uses the estimates as an explanatory variable and discards the information provided by the standard errors. In this paper, we argue that the appropriate practice should be to take into account the uncer- tainty around the WGI estimates through the use of multiple imputation. We investigate the importance of our proposed approach by revisiting in three applications the results of recently published studies. These applications cover the impact of governance on (i) capital flows; (ii) international trade; (iii) income levels around the world. We generally find that the estimated effects of governance are highly sensitive to the use of multiple imputation. We also show that model misspecification is a concern for the results of our reference studies. We conclude that the effects of governance are hard to establish once we take into account uncertainty around both the WGI estimates and the correct model specification.
    Keywords: governance, multiple imputation
    JEL: C1 F1 F2
    Date: 2014–07
  29. By: Thomas Barnay (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l'Utilisation des Données Individuelles Temporelles en Economie - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne (UPEC) : EA437 - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée (UPEMLV), TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - CNRS : FR3435 - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée (UPEMLV))
    Abstract: Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29%) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.
    Keywords: work, health, working conditions, employment, causality, selection
    Date: 2014–07–24
  30. By: Kinda Hachem
    Abstract: I analyze whether banks are efficient at allocating resources across intermediation activities. Competition between lenders means that resources are needed to draw borrowers into credit matches. At the same time, imperfect information between lenders and borrowers means that resources are also needed for screening. I show that the privately optimal allocation of resources is constrained inefficient. In particular, too many resources are spent on getting rather than vetting borrowers but, once properly vetted, not enough matches are retained. Uninformed lending is thus inefficiently high, informed lending is inefficiently low, and a tax on matching activities helps remedy the situation.
    JEL: D62 D83 E44
    Date: 2014–08
  31. By: Damiano Fiorillo; Fabio Sabatini
    Abstract: This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n = 46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or at least two times a week are approximately 11% to 16% more likely to report good health.
    Date: 2014–08

This nep-cse issue is ©2014 by João José de Matos Ferreira. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.