nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2013‒07‒28
sixteen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Development By Wim Naudé; Adam Szirmai
  2. Ownership structures and R&D in Europe: the good institutional investors, the bad and ugly impatient shareholders By Olivier Brossard; Stéphanie Lavigne; Mustafa Sakinc Erdem
  3. Firm heterogeneity in TFP, sectoral innovation and geography. Evidence from Italy By Aiello, Francesco; Pupo, Valeria; Ricotta, Fernanda
  4. Les "serious games" : des leviers en faveur du knowledge management By Caroline Bayart; Sandra Bertezene; David Vallat
  5. Do Trust-Based Relations Improve Firm’s Performance? Evidence from Transition Economies By Berulava, George
  6. The "resurrection" of industrial policy in the European Union and its impact on industrial policy in the New Member Countries By Ádám Török; Gyöngyi Csuka; Bernadett Kovács; Anita Veres
  7. Optimal R&D Subsidies with Heterogeneous Firms in a Dynamic Setting By Hall, Joshua; Laincz, Christopher
  8. Lock-in, path dependence, and the internationalization of QWERTY By Neil Kay
  9. “Do labour mobility and technological collaborations foster geographical knowledge diffusion? The case of European regions” By Ernest Miguélez; Rosina Moreno
  10. “I want creative neighbours”. Do creative service industries spillovers cross regional boundaries? By Rafael Boix; José Luis Hervás-Oliver; Blanca De Miguel-Molina
  11. Exploring the interrelation between process management and organizational culture: A critical review By Grau, Corinna; Moormann, Jürgen
  12. Science, Technology, Innovation and IP in India - New Directions and Prospects By Christine Greenhalgh
  13. Impact of quality and environmental investment on business competitiveness and profitability: The case of travel agencies By Llorenç Bagur; Jordi Perramon; Oriol Amat
  14. Governance work in inter-organizational networks: driving processes and structures By Chahira Mehouachi; Véronique Perret
  16. Port Competition and Welfare Effect of Strategic Privatization By Czerny, Achim; Höffler, Felix; Mun, Se-il

  1. By: Wim Naudé (Maastricht School of Management, UNU-MERIT, University of Maastricht and IZA- Institute for the Study of Labour); Adam Szirmai (UNU-MERIT and Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, University of Maastricht)
    Abstract: What is the relationship between technological innovation, entrepreneurship and development? Is it better for developing countries to coping and adapt existing technologies from richer countries rather than undertake or promote intensive research and development (R&D) of their own? We tackle these perennial issues afresh by considering the relationship between knowledge, innovation and growth in the past and by identifying whether and how the scope for catch-up growth exists. We focus on the interesting case of technological innovation in the comparative economic performance of China; we draw some lessons for development elsewhere.
    Keywords: innovation, entrepreneurship, development, knowledge, China, BRICS
    JEL: F23 L52 L53 O25 O40 O33 O34
    Date: 2013–07
  2. By: Olivier Brossard (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Université des Sciences Sociales - Toulouse I : EA4212 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II); Stéphanie Lavigne (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Université des Sciences Sociales - Toulouse I : EA4212 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II); Mustafa Sakinc Erdem (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS : UMR5113 - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between ownership structures in large European companies and their innovative activity in terms of R&D spending. The analysis is performed on a sample of 324 large innovative companies over 8 years. Contrary to the view that institutional investors can have a negative influence on R&D spending, we report a positive impact of these investors. Our study also tests the impact of 'impatient' institutional investors and provides evidence of their negative influence on R&D spending.
    Keywords: ownership structures; institutional ownership; innovation; R&D intensity
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Aiello, Francesco; Pupo, Valeria; Ricotta, Fernanda
    Abstract: Sectoral and territorial specificities affect the firm’s capabilities of being productive. While there is a wide consensus on this, a quantitative measure of the these effects has been lacking. To this end, we combine a dataset of Italian firms with some meso regional and sectoral variables and apply a cross-classified model that allows for a clear distinction between firm, region-specific and sector-specific effects. After observing a marked TFP heterogeneity across firms, the paper addresses the issue of understanding how much differences in firms’ productivity depend on regional localisation and sector specificities. Results refer to 2004-2006 and are threefold. Firstly, they confirm that the main source of firm variety is mostly due to differences revealed at individual level. Secondly, we find that sector is more important than location in explaining firms’ TFP. Lastly, the results show that firm TFP increases when it belongs to more innovative sectors. Similarly, companies get benefits from belonging to sectors where there is a high proportion of firms using R&D public support and a high propensity to collaborate in innovative projects.
    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity, Firms’ Heterogeneity, Sectoral innovation, Geography, Cross-Classified Models
    JEL: L25 L60 O33
    Date: 2013–07–23
  4. By: Caroline Bayart (ISFA - Institut des Science Financière et d'Assurances - Université de Lyon); Sandra Bertezene (ISFA - Institut des Science Financière et d'Assurances - Université de Lyon); David Vallat (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS : UMR5206 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - École Normale Supérieure - Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne)
    Abstract: The role of education and more particularly of universities consists in helping students in their apprenticeship so that they become knowledge workers. What teaching methods can be used to achieve this goal? In order to give some answers to this question, we have chosen to evaluate the nature of the impacts of a serious game on the acquisition of knowledge by students. If serious have attracted attention in previous research, essentially qualitative, this research does not allows to identify and understand the mechanisms according to which they influence the process of acquisition of knowledge. This article presents a stage in the research to test the different techniques by professional publics. To carry out our demonstration, we will first analyze the works of Nonaka in the field of knowledge management to understand the implementation of knowledge thanks to the use of serious games. This approach seems to be particularly relevant in the context studied as knowledge management is a resource for the firm, but also for the present or future employee since it is a means of assuring his/her employability and negotiating power in the firm. We will then explain the field research methodology, in our case a survey composed of two questionnaires administered to nearly 200 students before and after their participation in a serious game related to project management. The second part presents and analyzes the main results; the demonstration of the progress in knowledge on the one hand, and the factors of acquisition of academic knowledge on the other.
    Keywords: knowledge management, serious games, enquête par questionnaires
    Date: 2013–07–20
  5. By: Berulava, George
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of trust-based relations on firm’s performance in transition economies. The trade credit variable is used as a proxy of trust-based relations and the propensity score matching method is employed to establish casual link between relational governance and business performance in the study. The research is conducted using data from a large survey of firms across 28 transition economies. The results of the study suggest that informal trust-based institutions of contract governance represent an important way for enhancing of business performance. To say distinctly, our findings indicate that in transition economies trade credits positively affect firms’ sales growth. They provide incentives for more intensive innovation activities and ensure higher labor productivity rates. The firms that trust their partners are characterized by larger proportions of reinvested profits as well. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides new empirical insights into the casual link between trust-based relations and business performance of firms in transition economies.
    Keywords: Keywords: trust-based relations, trade credit, networks, propensity score matching, business performance, transition economies
    JEL: D23 L14 P31 Z13
    Date: 2013–07–18
  6. By: Ádám Török; Gyöngyi Csuka; Bernadett Kovács; Anita Veres
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to consider the main factors affecting the industrial policy in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) by elucidating the issues such as; the connection between competitiveness and industrial policy, innovation, manufacturing, green growth and environment. The objective is to inspire thought in the reader and to highlight the necessity for a new industrial policy, which considers regional differences and specializations in the catching up economies of the CEECs. The ultimate question is what kind of industrial policy development is required in the CEECs in the future that could enable an even more successful catching up, or convergence, with the Western economies. This study includes an analysis of the countries that have been more successful in transition. A measurement was made of the export market shares as well as the industrial structure (primarily in manufacturing). The first step towards accomplishing this task was to examine the export competitiveness of CEECs, the concept of export competitiveness, and the role of exports in competitiveness-oriented growth strategies during the financial crisis. The question was how the effectiveness of policies that enhance export competitiveness could be improved in these countries. The second step was to examine and differentiate the variety of industrial politics in the CEECs, with special emphasis on tools used in order to promote incoming foreign direct investment and technological development. The third step was an assessment of CEECs innovation and R&D policies, and their linkages with competitiveness, for a better understanding of future options in the CEECs. It is outside the scope of this study to formulate a new industrial policy for certain countries since there is a wide variation in the level of development, workforce structure and industrial specialization of the countries examined in this study. Making predictions that are generally applicable to all member countries of the European Union (EU) is not possible in the international economic environment of June 2013. This study highlights that there is a need for a country specific industrial policy for each member country. During the development of industrial policy, the decision makers of each country must make complex decisions which consider all past and current economic factors. It is the intention of this study to inspire deeper, new ways of thinking about industrial policies in the CEECs.
    Keywords: Industrial policy, clusters, green growth, innovation, manufacturing, competitiveness, Central and Eastern Europe
    JEL: O14 O25 L16 L50 L52
    Date: 2013–07
  7. By: Hall, Joshua (University of Tampa); Laincz, Christopher (Department of Economics & International Business LeBow College of Business Drexel University)
    Abstract: When firms engaged in R&D are observably heterogeneous (in size) and policymakers are able to condition policy on the observed heterogeneity, what is the optimal policy? This paper starts with a static two-stage duopoly model of R&D competition with uncertainty and finds it welfare enhancing to subsidize the larger firms, with no subsidies for (or taxes on) the smaller firm (extending existing results, Lahiri and Ono, 1999). This result follows because marginal cost reductions by the largest firm have larger net effects on consumer and producer surplus. The policymaker's goal is effectively to minimize the average cost of production. However, when we move to a dynamic setting, the optimal policy is less clear. When firms compete repeatedly, the degree of competition becomes an endogenous variable over the infinite horizon. The optimal policy depends on the nature of long-run competition. In some situations, the optimal policy remains the same, subsidize the larger firm. However, in other scenarios, the policymaker optimally chooses to subsidize the smaller firm more heavily to promote more intense competition which lowers the long-run deadweight loss and long run costs through increased R&D competition.
    Keywords: R&D; subsidies; duopoly; dynamics; heterogeneous firms
    JEL: L11 L16 O31
    Date: 2012–06–26
  8. By: Neil Kay (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the emergence of what is described here as the QWERTY family of standards (QWERTY and its international adaptations QZERTY, AZERTY, and QWERTZ). QWERTY has been described as an inferior solution and an accident of history. However, the analysis here finds that each member of the family represented highly efficient adaptations to specific user needs and technical challenges encountered in their own environments. These findings may be seen to have wider implications given QWERTY’s role as paradigm case in the literature on increasing returns and path dependence, and these are pursued in the paper.
    Keywords: QWERTY, innovation, invention, path dependence, technological standards
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Ernest Miguélez (Economics and Statistics Division, WIPO and AQR-IREA); Rosina Moreno (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is twofold: first, we aim to assess the role played by inventors’ cross-regional mobility and collaborations in fostering knowledge diffusion across regions and subsequent innovation. Second, we intend to evaluate the feasibility of using mobility and co-patenting information to build cross-regional interaction matrices to be used within the spatial econometrics toolbox. To do so, we depart from a knowledge production function where regional innovation intensity is a function not only of the own regional innovation inputs but also external accessible knowledge stocks gained through interregional interactions. Differently from much of the previous literature, cross-section gravity models of mobility and co-patents are estimated to use the fitted values to build our ‘spatial’ weights matrices, which characterize the intensity of knowledge interactions across a panel of 269 regions covering most European countries over 6 years.
    Keywords: inventors’ spatial mobility, co-patenting, gravity models, weights matrix, knowledge production function. JEL classification: C8, J61, O31, O33, R0.
    Date: 2013–07
  10. By: Rafael Boix (Departament d’Estructura Econòmica, Facultat d’Economia, Universitat de València); José Luis Hervás-Oliver (Departament d’Organització d’Empreses, Universitat Politecnica de València); Blanca De Miguel-Molina (Departament d’Organització d’Empreses, Universitat Politecnica de València)
    Abstract: The occurrence of creative service industries (CSI) is a strong determinant of differences in wealth amongst European regions. However, it is unknown if the strong effects are limited to occurring within regional boundaries or whether there are spillover effects into neighbouring regions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the existence of CSI spillover effects on the wealth of neighbouring regions. CSI and spillovers are integrated into both an empirical model and an endogenous growth model. Both models are estimated for a sample of 250 regions in the European Union in 2008. We find that most of the effects of CSI take place within regions, although there is also evidence that CSI has indirect spillovers across regions.
    Keywords: creative industries; creative services; regional growth; spatial spillovers; spatial econometrics
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2013–07
  11. By: Grau, Corinna; Moormann, Jürgen
    Abstract: Managing the business processes of a company is a task which has emerged as a top priority across all industries. However, business process management (BPM) is not just a set of structured methods and technologies which can simply be assigned to employees. In contrary, the success of any process initiative is interwoven with the culture of the respective company. In addition, in most cases there is not only one organizational culture but often a range of subcultures within an organization due to previous mergers, existing subsidiaries etc. Despite its importance, the interrelation between BPM and organizational culture has been only sparsely explored. This paper analyzes and determines the status quo of academic literature concerning the interrelation between BPM and organizational culture. The results reveal considerable differences in the perception of the interface between both fields. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the organizational psychological perspective has been widely neglected in process management literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature review written from both a process management and an organizational psychological perspective. As such, it strives to contribute to a comprehensive and thorough understanding of this interrelation. Based on the review we develop a framework, serving as a basis for a deeper understanding of the interdependency and providing avenues for future research. --
    Keywords: Business Process Management (BPM),Organization,Organizational culture,Organizational psychology,Process
    JEL: L20 M10 M14
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Christine Greenhalgh
    Abstract: This paper begins by surveying recent economic studies of the relationships between technology transfer, intellectual property, innovation and diffusion in emerging countries.  It applies this literature to the Indian case.  India  is a potentially useful case study for several reasons.  India has recently been experiencing rapid growth and has several high technology sectors staffed by an absolutely large and highly educated middle class.  At the same time an even larger share of its very big population is still working in low productivity agriculture and many of these people are living in extreme poverty. To reduce poverty and improve agricultural productivity India will need to create jobs in labour intensive production and distribution sectors to employ its vast army of unskillled workers.  The second part of the paper outlines how industry structure and innovative performance have been progressing in India following the economic reforms of the early 90s and the changes to intellectual property law occasioned by the TRIPS agreement and membership of the World Trade Organisation. In the third section the focus turns to recent science, technology and innovation policy in India.  A study of the country's potential for innovation by the World Bank in 2007 argued that India must proceed on two fronts.  In addition to considering how India's growth prospects can be enhanced by world leading innovations, this volume placed great emphasis on inclusive innovation.  This may involve mainly the diffusion and absorption of existing knowledge, but is designed to improve the lot of the poor.  The World Bank report proposed a number of new policy directions aimed at speeding up innovation and technology diffusion in India.  We attempt to record what changes have been made to innovation policy, foreign direct investment policy and diffusion policy in India in recent years and assess whether these are likely to be effective.
    Keywords: Innovation, intellectual property, science policy, innovation policy, TRIPS
    JEL: O2 O3
    Date: 2013–06–26
  13. By: Llorenç Bagur; Jordi Perramon; Oriol Amat
    Abstract: Few studies have examined the combined effect of implementing quality and environmental management within the service sector. This void is more evident if we focus on segments in which small businesses predominate and even more so if we look for highly competitive sectors that are very variable and that have high business mortality. After analysing 198 surveys of Spanish travel agency managers using structural equations, it can be concluded that practices of quality management have a significant direct impact on business competitiveness but not on this business's financial results, at least directly. However, there is a significant relationship between environmental management practices and economic benefits. This article suggests that commitment to quality and the environment can allow small businesses in the service sector to have a competitive advantage that will separate surviving and ceased operations, particularly in sectors that are rapidly evolving and highly competitive.
    Keywords: Quality management, Environmental management, Firm performance and Travel agencies.
    Date: 2013–07
  14. By: Chahira Mehouachi (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS : UMR7088 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine); Véronique Perret (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS : UMR7088 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: There are many calls for further investigation of the underlying processes, practices and specificities of governance when economic exchanges are organized within networks. Through an examination of what governance involves and how it occurs in two clusters specialized in digital and video game industries, our multi-method study provides useful insights in the finalities and purposes of governance in an inter-organizational and collaborative context, the main tools and mechanisms that are being used and the structures supporting network governance. Our findings shed also light upon the processual nature of governance in networks contexts. Governance is a set of processes, or a "meta-process", that are geared toward the (1) creation, the maintenance and the evolution of a set of common interests, (2) the design of a adapted architecture of rights and obligations and (3) the crafting of different mechanisms of coordination and control. These processes aim also to adapt the structure of governance continually to the frequent changes in the network attributes. We coin this process of governance functioning, evolution and continuous (re) actualization as governance work and argue for a new perspective about network governance.
    Keywords: network governance, interorganizational networks, video game industry, creative industries
    Date: 2013–07–03
  15. By: Suhaeniti (International University of University); Sangyub Ryu (International University of University)
    Abstract: By applying Moore (1995) concept of distinctive managerial functions - managing upward, downward, and outward -, this study attempts to understand the impacts of middle-level management functions on organizational performance; and tries to investigate gender impacts on the middle-level management and performance linkages. This study employs Indonesian Family Life Survey 4 (IFLS4) crosssectional data and applies Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method to analyze some hypotheses constructed. The results indicate the significant impacts of managing downward negatively and managing outward positively on organization performance. Meanwhile, managing upward does not give the significant impact on organization performance. On the other hand, gendered managing outward effects on organization performance are strongly positive significant for female managers and strongly negative significant for males. For both male and female managers, managing downward gives significant positive impacts on organization performance, but males' effect is much greater than females. Lastly, the gendered managing upward effect is not significant related with organization performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that public managers need to give more efforts on managing outward by creating more networking to increase the organization performance. In contrast, the principals may need to modify their strategy to manage their subordinates because current managing downward strategy gives negative impacts on the organization performance.
    Keywords: managing upward, managing downward, managing outward, management, gender, performance, school, Indonesia
    Date: 2013–07
  16. By: Czerny, Achim ((WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management)); Höffler, Felix (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln); Mun, Se-il (Kyoto University)
    Abstract: Private operation of port facilities is becoming increasingly common worldwide and many governments consider the privatization of public ports as a policy option. We investigate the effect of port privatization in a setting with two ports located in different countries, serving their home market but also competing for transshipment traffic from a third region. Each government chooses whether to privatize its port or to keep port operations public. We show that there exist equilibria in which the two governments choose privatization. In these equilibria, national welfare is higher relative to a situation where both ports are public. Since port charges are strategic complements, privatization can act as a valuable precommitment tool for the two governments and allows for a better exploitation of the third region. However, from the perspective of maximizing the joint national welfare of both port countries, there is an inefficiently low incentive to privatize. It is also shown that a country with a smaller home market has a larger incentive to choose private port operation.
    Keywords: Infrastructure competition; privatization; strategic delegation
    JEL: L11 L90 L98
    Date: 2013–01–24

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