nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2013‒04‒13
24 papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Knowledge spillovers and economic performance of firms located in depressed areas: does geographical proximity matter? By Liliana Araújo; Sandra T. Silva; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
  2. Do entrepreneurs matter? By Becker, Sascha O.; Hvide, Hans K
  3. Knowledge cumulability and complementarity in the knowledge generation function By Antonelli Cristiano; Colombelli Alessandra
  4. Geography and the Determinants of Firm Exports in Indonesia By Farole, Thomas; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Tselios, Vassilis; Winkler, Deborah
  5. Towards an Efficient Use of R&D – Accounting for Heterogeneity in the OECD By Cullmann, Astrid; Zloczysti, Petra
  6. Promoting Successful Graduate Entrepreneurship at the University of Applied Sciences Schmalkalden, Germany By Andrea-Rosalinde Hofer; Jonathan Potter; Dana Redford; Jakob Stolt
  7. The Division of Policy Research and Analysis at the National Science Foundation: Its Support of Research on the Returns to R&D By Hall, Michael J.; Layson, Stephen K.; Link, Albert N.
  8. Promoting Successful Graduate Entrepreneurship at the Technical University Ilmenau, Germany By Andrea-Rosalinde Hofer; Jonathan Potter; Dana Redford; Jakob Stolt
  9. Learning from Entrepreneurial Projects: A Typology By L Oerlemans; R M Bakker; P Kenis; J K Vermunt
  10. Determinants of international technology transfer: an empirical analysis of the Enterprise Europe Network By Ana Carina Araújo; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
  11. Intermediate input markets, ICT and innovation in Germany: A firm level analysis By Cerquera, Daniel; Klein, Gordon J.
  12. Corporate governance in newly listed companies By Audretsch, David B.; Lehmann, Erik E.
  13. A Study on the Creation of Collaborative Organizations and Collaborative Capabilities among Top Managers of Small-and Medium-sized Manufacturers (Japanese) By INAGAKI Kyosuke
  14. Productivity Growth and Convergence: Portugal in the EU 1986-2009 By Adelaide Duarte; Marta Simões; João Sousa Andrade
  15. Market Power and Industrial Performance in Pakistan By Akbar Ullah; Ejaz Ghani; Attiya Y. Javed
  16. Competition and Growth: Reinterpreting their Relationship By Daria Onori
  17. The Internationalization Process of Firms: from Exports to FDI By Conconi, Paola; Sapir, André; Zanardi, Maurizio
  18. Introducing the University of Applied Science in the technology transfer process By Lehmann, Erik E.; Starnecker, Alexander
  19. How does FDI affect corporate tax revenue of the host country? By Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen; Manh Hung Nguyen; Aditya Goenka
  20. Skill Structure and Technology Structure: Innovation and Growth Implications By Pedro Mazeda Gil; Oscar Afonso; Paulo Brito
  21. Location factors of export-platform foreign direct investment: Evidence from Vietnam By Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen; Med Kechidi; Alexandre Minda
  22. Drivers of Firm Growth: Micro-evidence from Indian Manufacturing By Nanditha Mathew
  23. Girls will be Girls: An Experimental Study on Female Entrepreneurship By Artinger, Sabrina; Schade, Christian
  24. The efect on firms' Productivity of accessibility. The Spanish manufacturung sector By David, Martín-Barroso; Juan Andres, Nuñez; Francisco J., Velazquez

  1. By: Liliana Araújo (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Sandra T. Silva (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Aurora A.C. Teixeira (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto; INESC Porto, OBEGEF)
    Abstract: Extensive literature on the contribution of knowledge spillovers to growth and development at the regional level exists but these studies mainly features regions characterised by a high level of economic development. This paper assesses the importance of knowledge spillovers for firms located in relatively small, peripheral and economically depressed areas. Based on both primary (direct surveys to 257 firms) and secondary data, we concluded that the more relevant knowledge spillovers for firms located in a depressed region of northern Portugal (Vale do Ave) are inter-regional and international. This suggests that the contacts established with sources of knowledge from outside the region under analysis and abroad are crucial for the performance of firms. Despite the innovative intra-industry environment impacts positively on the economic performance of firms, our results convey that in such peripheral and depressed region geographical proximity is not critical for the firms’ economic performance.
    Keywords: Depressed areas; Evolutionary Economic Geography; Knowledge Spillovers, Innovation.
    JEL: R11 B52 D80 O3
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Becker, Sascha O.; Hvide, Hans K
    Abstract: In the large literature on firm performance, economists have given little attention to entrepreneurs. We use deaths of more than 500 entrepreneurs as a source of exogenous variation, and ask whether this variation can explain shifts in firm performance. Using longitudinal data, we find large and sustained effects of entrepreneurs at all levels of the performance distribution. Entrepreneurs strongly affect firm growth patterns of both very young firms and for firms that have begun to mature. We do not find significant differences between small and larger firms, family and non-family firms, nor between firms located in urban and rural areas, but we do find stronger effects for founders with high human capital. Overall, the results suggest that an often overlooked factor -- individual entrepreneurs -- plays a large role in affecting firm performance.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; firm performance; human capital
    JEL: D21 D24 G39 J23 L11 L25
    Date: 2013–01
  3. By: Antonelli Cristiano; Colombelli Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of external knowledge and internal stocks of knowledge in the generation of new technological knowledge. It relies on the notion of recombination and brings together three concepts: the appreciation of current expenses in R&D activities; the analysis of the role of the stock of knowledge composition; the identification of the role of external knowledge available in the regional proximity. The empirical section is based upon a panel of companies listed on the main European financial markets for the period 1995–2006. The econometric analysis considers patents as a measure of the knowledge out put and, on the right hand side, next to R&D expenditures, the stock of knowledge internal and external to each firm. The results confirm that the stock of internal knowledge and the access to external knowledge play a key role in assessing the actual capability of each firm to generate new knowledge.
    Date: 2013–02
  4. By: Farole, Thomas; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Tselios, Vassilis; Winkler, Deborah
    Abstract: This paper uses data from the Indonesian manufacturing census in order to uncover the determinants of firm exports over the period 1990-2005. We examine to what extent differences in firm export propensity and intensity are a consequence of firm-level (microeconomic), of place-based (macroeconomic) first- and second-nature geography characteristics, or of a combination of the two. The results indicate that both internal and external factors matter. Second-nature, rather than first-nature, geography makes an important difference. The conditions of a firm’s province and those of neighboring provinces shape firm exports. Agglomeration effects, education and transport infrastructure endowment play a particularly relevant role in Indonesian firms’ export propensity, while export spillovers increase export intensity.
    Keywords: Asia; Export intensity; Export propensity; Geography; Indonesia; Macro-factors; Micro-factors
    JEL: F1 F2 R1
    Date: 2013–02
  5. By: Cullmann, Astrid; Zloczysti, Petra
    Abstract: Expenditures devoted to research and development (R&D) are scarce and thus need to be used as efficiently as possible given the financial constraints countries are facing. This paper assesses the relative efficiency of R&D expenditures for 26 OECD member countries and 2 non-member countries. As countries differ in their national innovation systems and states of economic development and industrialization, e.g. transition economies in Eastern Europe vs. Asian countries vs. Anglo-Saxon countries, the measurement of R&D efficiency needs to consider differences in the technology of knowledge production. The existing empirical literature on R&D efficiency mainly builds on a homogeneous technology frontier neglecting the importance to account for country-specific heterogeneity. This paper models technological differences in knowledge production among countries using a stochastic frontier model for panel data. Applying a latent class model for SFA, we find empirical evidence for two technological classes, a `capital-intensive' and a `labor-intensive' one. Assuming a common knowledge production technology, as has been done so far in the empirical literature, thus results in biased efficiency estimates.
    Keywords: innovation; knowledge production function; latent classes; R&D efficiency; stochastic frontier analysis
    JEL: C40 O31 O57
    Date: 2013–02
  6. By: Andrea-Rosalinde Hofer; Jonathan Potter; Dana Redford; Jakob Stolt
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of a review of current strategies and practices in entrepreneurship support provision at the University of Applied Sciences Schmalkalden. The report also presents a selection of international learning models with the aim of providing inspiration for new approaches at the University of Applied Sciences Schmalkalden. The following questions have been investigated: What are current strategies and practices in university entrepreneurship support? How accessible is entrepreneurship support for students and graduates? How well is the university entrepreneurship support integrated into the wider local entrepreneurship support system? The report presents achievements and challenges in light of the above questions and advances recommendations for future action.
    Date: 2013–04–03
  7. By: Hall, Michael J. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Layson, Stephen K. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The U.S. National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Division of Policy Research and Analysis (PRA) supported academic research related to, among many other things, measurement of the returns to private and public R&D, during the early 1980s. The findings from this body of research became a foundation for a number of technology and innovation policies promulgated in the aftermath of the U.S. productivity slowdown in the 1970s, and, as we suggest in this paper, a foundation for many contemporary technology and innovation policy initiatives. We argue that there are lessons to be learned from PRA’s successes from its sponsorship of research in this area, and we suggest one possible area of future emphasis for NSF’s on-going Science of Science and Innovation Policy (SciSIP) program.
    Keywords: Division of Policy Research and Analysis; National Science Foundation; Returns to R&D; Technology; Innovation; Science of Science and Innovation Policy
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2013–04–05
  8. By: Andrea-Rosalinde Hofer; Jonathan Potter; Dana Redford; Jakob Stolt
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of a review of current strategies and practices in entrepreneurship support provision at the Technical University Ilmenau. The report also presents a selection of international learning models with the aim of providing inspiration for new approaches at the Technical University Ilmenau.
    Date: 2013–04–03
  9. By: L Oerlemans; R M Bakker; P Kenis; J K Vermunt
    Abstract: This article explores the process of learning from inter-organizational projects by SMEs. We analyse a sample of 1,500 SMEs to empirically develop a typology of different types of projects and conduct an in-depth comparative case study in each of the types. We find that 1) differences between project types influence the degree of project-based learning by SMEs, and 2) the mechanisms by which SMEs learn from projects can be unintentional, haphazard, and resemble learning by bricolage. These findings lead us to question the deliberate and pro-active nature of organizational learning that has been central to recent theory development.
    Date: 2013–03–04
  10. By: Ana Carina Araújo (AdI – Portuguese Innovation Agency); Aurora A.C. Teixeira (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto; INESC Porto; OBEGEF)
    Abstract: Given that science and technology are inductors of economic development, the emergence of a knowledge-based economy creates an overlay of communications and expectations that have led to institutional restructuring based on innovative capacities. While the literature tends to concentrate on university-industry relations, this paper intends go a step further, by exploring the university-industry-government relations established in a technology transfer context. Particular attention is paid to the key factors that foster technology transfer within the triad university-industry-government in an international context, i.e., the Enterprise Europe Network (EEN). Based on 71 technological Partnership Agreements (PAs), estimation results indicate that PAs associated to partners that provide their collaborators with the appropriate training in technology transfer-related issues, present substantial past experience in international or technological projects, and participate in extensive networks, are those that achieve better performances in terms of international technology transfer. In contrast, and quite surprisingly, the EEN’s human capital endowments and absorptive capacity act as barriers to international technology transfer. A deeper analysis into this latter finding shows that high levels of formal schooling per se are not a key determinant of international technology transfer; indeed, the critical factor is instead highly educated human resources who receive complementary training in technology transfer issues.
    Keywords: International technology transfer; Triple Helix; Enterprise Europe Network
    JEL: O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2013–01
  11. By: Cerquera, Daniel; Klein, Gordon J.
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of the adoption of ICT on the economic performance at the firm level, considering explicitly the interaction of adopting firms within the intermediate input market in Germany. The paper identifies and quantifies the importance of adoption externalities and knowledge spillovers inherent in the introduction of ICT. The results show that the adoption of ICT at the firm level is positively affected by the use of ICT downstream and upstream (i.e. by a firm's clients and suppliers). Moreover, the use of ICT upstream(i.e. by a firm's suppliers) negatively affects the extend of IT outsourcing at the firm level, suggesting a substitution effect between inputs provided by suppliers with an intense use of ICT and a firm's demand for external IT services. The paper also finds that the use of ICT within the intermediate input markets positively affects the efficiency of internal processes by increasing the cost reductions generated by the introduction of process innovations. --
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies,General Purpose Technologies,Intermediate Input Markets,Innovation,Firm Level Data
    JEL: D22 L25 O32
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Audretsch, David B.; Lehmann, Erik E.
    Abstract: Topics in corporate governance have been around in the literature almost for a century, most of the theoretical and empirical work has focused on the large and public company. While this research has improved our understanding of how large corporations are governed, corporate governance in small and medium sized enterprises and in particular in entrepreneurial and newly listed firms has rarely been studied. This essay offers a reflective overview of corporate governance mechanisms in entrepreneurial and newly listed companies and of why and how governance mechanisms differ from those in large and publicly traded corporations. In contrast to the traditional approach in corporate governance, we do not rely on the agency perspective as a work-horse to analyze governance problems. Instead we focus on either market or institutional based mechanisms in corporate governance. This opens the view on governance problems in newly listed companies outside the narrow view of either an agency or free-market perspective. Instead, the following study tries to bridge the different perspectives on corporate governance. From the broad set of mechanisms in corporate governance discussed in the literature, we focus only on a small subset which is prevalent in newly listed companies like the product and capital market, the market for corporate control, boards of directors and capital structures. --
    Date: 2013
  13. By: INAGAKI Kyosuke
    Abstract: This paper attempts to show what kinds of collaborative organizational structures have been formed and managed by top managers of small- and medium-sized manufacturers and how they have acquired the capabilities to build inter-organizational collaborative relationships, using descriptive data on three top managers' behavioral practices. In particular, it focuses on the process of how emerging collaborative relations are organized into an organizational structure. Specifically, two different types of organizational structures—i.e., collaborative communities and project teams as sub-organizations within such communities—are examined.<br />Based on the three top managers' descriptive accounts of their collaborative behavior, the paper classifies the collaborative communities further into the following three different organizational types: managerial organization, value sharing/mutual learning organizations, and e businesses-initiating organizations. Then it discusses how the top managers have acquired capabilities to form and manage their respective collaborative communities, examining how they mobilized collaborative members and institutionalized collaboration in the process of forming each type of community as well as what roles the "coordinating function" (to be defined later) plays in organizing and managing project teams.
    Date: 2013–03
  14. By: Adelaide Duarte (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal); Marta Simões (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal); João Sousa Andrade (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)
    Abstract: The Portuguese growth and convergence experience after EU membership can be divided into two periods: 1986-1998, a convergence period during which growth in the Portuguese economy accelerated and Portugal grew faster than the EU14 average; and a stagnation/divergence period from 1999 onwards when its growth rate slowed down to figures lower than the reference group average. Differences among developed countries in terms of output levels and growth are mainly explained by differences in productivity, with Portugal falling behind relative to the EU14 in recent years as far as the former are concerned. In order to better understand the causes for the changes in the growth and convergence rhythm of the Portuguese economy after EU accession this paper analyses productivity growth in a panel of 14 European Union countries over the period 1986-2009. We estimate an empirical model where innovation and imitation provide two potential sources of productivity growth for countries behind the technological frontier, as is the case of Portugal, and those activities are in turn influenced by absorptive capacity and structural and institutional characteristics as well as capital accumulation. The results from the estimation of TFP growth regressions with quantile regression techniques reveal that, for lower rates of productivity growth, an increase of the non-tradables sector share is especially harmful, while the positive influence from technological backwardness and innovation activities are felt less strongly, while the positive influence from capital accumulation is felt more strongly. These results raise strong concerns concerning Portugal’s future growth prospects given its current specialization pattern towards traditional personal services and the country’s still considerable distance from the technological frontier and relatively low innovative intensity.
    Keywords: productivity growth, innovation, imitation, Portugal, EU.
    JEL: C23 O47 O52
    Date: 2013–02
  15. By: Akbar Ullah (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad); Ejaz Ghani (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad); Attiya Y. Javed (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: Using a panel of eight Pakistani manufacturing industries, we have examined the changes in price-cost margin (gross profitability) during 1998- 2009. In this study the traditional industrial organization approach of Structure- Performance has been applied to analyse the effects of concentration and import intensity on price-cost margins. It has been found that market concentration measured by four-firm concentration leads to high price-cost margin. Imports have the tendency to make the domestic firms more competitive, but their effect on more-concentrated firms is smaller as compared to non-concentrated firms. The minimum efficient scale and assets of industry have positive effects on margins while capital intensity has been found to reduce gross profitability.
    Keywords: Price-Cost Margin, Concentration, Manufacturing, Pakistan
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Daria Onori (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS; Université catholique de Louvain, IRES; University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Departement of Economics and Law, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we modify a standard quality ladder model by assuming that R&D is driven by outsider firms and the winners of the race sell licenses over their patents, instead of entering directly the intermediate good sector. As a reward they get the aggregate profit of the industry. Moreover, in the intermediate good sector firms compete à la Cournot and it is assumed that there are spillovers represented by strategic complementarities on costs. We prove that there exists an interval of values of the spillover parameter such that the relationship between competition and growth is an inverted-U-shape.
    Keywords: quality ladder; Cournot oligopoly; strategic complementarities; competition
    JEL: L13 L16 O31 O52
    Date: 2013–04–02
  17. By: Conconi, Paola; Sapir, André; Zanardi, Maurizio
    Abstract: This paper shows that uncertainty can lead firms to follow a gradual internationalization process. We describe a model in which firms are uncertain about their ability to earn profits in a foreign market and must decide whether or not to serve it, and whether to do so through exports or foreign affiliate sales. We show that a firm may first test the foreign market via exports, before engaging in foreign direct investment (FDI). To assess the evidence, we exploit a unique dataset of firm-level exports and FDI in individual destination countries, covering all Belgian companies over the 1998-2008 period. We show that a firm’s FDI entry in a foreign market is almost always preceded by its export entry. More uncertain foreign market conditions lead new exporters to delay FDI entry decisions. Our analysis suggests that exports and FDI, although substitutes from a static perspective, may be complements over time, since the knowledge acquired through export experimentation can lead firms to start investing abroad.
    Keywords: experimentation; exports; FDI; uncertainty
    JEL: D21 F10 F13
    Date: 2013–02
  18. By: Lehmann, Erik E.; Starnecker, Alexander
    Abstract: After WWII, the German Economy increased rapidly, often described as the Deutsche Wirtschaftswunder. Within a short period, Germany reached the status of unemployment and human capital gets the critical factor and resource in shaping economic growth. While the bottle neck with blue collar workers was solved by an active immigration policy by attracting people from Italy, Turkey or Greece, the lack of white collar workers and engineers still remained. Public universities at this time weren't still unable to provide the quantity of well-educated people in particular in the natural sciences. In particular the high opportunity costs of time made public universities less attractive compared to an early carrier within the industry. In the mid of the 1960s the German government decided to adapt a well-known concept from the theory of the firm - division of labor to provide high skilled employees. A new type of university was created, the so called Universities of Applied Sciences. Public Universities are focused on basic research, while Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) provide the economy with applied research and education. While the time spend at public universities often exceeded a couple of years before getting graded, the study program at UAS was mainly limited to 3 years (6 semesters). After the Bologna Reform, Bachelor and Master programs of UAS and public universities are treated equally. In the last decade, this division of labor between UAS and public universities was mainly focused on an additional way, the role of each type of university within the technology transfer process. While the role of public universities and their role within the technology transfer processes is intensively studied (Hülsbeck, Lehmann & Starnecker, 2012) the impact of UAS remains rather under researched. Although they are quite successful in their cooperation with the industry and are nevertheless a bone back in the university-industry relationships, there exists almost anecdotal evidence on this type of universities. This paper tries to shed some lights on this type of universities which could be a role model in particular for countries and regions where small and medium sized firms dominate the industrial landscape. --
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen (Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne); Manh Hung Nguyen (Toulouse School of Economics (LERNA-INRA), Hanoi WRU); Aditya Goenka (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the welfare of the host country through the process of corporate tax rate determination. Based on a theoretical model that allows for the entry of heterogenous multinational firms, we show that the impact of FDI on government revenue will depend on the competition effect and the technological spillovers. We argue that the competition effect reduces production of domestic firms and thereby lowers the level of corporate tax revenue while the technological spillovers can have positive or negative welfare effects depending on the absorptive capacity of local firms. The degree to which FDI contribute to government revenue in the host country depends also on the demand creation effect and technological transfer cost.
    Keywords: FDI, corporate tax revenue
    JEL: F15 F23
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Pedro Mazeda Gil (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Oscar Afonso (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Paulo Brito (ISEG, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa)
    Abstract: This paper builds an endogenous growth model of directed technical change with vertical and horizontal R&D and scale effects at the industry level to study an analytical mechanism that is consistent with the observed cross-country pattern in the skill structure, the technology structure and economic growth. We calibrate the model in order to uncover the effect of the skill structure on economic growth by studying how the former affects the technology structure. We find that the small positive elasticity of the economic growth rate regarding the ratio of high- to low-skilled workers that is empirically observed is explained by the combination of moderate levels of the market complexity costs related to vertical R&D and high entry costs in the high- vis-à-vis the low-tech sectors, which dampen the positive direct effect of the absolute productivity advantage of the high-skilled workers on growth
    Keywords: high-tech, low-tech, scale effects, skills, directed technical change
    JEL: O41 O31
    Date: 2012–09
  21. By: Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen (EPEE, Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne); Med Kechidi (LEREPS, Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Alexandre Minda (LEREPS, Université Toulouse 1 Capitole)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the export-platform foreign direct investment as a strategic behavior of multinational firms. First, we use a three-country model to identify the main location factors of this investment. These factors are relative labor cost between the host country and the home country and/or the third country, technological transfer cost of host country, intra-regional transport cost and the market size of third country. Particularly, this kind of investment is preferred rather than other entry modes, if and only if, the third market size is high enough. Second, the model is tested for export oriented industries in Vietnam. The integration of the Vietnamese economy into regional or international markets has a positive impact on the choice of export-platform foreign direct investment strategy. In particular, in this country, the first motivation is to access to large markets (ASEAN, U.S., European Union). Other motivations concern low cost of technological transfer and real exchange rate.
    Keywords: Export-platform foreign direct investment, location factors, three-country model, multinational firm, Vietnam
    JEL: F15 F16 F23
    Date: 2013–03
  22. By: Nanditha Mathew
    Abstract: The paper presents micro evidence on firm dynamics for enterprises in Indian Manufacturing sectors on the grounds of Prowess database provided by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) covering the period 1991-2010. The parameterization of the distributions of growth exhibit high level heterogeneity displayed among firms even within the same sector, which widens over time. The transition probabilities matrix reveals the coexistence of firms with very different characteristics and performance within sectors. Given the wide heterogeneities, the paper resorts to quantile regression to identify the differential effect of regressors at different deciles of the conditional distribution.
    Keywords: Firm Dynamics, AEP Distribution, Heterogeneity, Quantile Regression.
    JEL: C14 D22 L10 L25 L60
    Date: 2013–03–01
  23. By: Artinger, Sabrina; Schade, Christian
    Abstract: We experimentally investigate gender- and occupation-specific differences in market entry behavior and test whether female entrepreneurs are more willing to take strategic risk and engage in competition than other women. To facilitate strategic thinking, we induce asymmetric gain and loss experiences. We find that female entrepreneurs react to own gains and losses like other women and to opponents’ experiences like male entrepreneurs. Overall entry of female entrepreneurs is much lower than that of male entrepreneurs and does not differ from other women indicating that also female entrepreneurs dislike strategic competition. Risk aversion does not to account for this finding.
    Keywords: gender differences, entrepreneurship, occupational choice, gain and loss experiences, Labor and Human Capital, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession, D03, L26,
    Date: 2013–01
  24. By: David, Martín-Barroso; Juan Andres, Nuñez; Francisco J., Velazquez
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of accessibility on the productivity of Spanish manufacturing firms. We suggest the use of accessibility indicators to workers and commodities, integrating transport, land use, and individual components in their measurement, and computing real distances or travelling times using the Spanish full road network. The estimation is carried out in two steps. In the first one we estimate almost a hundred production functions using a panel of 155,937 firms along the 1999-2009 period from SABI database, applying Levinsohn and Petrin technique. From these estimations we derive the Total Factor Productivity function for year 2009, which is then explained in the second estimation step as a function of the accessibility indicators and additional control variables. Results evidence the crucial role of the accessibility to commodities, and a lesser but significant effect of workers’ accessibility on firms’ productivity.
    Keywords: Accessibility, Firm Productivity, Transport Infrastructures.
    JEL: D24 R12 R40
    Date: 2013–04–04

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