nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2014‒04‒18
twenty-six papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. The Governance of Knowledge: Perspectives from Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia By Purwaningrum, Farah; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Ariff Lim, Syamimi; Anthony Banyouko, Ndah
  2. Which firms benefit more from being located in a Science and Technology Park? Empirical evidence for Spain By Angela, Vásquez-Urriago; Andrés, Barge-Gil; Aurelia, Modrego
  3. “Are R&D collaborative agreements persistent at the firm level? Empirical evidence for the Spanish case” By Erika Raquel Badillo; Rosina Moreno
  5. Beyond the R&D effects on innovation: the contribution of non-R&D activities to TFP growth in the EU By Jesus Lopez-Rodriguez; Diego Martinez
  6. Fields of Knowledge, Types of Higher Education Institutions, and Innovative Start-Ups - An Empirical Investigation By Michael Fritsch; Ronney Aamoucke
  7. Internationalization and Innovation of Firms: Evidence and Policy By Carlo Altomonte; Tommaso Aquilante; Gábor Békés; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
  8. The hidden side of innovation: why tinkerers matter By Marco Bettiol; Vladi Finotto; Eleonora Di Maria; Stefano Micelli
  9. The development of the DDG-capability in firms: An evaluation of its impact on firm financial performance By Elisabetta Raguseo; Claudio Vitari
  10. New forms of regional interaction between universities and industry evidence from Germany By Koschatzky, Knut
  11. Doing R&D in a Closed or Open Mode: Dynamics and Impacts on Productivity By Julio Rosa; Pierre Mohnen
  12. From capability to strategic action: the case of Green IT/S Dynamic Capability By Paola Floreddu; Claudio Vitari
  13. Capability Lifecycle and its motivating force on strategy: the case of Green IT/S Dynamic Capability By Paola Floreddu; Claudio Vitari
  14. Don't Stop Me Now: Barriers to innovation and firm productivity By Alex Coad; Maria Savona; Gabriele Pellegrino
  15. The role of associations in regional innovation systems By Koschatzky, Knut; Schnabl, Esther; Zenker, Andrea; Stahlecker, Thomas; Kroll, Henning
  16. “A panel data analysis of FDI and informal labor markets” By Antonio Baez
  17. Improving competitiveness and trade balance of Greek economy: a coopetitive strategy model By David, Carfì; Daniele, SCHILIRO'
  18. The building blocks of a resource-based theory of business start-ups By Corradi, A.A.
  19. FDI Impact on Firm Performance in Enlarged Europe: Evidence from a Meta-Regression Analysis By Bruno, Randolph Luca; Cipollina, Maria
  20. An analysis of Chinese outward FDIs in Europe with firm-level data By Amighini, Alessia; Cozza, Claudio; Rabellotti, Roberta; Sanfilippo, Marco
  21. The new challenges of organizing intellectual property in complex industries: By Cécile Ayerbe; Nathalie Lazaric; Michel Callois; Mitkova Liliana
  22. What are we learning from business training and entrepreneurship evaluations around the developing world? By McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
  23. European Export Performance By Angela Cheptea; Lionel Fontagné; Soledad Zignago
  24. Information Technology and the Distribution of Inventive Activity By Chris Forman; Avi Goldfarb; Shane Greenstein
  25. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation By Khaled Guesmi; Frédéric Teulon
  26. Understanding Corporate Governance Through Learning Models of Managerial Competence By Benjamin E. Hermalin; Michael S. Weisbach

  1. By: Purwaningrum, Farah; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Ariff Lim, Syamimi; Anthony Banyouko, Ndah
    Abstract: The paper revisits the concept of knowledge governance by drawing on the experience of building knowledge clusters in two countries; Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. It explores the strategies by which a country may take up the governance of knowledge, in the context of avoiding the knowledge trap drawing on experiences of Southeast Asian countries. We posit that an investigation of knowledge governance would require a study of the formal and informal institutional arrangements allowing knowledge flows in a cluster. The flow of tacit knowledge in particular may still require spatial proximity. We move on to explore the different perspectives of learning from the strategies of building knowledge clusters in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia and Brunei Muara District - Brunei Darussalam. Our research builds the foundation for knowledge governance inquiry by studying the spatial distribution of manpower and the science network of universities, in this case Universiti Sains Malaysia, with external knowledge producing organizations. Learning from the experience of the Northern Corridor and Multi Media Corridor in Malaysia, we have discussed our preliminary analysis of knowledge clusters in Brunei Muara District - Brunei Darussalam. Results of the analysis highlights that indeed there is increasing clustering of organizations such as private companies and government agencies in Brunei Muara District yet knowledge sharing is still lacking. We intend to follow up the study of Brunei Muara District knowledge cluster by focusing on the ICT (Information Communication and Technology) knowledge base. We end with a summary on the conclusions and recommendations for developing a knowledge base in Brunei Darussalam.
    Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge clsusters, knowledge-based economy, Malaysia, Brunei
    JEL: E6 J2 O1 O14 O3 O32 O38
    Date: 2014–01
  2. By: Angela, Vásquez-Urriago; Andrés, Barge-Gil; Aurelia, Modrego
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to analyse the heterogeneous effect of Science and Technology Parks (STPs) on firms’ innovation outcomes, contingent on firms’ size and innovation effort. Despite the worldwide diffusion of STPs and the increasing literature aimed at analyzing their effect on tenants’ performance, empirical evidence on the heterogeneous effect of STPs location on different firms is very scarce. We use information for a representative sample of 39,722 Spanish firms, 653 of them located on 22 of the 25 official Spanish STP. Results show, on the one hand, that firm size is negatively related to an STP location effect and, on the other, that only a small amount of internal innovation effort is required to achieve a very high return from park location. However, firms without innovation efforts do not benefit from a park location. Finally, as internal innovation efforts increase, the park effect reduces, but is still at a high level.
    Keywords: Science and Technology Parks, heterogeneous treatment effects, product innovation, firms’ internal innovation capabilities, size
    JEL: L25 O25 R53
    Date: 2014–04–07
  3. By: Erika Raquel Badillo (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: We provide evidence on the dynamics in firms’ R&D cooperation behaviour. Our main objective is to analyse if R&D collaborative agreements are persistent at the firm level, and in such a case, to study what are the main drivers of this phenomenon. R&D cooperation activities at the firm level can be persistent due to true state dependence, this implying that cooperating in a given period enhances the probability of doing it in the subsequent period and it can also be a consequence of firms’ individual heterogeneity, so that certain firms have certain characteristics that make them more likely to carry out technological alliances. A second contribution of the paper deals with the differentiated persistence pattern of collaboration agreements for three different types of partners: customers and/or suppliers, competitors and institutions. We specifically explore the degree of the persistence in R&D collaborative activities when considering them separately as well as the possibility of finding crossed-persistence across these different partner types.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation; Persistence; Innovative Spanish firms; Technological partners. JEL classification: L24; O32; D22; C23
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Paola Cardamone; Valeria Pupo; Fernanda Ricotta (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of universities on Italian firms’ probability to innovate. Using firm-level data, we focus on institutionalised technology transfer (TT) activities in universities, namely spin-offs, patents and research contracts. Results show that TT activities play a significant role in the probability to innovate by Italian manufacturing firms located in the same province as the university. Nevertheless, the effect is not uniform: the contribution of university TT activities to the probability of firms’ innovating is concentrated in certain territorial areas (North-East and Centre) and sectors (science based and scale intensive) and among firms that are large.
    Keywords: Universities, Technology transfer, Manufacturing firms, Innovation, Spillovers
    JEL: C25 O30
    Date: 2014–04
  5. By: Jesus Lopez-Rodriguez (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective); Diego Martinez (University Pablo Olavide)
    Abstract: A significant part of the innovation efforts carried out across very heterogeneous economies in Europe is under the form of Non-R&D innovation activities. But the traditional macro approach to the determinants of TFP does not handle this issue appropiately. This paper has proposed and estimated an augmented macro-theoretical model to the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP) by jointly considering the effects of R&D endowments and the impact of Non-R&D innovation activities on …firms´ levels of productivity. The estimation of the model for a sample of EU26 countries covering the period 2004-2008 shows that the distinction between R&D and Non-R&D endowments really matters for a number of different issues. First, the results show a sizable differential impact of these endowments on TFP growth, being the impact of R&D twice as big as the impact of Non-R&D. Second, absorptive capacity is only linked to R&D endowments. And third, the two types of endowments cannot strictly been seen as complements at least for the case of countries with high R&D intensities or high Non-R&D intensities.
    Keywords: TFP, R&D, Non-R&D expenditures, EU countries
    JEL: O0 O3 O4
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Michael Fritsch (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Ronney Aamoucke (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: We investigate the role played by different fields of academic knowledge and various types of higher education institutions in the emergence of innovative start-ups in a region. We show that education and research in the applied and natural sciences have the strongest effect on the emergence of new businesses in innovative industries. Distinguishing between different indicators for these types of knowledge, the strongest effects are found for the number of professors, followed by the number of students and the amount of external funds attracted. This discovery clearly indicates that it is more the size of the regional knowledge stock than the number of students that is most important for the emergence of innovative stat-ups.
    Keywords: New business formation, innovative start-ups, universities, regional knowledge
    JEL: L26 L60 L80 O18 R12 R30
    Date: 2014–04–15
  7. By: Carlo Altomonte; Tommaso Aquilante; Gábor Békés; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
    Abstract: We use a representative and cross-country comparable sample of manufacturing firms (EFIGE) to document patterns of interaction among firm-level internationalization, innovation and productivity across seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom). We find strong evidence of positive association among the three firm-level characteristics across countries and sectors. We also find that the positive correlation between internationalization and innovation survives after controlling for productivity, with some evidence of causality running from the latter to the former. Our analysis suggests that export promotion per se is unlikely to lead to sustainable internationalization because internationalization goes beyond export and because, in the medium-to-long term, internationalization is driven by innovation. We recommend coordination and integration of internationalization and innovation policies 'under one roof' at both the national and EU levels, and propose a bigger coordinating role for EU institutions.
    Keywords: Internationalization, innovation, firm-level data, exports, foreign direct investment, outsourcing
    JEL: F13 F23 O31 O38
    Date: 2014–04
  8. By: Marco Bettiol (Dept. of Economics and Management, University of Padova); Vladi Finotto (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Eleonora Di Maria (Dept. of Economics and Management, University of Padova); Stefano Micelli (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice)
    Abstract: Theories of innovation have drawn on the dominant form that the process took in the 1960s and 1970s: one characterized by high-tech endeavors, usually based on formal research and scientific investigations, involving patenting and corporations' research laboratories. Those specific assumptions and conceptions of the innovation process overshadowed the role of material action and of materiality in creating new knowledge. The paper points out how materiality Ðin particular the physical creation of artifacts out of available resourcesÐ is a fundamental element in innovation, in particular in generating novel knowledge. We advance an analytical and theoretical framework to think about the role of ÒmakingÓ things Ð defined as ÒtinkeringÓ Ð in innovation processes. We identify three functions to tinkering. First, tinkering is conceived as a form of epistemic action that generates abstract knowledge in and of itself. Second, tinkering orients the emergence of filieres and artifacts towards contributions to specialized innovative labor. Finally, we posit that tinkering is a way of framing innovation and of mobilizing resources and attention to obtain legitimation in industries and in markets. In order to ground our definition and conceptual framing of tinkering, we illustrate the case of the airplane and of the historical development of the aircraft industry as an example to clarify our propositions. The paper closes by proffering avenues for further investigations.
    Keywords: innovation, tinkering, bricolage, materiality
    JEL: O32 M1
    Date: 2014–04
  9. By: Elisabetta Raguseo (Polito - Politecnico di Torino [Torino] - Politecnico di Torino); Claudio Vitari (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: We examine whether firms that develop the Digital Data Genesis dynamic capability show higher performance. Using detailed survey data on the capabilities developed by companies by the usage of digital data and firm financial performance of 96 firms, we find that the firms that develop the DDG dynamic capability have levels of ROA, ROS and revenue growth higher than others do. Our results provide one of the first empirical evidence on the direct link between DDG dynamic capability and firm financial performance
    Keywords: Digital Data Genesis; dynamic capabilities; Firm financial performance
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Koschatzky, Knut
    Abstract: More recently, the contribution of German universities to regional knowledge and technology transfer and their third role is particularly pronounced by the fact that the range of their tasks as well as their autonomy has increased significantly. Terms like new public management, self-control and strategic management underline this new role. Based on a stronger regional focus in national innovation policy, the objective of the paper is to analyze the recent developments of universities with regard to their regional activities. Of special interest will be the identification of the most prominent forms of the third role of universities and the analysis of new organizational modes of collaboration and interaction with industry. Based on a survey among German professors and the management levels of universities and by introducing the 'Research Campus' (Forschungscampus) program recently implemented by the German government, the paper shows that multilateral, multi-functional networks and long-term institutionalized partnerships are increasingly established. --
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Julio Rosa; Pierre Mohnen
    Abstract: On the one hand, firms prefer to perform R&D in an open mode (letting R&D be performed extramurally or even selling their R&D services) to benefit from knowledge spillovers and complementarities between internal and external R&D. On the other hand, they may also like to perform R&D in a closed mode (funding and executing their R&D intramurally) to minimize outgoing externalities. We examine the dynamic process by which firms change the way of doing R&D and how these strategic choices of doing R&D affect their productivity growth. This study is based on the Statistics Canada Research and Development in Canadian Industry survey (RDCI), which collects data on R&D performed in the business sector in Canada. The paper is based on data for the period 1997 to 2006. The panel dimension of the data allows to control for unobserved characteristics of R&D performers by estimating a multinomial Logit model with unobserved heterogeneities using maximum simulated likelihood (MSL) method. Les firmes sont tiraillées entre deux façons de faire de la R-D. D’un côté, elles préfèrent faire la R-D de manière ouverte (en faisant faire de la R-D extramuros ou même en vendant des services de R-D) afin de bénéficier d’externalités de connaissance et de complémentarités entre la R-D interne et la R-D externe. D’un autre côté, elles préconisent de faire la R-D en mode fermé (en faisant de la recherche intramuros et en se finançant sur base de fonds propres ou de subventions) afin de minimiser les fuites de connaissance. Dans cette étude, nous examinons la dynamique des choix quant à la façon de faire de la recherche et l’effet de ces choix sur les rendements de celle-ci. Nous nous basons sur les données de l’enquête de Statistique Canada sur la recherche et développement dans l’industrie canadienne (RDIC) pour la période 1997-2006. La dimension panel de la base de données nous permet de contrôler pour l’hétérogénéité individuelle inobservée dans l’estimation d’un modèle Logit multinomial dynamique à partir de la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance simulé.
    Keywords: R&D; State Dependence; Dynamic Multinomial Logit; Panel-data; Maximum Simulated Likelihood; Open Innovation, persistance, modèle Logit multinomial dynamique, données panel, maximum de vraisemblance simulé, innovation ouverte
    Date: 2013–11–01
  12. By: Paola Floreddu (Università di Cagliari - Università di Cagliari); Claudio Vitari (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: While a great amount of literature has focused on dynamic capability and IT dynamic capabilities, there has been little theory and systematic research done on their lifecycle. Based on the dynamic capability and IS literature, this paper aims to contribute to this body of knowledge by studying the lifecycle of the Green Information Technologies/Systems (IT/S). Dynamic Capability is defined as the two-fold organizational process of: (1) recognizing the role played in ecological sustainability by the Information Technologies and Systems (IT/S), and (2) the contribution made to the ecological sustainability by the IT/S. We advance a research model aimed at understanding the role of the Green IT/S' Dynamic Capability in choosing and managing green IT/S strategies.
    Keywords: Dynamic capabilities framework; Green IT/IS; Capabilities, Capability Lifecycle; Green IT/S strategies
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Paola Floreddu (Università di Cagliari - Università di Cagliari); Claudio Vitari (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: While a great amount of literature has focused on dynamic capability and IT dynamic capabilities, there has been little theory and systematic research done on their lifecycle. Based on the dynamic capability and IS literature, this paper aims to contribute to this body of knowledge by studying the lifecycle of the Green Information Technologies/Systems (IT/S). Dynamic Capability is defined as the two-fold organizational process of: (1) recognizing the role played in ecological sustainability by the Information Technologies and Systems (IT/S), and (2) the contribution made to the ecological sustainability by the IT/S. We advance a research model aimed at understanding the role of the Green IT/S' Dynamic Capability in choosing and managing green IT/S strategies. Keywords: Dynamic
    Keywords: Dynamic capabilities framework; Green IT/IS, Capabilities; Capability Lifecycle; Green IT/S strategies
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Alex Coad (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Gabriele Pellegrino (Barcelona Institute of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Keywords: Barriers to innovation, labour productivity, quantile regressions, propensity score matching JEL Classification: C23, O31, O32, O33
    Date: 2014–04
  15. By: Koschatzky, Knut; Schnabl, Esther; Zenker, Andrea; Stahlecker, Thomas; Kroll, Henning
    Abstract: This paper addressed the need for research regarding the role of associations in innovation systems. As defined here, the term association embraces not only organisations like business associations, but all actors who associate to pursue joint objectives and positively influence their (regional) innovation system. In the innovation system's perspective, these associations perform intermediary functions. As the relevant activities are often initiated by individuals acting in specific environments and circumstances, we need to consider not only the level of the organisation (i.e. meso level), but also the macro level of the innovation system and the micro level of individuals. Against the background of economic and social theory, intrinsic motivations have therefore also been discussed. External conditions, like the mode of governance and the logic of influence are also relevant as these define the framework conditions. Over time, associations may evolve in line with changes in the environment and internal developments. This evolution can be regarded as a life cycle which is specific to each association. Different types of associations and their specific functions have been mentioned using the example of Germany. While each of the listed associations can be regarded as an individual case, we can also assume that there are certain traits which are shared by all of them. Thus, we proposed four hypotheses addressing the macro level, i.e. the level of the regional innovation system, the meso level, i.e. the level of the association, and the micro level, which considers the motivations of individuals. We further proposed an empirical concept to be applied to study the role of associations in innovation systems. --
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Antonio Baez (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine whether informal labor markets affect the flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and also whether this effect is similar in developed and developing countries. With this aim, different public data sources, such as the World Bank (WB), and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) are used, and panel econometric models are estimated for a sample of 65 countries over a 14 year period (1996-2009). In addition, this paper uses a dynamic model as an extension of the analysis to establish whether such an effect exists and what its indicators and significance may be. While the results shows that informal labor markets are significant and do positively affect the flow of FDI, these effects are felt up to a certain level of informality, above which the effect becomes negative. The results are similar for developed and developing countries and are robust to several checks.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Informal labor markets, Institutions. JEL classification: F16, F23, J8, M5
    Date: 2014–02
  17. By: David, Carfì; Daniele, SCHILIRO'
    Abstract: In the present work, we propose a coopetitive model applied to the Greek crisis, which aims both at improving the competitiveness of the Greek productive system and rebalancing the current account balance of the country. Our model of coopetition (based on normal form game theory) is conceived at a macro level, wherein there are two players: Greece and SNC (the Surplus Northern Countries of the euro area). We suggest a model that looks for a win-win solution. The win-win solution entails a cooperative bi-strategy in which SNC should contribute to re-balance its trade surplus with respect to Greece and, in addition,SNC should provide a certain amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) to improve the competitiveness and the growth in Greece. Thus we �nd a transferable utility and properly coopetitive solution, convenient for all the players.
    Keywords: Games and economics; Competitiveness; FDI; Trade Balance; Greek economy;cooperation; coopetition
    JEL: C71 C72 C78 F2 F23 F41 F42 O24
    Date: 2014–04
  18. By: Corradi, A.A.
    Abstract: Firm dynamics are commonly explained through learning processes by evolutionary economics and resource-based theories of the firm. The literature, however, also highlights the methodological difficulty to unpack learning. With the support of cognitive-behavioural theories of learning and the use of a multi-method approach, this study investigates the evolution of business start- ups and interactions between markets, institutions and learning strategies. In retrospective interviews, entrepreneurs-founders of 43 Brazilian start-ups reconstructed the storyline of the first three to five years of their firms, focussing on critical learning episodes. Analyses of the narratives resulted in 207 critical learning episodes, based on the analytical framework, empirical content, expert evaluation and the literature. These episodes were clustered in five categories. Quantitative descriptive analysis showed the cross-cutting dynamics of these episodes. Then, relationships between episodes were investigated through grounded theory principles. Results showed that the key linking factor between episodes is the resource-base of each episode, which generated five typical pathways. The final step identified the properties of these pathways. It is argued that the iteration between qualitative and quantitative methods was crucial to unpack the relationships described. This study provides a viable methodology and a comprehensive framework to investigate the evolution of business start-ups, contributing to the literature on organizational learning, entrepreneurship, and theory of the firm.
    Keywords: mixed methods, resource-based theory of the firm, evolution of business start-ups, theory building
    Date: 2014–03–01
  19. By: Bruno, Randolph Luca (University College London); Cipollina, Maria (University of Molise)
    Abstract: This paper combines, explains and summarizes recent findings from the empirical literature focusing on the FDI's effect on firms' performances by collecting all the relevant firm level quantitative studies to run a regression of regressions focused on Enlarged Europe. The results show that there exists a positive indirect impact of FDI on productivity and ultimately on economic growth in EU, but it is limited in magnitude. Moreover, the effect of FDI on growth is stronger for New EU Members after 2001.
    Keywords: firm performance, Enlarged Europe, meta-regression analysis
    JEL: C81 F23 O52
    Date: 2014–03
  20. By: Amighini, Alessia (Università del Piemonte Orientale); Cozza, Claudio (Università di Trieste); Rabellotti, Roberta (Università di Pavia); Sanfilippo, Marco (European University Institute)
    Abstract: The empirical literature on China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) mainly relies on aggregate data from official statistics, whose international reliability is currently a matter of concern, and that do not take account of some relevant features such as the industry breakdowns, ownership structures and modes of entry. A novel firm-level database (EMENDATA), compiled by matching data from several available sources, on various types of cross-border deals, and including information on group structure, enables new empirical analyses and provides new insights into the rapidly increasing presence of Chinese companies abroad. In this paper, exploring the potential of these data we offer an informative and comprehensive assessment of the geographical and specialization patterns of Chinese outward FDI into Europe and suggest new avenues for further research on this highly policy relevant issue.
    Keywords: China; FDI; firm-level data; MNEs
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2014–04–10
  21. By: Cécile Ayerbe (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS) - CNRS : UMR6227); Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Michel Callois (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Mitkova Liliana (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne (UPEC) : EA2354 - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée (UPEMLV))
    Abstract: The defence industries in France and elsewhere have, in recent years, undergone important technological, organizational and institutional changes that have profoundly altered their architectures. These changes have introduced a new division of labour bringing new opportunities for interaction leading to the creation of additional assets. In this context, the issue of protecting innovations and their exploitation has become central. Managing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) requires industrial groups to draw on additional capabilities. This article analyzes these evolutions and focuses in particular on the new organizational arrangements that have accompanied them. Using the case of Thales, which in 2005 outsourced its Intellectual Property (IP), we answer questions such as: why should IP be outsourced; how should the outsourcing of IP activities be organized; and, how should capabilities involved in this new organizational arrangement be managed. These issues lie at the centre of this research and illustrate new challenges inherent to in-house and outsourced IPR management strategies.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property - Complex industries - Organization - Outsourcing - Case study
    Date: 2014
  22. By: McKenzie, David (World Bank); Woodruff, Christopher (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Business training programs are a popular policy option to try to improve the performance of enterprises around the world. The last few years have seen rapid growth in the number of evaluations of these programs in developing countries. We undertake a critical review of these studies with the goal of synthesizing the emerging lessons and understanding the limitations of the existing research and the areas in which more work is needed. We find that there is substantial heterogeneity in the length, content, and types of firms participating in the training programs evaluated. Many evaluations suffer from low statistical power, measure impacts only within a year of training, and experience problems with survey attrition and measurement of firm profits and revenues. Over these short time horizons, there are relatively modest impacts of training on survivorship of existing firms, but stronger evidence that training programs help prospective owners launch new businesses more quickly. Most studies find that existing firm owners implement some of the practices taught in training, but the magnitudes of these improvements in practices are often relatively modest. Few studies find significant impacts on profits or sales, although a couple of the studies with more statistical power have done so. Some studies have also found benefits to microfinance organizations of offering training. To date there is little evidence to help guide policymakers as to whether any impacts found come from trained firms competing away sales from other businesses versus through productivity improvements, and little evidence to guide the development of the provision of training at market prices. We conclude by summarizing some directions and key questions for future studies.
    Keywords: Business training; Consulting; Randomized experiments; Firm Productivity.
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Angela Cheptea (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Agrocampus Ouest - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UMR1302); Lionel Fontagné (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, Banque de France - -); Soledad Zignago (Centre de recherche de la Banque de France - Banque de France)
    Abstract: Using an econometric shift-share decomposition, we explain the redistribution of world market shares at the level of the product variety and by technological content. We decompose changes in market shares into structural eff ects (geographical and sectoral) and a pure performance e ffect. We regard the EU-27 as an integrated economy, excluding intra-EU trade. Revisiting the competitiveness issue in such a perspective sheds new light on the impact of emerging countries on the reshaping of world trade. Since 1995 the EU-27 withstood the competition from emerging countries better than the United States and Japan. The EU market shares for high-technology products, as well as in the upper price range of the market, proved comparatively resilient, though less so since the crisis.
    Keywords: International Trade, Export Performance, Competitiveness, Market Shares, Shift-Share, European Union.
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Chris Forman; Avi Goldfarb; Shane Greenstein
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between the diffusion of advanced internet technology and the geographic concentration of invention, as measured by patents. First, we show that patenting became more concentrated from the early 1990s to the early 2000s and, similarly, that counties that were leaders in patenting in the early 1990s produced relatively more patents by the early 2000s. Second, we compare the extent of invention in counties that were leaders in internet adoption to those that were not. We see little difference in the growth rate of patenting between leaders and laggards in internet adoption, on average. However, we find that the rate of patent growth was faster among counties who were not leaders in patenting in the early 1990s but were leaders in internet adoption by 2000, suggesting that the internet helped stem the trend towards more geographic concentration. We show that these results are largely driven by patents filed by distant collaborators rather than non-collaborative patents or patents by non-distant collaborators, suggesting low cost long-distance digital communication as a potential mechanism.
    JEL: O31 O33 R11
    Date: 2014–04
  25. By: Khaled Guesmi; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows and their determinants in six major countries in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) over the period from 1998 to 2010. Using panel data techniques, we account for the possible presence of both economic dependencies and structural breaks. The findings show that there are common variables of economic significance among the examined countries: macro determinants such as openness, growth rate, exchange rate, and economic instability have a long-run impact on FDI inflows in our panel. The results are submitted to a battery of tests, including panel unit root and panel cointegration tests.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Economic dependencies, Structural breaks, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
    Date: 2014–04–10
  26. By: Benjamin E. Hermalin; Michael S. Weisbach
    Abstract: A manager’s shareholders, board of directors, and potential future employers are continually assessing his ability. A rich literature has documented that this insight has profound implications for corporate governance because assessment generates incentives (good and bad), introduces assorted risks, and affects the various battles that rage among the relevant actors for corporate control. Consequently, assessment (or learning) is a key perspective from which to study, evaluate, and possibly even regulate corporate governance. Moreover, because learning is a behavior notoriously subject to systematic biases, this perspective is a natural avenue through which to introduce behavioral and psychological insights into the study of corporate governance.
    JEL: D81 D83 G34 M12
    Date: 2014–04

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