nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2013‒03‒16
twenty-six papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Are large innovative firms more efficient? By Sánchez, Rosario/R; Diaz, M. Angeles
  2. Are ICT, Workplace Organization and Human Capital Relevant for Innovation? A Comparative Study Based on Swiss and Greek Micro Data By Spyros Arvanitis; Euripidis N. Loukis; Vasiliki Diamantopoulou
  3. Heterogeneity of innovative, collaborative, and productive firm-level processes. By Amoroso, S.
  4. Understanding Innovation in Production Networks in East Asia By Wignaraja, Ganeshan
  5. International R&D Spillovers: Technology Transfer vs. R&D Synergies By Alistair Dieppe; Jan Mutl
  6. Firms' innovation capability-building paths and the nature of changes in learning mechanisms: Multiple case-study evidence from an emerging economy By Figueiredo, Paulo N.; Cohen, Marcela; Gomes, Saulo
  7. The dynamic linkages among exports, R&D and productivity By Juan A. Máñez; María E. Rochina-Barrachina; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  8. How innovative is Georgian economy? By Aslamazishvili, Nana
  9. Effects of R&D spending on Innovation by Irish and Foreign-owned Businesses By Doran, Justin; Jordan, Declan; O'Leary, Eoin
  10. Constraints in Organizational Learning, Cognitive Load and it’s Effect on Employee Behavior By Chatterjee, Sidharta
  11. The Governance of Knowledge By Evers, Hans-Dieter
  12. Corporate governance, value and performance of firms: New empirical results on convergence from a large international database By Jackie Krafft; Yiping Qu; Francesco Quatraro; Jacques-Laurent Ravix
  13. Impact of the Euro 2012 on the Pomeranian Region and Its Small and Medium Enterprises in Terms of Competitiveness By Zawadzki, Krystian; Wasilczuk, Julita
  14. Growth Options and Firm Valuation By Holger Kraft; Eduardo S. Schwartz; Farina Weiss
  15. Are Emerging Market Multinationals Milking Their Cross Border Acquisition Targets? A Study of Inbound Japanese and Korean M&As By Ralf Bebenroth; Martin Hemmert
  16. The structure and the determinants of the trade of SME products By Sawako Maruyama
  17. Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Economic Dynamism: Lessons from a Comparison of the United States and Sweden By Braunerhjelm, Pontus; Henrekson, Magnus
  18. Innovation and productivity: evidence for 4 Latin American countries manufacturing industry By M. Constanza Demmel; Juan A. Máñez; María E. Rochina-Barrachina; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  19. Export performance and product market regulation By Bruno Amable; Ivan Ledezma
  20. Why firms relocate their production overseas? The answer lies inside: corporate, logistic and technological determinants By Jesús F. Lampón; Pablo Cabanelas-Lorenzo; Santiago Lago-Peñas
  21. The Discriminatory Effect of Domestic Regulations on International Trade in Services: Evidence from Firm-Level Data. By Matthieu Crozet; Emmanuel Milet; Daniel Mirza
  22. The differential role of social networks: Strategies and routes in Brazilian migration to Portugal and the Netherlands By Masja van Meeteren; Sonia Pereira
  23. Cross-Regional Comparison of Trade Integration: The Case of Services By Hamanaka, Shintaro
  24. Spillovers from Foreign Exporters By Anna Bohnstedt
  25. Sequential R&D and Blocking Patents in the Dynamics of Growth By Cozzi, Guido; Galli, Silvia
  26. International Productivity Gaps and the Export Status of Firms: Evidence from France and Japan By Flora BELLONE; KIYOTA Kozo; MATSUURA Toshiyuki; Patrick MUSSO; Lionel NESTA

  1. By: Sánchez, Rosario/R; Diaz, M. Angeles
    Abstract: One of the characteristics of the Spanish economy is the high percentage of small and medium-sized firms. Size is one of the factors that condition the managerial organization of the firms and their efficiency and productivity. Moreover size has been found a highly significant variable in explaining differences in firm’s innovative activities and the returns of R&D expenditures, and it is a well-established connection between productivity and innovative activities. This paper analyses the relationship between innovative activities and size and their effect over firms’ technical efficiency and then over their productivity. We also take into account other variables that could affect the relationship between productivity and innovative activities: industrial sector, market structure, or firms’ financial conditions. The analysis could help to design political economic measures to encourage small firms’ innovation and then contribute to improve their competitiveness. We use a micro panel data set of Spanish manufacturing firms, during the period 2004–2009, to simultaneously estimate a stochastic frontier production function and the inefficiency determinants. The data source is published in the Spanish Industrial Survey on Business Strategies (Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales, ESEE), collected by the Fundación SEPI. Our preliminary results show that innovative firms are more efficient than non-innovative firms; and that small and medium-sized firms’ tent to be more efficient than large firms are.
    Keywords: small firms, technical efficiency, innovative activities.
    JEL: C23 J21 L60
    Date: 2013–02–25
  2. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Euripidis N. Loukis (University of the Aegean, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Greece); Vasiliki Diamantopoulou (University of the Aegean, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Greece)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between indicators for the intensity of use of ICT (examining three different types of ICT widely used in firms: internal, e-sales, e-procurement IS), several forms of workplace organization, and human capital on one hand, and several measures of innovation performance at firm level on the other hand, in an innovation equation framework, in which was also controlled for standard innovation determinants such as demand, competition and firm size. The empirical part is based on data of Swiss and Greek firms. This paper contributes to literature in three ways: first, it analyzes three important factors, i.e. information technology, workplace organization and human capital, which are considered to be drivers of innovation performance particularly in the last fifteen to twenty years, in the same setting, it uses several innovation indicators that cover both the input and the output side of the innovation process and, third, it does the analysis in a comparative setting for two countries, Greece and Switzerland, with quite different levels of technological and economic development.
    Keywords: ICT, workplace organization, product innovation, process innovation
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2013–03
  3. By: Amoroso, S. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: This thesis addresses a set of interrelated topics that contribute to both structural and empirical fields of the economics of innovation. First, we consider the role of imperfect competition in product and labor markets in shaping the productivity of a firm. Second, we model and evaluate the expected correlations present among firms' R&D cooperative choices due to both firm- and sector-level heterogeneity. In the last study, we develop and estimate a structural dynamic monopoly model to quantify the linkages between R&D spending, cooperation, and innovation investment choices, and endogenous productivity.
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Wignaraja, Ganeshan (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper explores the “black box” of innovation in the electronics production network in East Asia through a mapping exercise of technological capabilities and an econometric analysis of exporting in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Thailand, and the Philippines. Technology-based approaches to trade offer a plausible explanation for firm-level exporting behavior and complement the literature on production networks. The econometric results confirm the importance of foreign ownership and innovation in increasing the probability of exporting in electronics. Higher levels of skills, managers’ education, and capital also matter in the PRC as well as accumulated experience in Thailand. Furthermore, a technology index composed of technical functions performed by firms (to represent technological capabilities) emerges as a more robust indicator of innovation than the research and development (R&D) to sales ratio. Accordingly, technological effort in electronics in these countries mostly focuses on assimilating and using imported technologies rather than formal R&D by specialized engineers.
    Keywords: production networks; foreign direct investment; innovation; technological capabilities; r&d; exports; east asia; prc; thailand; philippines
    JEL: F23 L63 O31 O32 O57
    Date: 2013–03–03
  5. By: Alistair Dieppe (European Central Bank); Jan Mutl (European Business School)
    Abstract: We estimate a model of international technological spillovers that allows for both international and inter-sectoral technology transfer, as well as international and intersectoral synergies in research and development (R&D). Furthermore we allow for a dynamic interaction in explaining total factor productivity (TFP). Relative to the existing literature, our model enables us make a judgment on the relative importance of the channels of international technology transmission. We find that direct technology transfer is positive while there are negative R&D spillovers. However, since R&D is found to positively affect TFP in own sector, the model implies that after accounting for both R&D and TFP spillovers, there is a total positive impact of R&D on TFP in the same sector while the overall impact of R&D on TFP in other sectors and countries is negative. Our results indicate that, by not distinguishing among different channels of transmission, some models previously estimated in the literature may suffer from omitted variable bias. JEL Classification: C21, C23, D24, O30
    Keywords: TFP, Total Factor Productivity, R&D, Research and Development, International Spillovers, Technology Transfer
    Date: 2013–01
  6. By: Figueiredo, Paulo N. (Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration, Getulio Vargas Foundation); Cohen, Marcela (Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration, Getulio Vargas Foundation); Gomes, Saulo (Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration, Getulio Vargas Foundation)
    Abstract: Although much has been written about organizational-level learning, there is a dearth of empirical studies that explore the role of changes in the nature of firm-centred learning mechanisms in affecting inter-firm differences and similarities in the accumulation of innovation capabilities, especially among firms from emerging economies, known as latecomers. By examining the relationships between these issues based on fieldwork evidence from 13 natural resource-processing firms in Brazil (1950-2000s), this study found that: (1) firms that combined the use of external and internal learning mechanisms with increased intensity and quality achieved higher innovation capability levels than firms that used these learning mechanisms with limited frequency and unchanged quality over time; (2) the relative importance of both external and internal learning mechanisms changed as firms' capabilities approached world-leading levels; (3) some combinations of external and internal learning mechanisms were associated with the attainment of particular innovation capability levels. Therefore, if latecomer firms expend limited efforts in using and deliberately changing the intensity and, mainly, the quality of both external and internal learning mechanisms over time, they will deepen their innovation capabilities slowly and will remain innovation 'followers' rather than becoming world-leading innovators. Using a novel approach that explores the relationship between latecomer firms' innovation capability-building and the extent of changes in the underlying learning mechanisms, this paper furthers our understanding of the nature and dynamics of learning and its role as a primary source of firms' international innovation performance. It also challenges recent approaches that seem to over emphasize open learning processes and post-Chandlerian forms of learning as the leading sources of firms' innovation capabilities.
    Keywords: Innovation capability building, learning mechanisms, latecomer firms, natural resources, multiple case-study, Brazil
    JEL: O12 O32 O33 M10 Q20
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Juan A. Máñez (University of Valencia and ERICES); María E. Rochina-Barrachina (University of Valencia and ERICES); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (University of Valencia and ERICES)
    Abstract: This paper estimates a dynamic model of a firm’s decision to export and invest in R&D, in which we allow past export and R&D experience to endogenously affect productivity. In our empirical strategy we proceed in two steps: in the first step, using as starting point the traditional control approach method to estimate total factor productivity, we consider a more general process driving the law of motion of productivity in which we recognise the potential role that export and R&D experience might have in shaping future firms’ productivity, and test whether this assumption holds; in the second step, we estimate a bivariate dynamic model of the firm’s decision to invest in R&D and export, in which we analyse the linkages among investing in R&D, exporting and productivity. Using a representative sample of Spanish manufacturing firms for the period 1990- 2009 we find that both export and R&D positively affect future productivity, which will drive more firms to self-select in those activities.
    Keywords: export experience, R&D experience, endogenous Markov, Total Factor Productivity, learning-by-exporting, returns to innovation, GMM, dynamic bivariate probit
    Date: 2013–03
  8. By: Aslamazishvili, Nana
    Abstract: In the present-day reality, research and innovation undoubtedly deserve promotion and encouragement, without which the advance and development of any national economy is unimaginable. This paper surveys the studies on Global Competitiveness and Innovations issues carried out by the international organizations. The objective of the article is to stimulate the discussion among the policymakers in Georgia on the best strategies and policies to help country to overcome the obstacles to improving competitiveness.
    Keywords: global competitiveness, global competitiveness index, innovations, innovative technologies, lower-middle income countries, R&D, SMEs, statistics
    JEL: E66 G21 G28 H50 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2013–01
  9. By: Doran, Justin; Jordan, Declan; O'Leary, Eoin
    Abstract: This paper estimates the private returns to four different kinds of R&D spending on the probability of Irish and foreign-owned businesses engaging in product, process and organizational innovation. By providing econometric analysis of nearly 2000 businesses in the Community Innovation Survey: 2004 to 2006, it makes an important contribution to our understanding of the effects of Irish innovation policy, which has incentivized businesses to spend on R&D in Ireland. The main findings are that Irish owned businesses are significantly more likely than foreign-owned to introduce new products as a result of creative R&D work undertaken. Foreign-owned businesses, which spend nearly 6 times more per worker on R&D than Irish-owned, enjoy very high returns mostly from the purchase or licence of patents. This reflects a fundamental difference in the innovation activities of these businesses, which is critical for policymakers’ understanding of the Irish innovation system.
    Keywords: Innovation Policy; Innovation Output; Research & Development
    JEL: O31 R19
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Chatterjee, Sidharta
    Abstract: Traditionally, learning organizations face certain constraints related to both exogenous and endogenous factors. In this paper, I model three well established constraints that employees face while being part of their organizations. These are in the tune of constraints on their natural behavior which is explicit, and two implicit constraints on their endeavor to acquire new knowledge and perform new actions. The implicit constraints which are elaborated, is related to their relative performance in acquiring new knowledge and by their consecutive actions based on the new knowledge gained. This paper, so forth, attempts to underline such limitations which the agents face under organizational culture and suggest possible strategic initiatives that would effectively counteract such binding limitations to stimulate positive performances from their end.
    Keywords: Organizational learning, constraints, employee behavior, cognitive load, knowledge, organizational adaptation
    JEL: L20 M14 M51
    Date: 2013–01–11
  11. By: Evers, Hans-Dieter
    Abstract: Knowledge has been defined as a major resource for development. Especially countries without natural resources have found this idea attractive and have embarked on development strategies to develop a knowledge-based economy. In doing so they may fall into a “knowledge trap”. The paper postulates an “epistemic backlash”, because an increase of knowledge leads to an even greater increase of ignorance, which is accompanied by an increase of risk and an increase of necessary research funds for the next stage of development. A shortage of high-level manpower is likely to occur, which will reduce the chances for further knowledge-based development. A careful governance of knowledge is needed to avoid the “knowledge trap”. Five knowledge strategies are discussed: developing an ICT infrastructure, creating knowledge-clusters, creating knowledge-hubs and centres of excellence and creating comparative advantages through the use of local knowledge. Examples are drawn and data presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
    Keywords: knowlegde governance, knowledge and development, knowledge management, develoment, policy, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore
    JEL: O1 O2 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2013–02–06
  12. By: Jackie Krafft (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Yiping Qu (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Jacques-Laurent Ravix (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS))
    Abstract: This paper aims to revisit the link between corporate governance, value, and firm performance by focusing on convergence, understood as the way that non-US firms are adopting US best practice in terms of corporate governance, and the implications of this adoption. We examine theoretical questions related to conventional models (agency theory, transaction cost economics, new property rights theory),which tend to suggest rational adoption of best practice, and contributions that alternatively consider country- and firm-level differences as possible barriers to convergence. We contribute to the empirical literature by using a large international database to show how non-US firms' adoption of US best practice is having an impact on performance.
    Keywords: Corporate governance; governance metrics, ratings, rankings and scoring; firm value; firm performance
    Date: 2013–02–09
  13. By: Zawadzki, Krystian; Wasilczuk, Julita
    Abstract: In the course of preparations to the 2012 European Football Championship (Euro 2012) many doubts have arisen as to the actual cost-benefit balance affecting the hosting country. The event is accompanied by intense promotion of the agglomeration and the region, especially abroad. In effect, one can anticipate the competitive position of both the region and the businesses operating there to improve. The investigation whether the Euro 2012 will have an impact on the Pomeranian Region was conducted threefold. First, a modified Preuss (2007a) model was used to analyse the regional environment factors, which would contribute to improve competitiveness of the region and its Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). In the second area, the short run increase in business activities were investigated using the field research among the entrepreneurs. The last part of research was focused on the growth willingness of entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Mega Sport Event, Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: D81 R11
    Date: 2013–02–18
  14. By: Holger Kraft; Eduardo S. Schwartz; Farina Weiss
    Abstract: This paper studies the relation between firm value and a firm's growth options. We find strong empirical evidence that (average) Tobin's Q increases with firm-level volatility. However, the significance mainly comes from R&D firms, which have more growth options than non-R&D firms. By decomposing firm-level volatility into its systematic and unsystematic part, we also document that only idiosyncratic volatility (ivol) has a significant effect on valuation. Second, we analyze the relation of stock returns to realized contemporaneous idiosyncratic volatility and R&D expenses. Single sorting according to the size of idiosyncratic volatility, we only find a significant ivol anomaly for non-R&D portfolios, whereas in a four-factor model the portfolio alphas of R&D portfolios are all positive. Double sorting on idiosyncratic volatility and R&D expenses also reveals these differences between R&D and non-R&D firms. To simultaneously control for several explanatory variables, we also run panel regressions of portfolio alphas which confirm the relative importance of idiosyncratic volatility that is amplified by R&D expenses.
    JEL: G12
    Date: 2013–02
  15. By: Ralf Bebenroth (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan); Martin Hemmert (RIEB, Kobe University (Japan) and Department of Economics and Korea University, School of Business (South Korea))
    Abstract: International strategic mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging market multinationals (EMMs) are rapidly gaining importance. Whereas multinational firms from developed countries mostly invest abroad to leverage their existing assets, EMMs tend to seek strategic assets when investing in other countries. We examine the effect of M&As on the performance of acquired firms for 88 inbound M&As in Japan and Korea and find that the post-acquisition performance of Japanese and Korean firms being taken over by EMMs is worse when compared with firms being acquired by developed country multinationals. Our findings thus suggest that firms in Japan and Korea are better off being acquired by developed country multinationals than by EMMs.
    Date: 2013–02
  16. By: Sawako Maruyama (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the structure and the determinants of the trade of products manufactured by small- and medium-sized enterprises. For this purpose, trade database for selected SME-based industries is prepared. Analyzing this database, the following three findings are obtained. First, firms in SME-based industries are facing a large inflow of imported goods, while the volume of their export is relatively small. Secondly, the share of Asian countries in the trade of SME products is larger than overall trade. Thirdly, the gravity model can be applied for the trade of SME products. In some cases, distance and difference of income level tend to be more sensitive for SME products than overall trade. These results are consistent with the labor-intensive characteristics of SME products.
    Keywords: Trade; Gravity model; Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs); Manufacturing
    Date: 2013–03
  17. By: Braunerhjelm, Pontus (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research endeavor—in the form of eight articles—published in this Special Issue of Industrial and Corporate Change is to further our understanding of the extent, character and orientation of entrepreneurial activity in today’s wealthy countries. This is done by means of detailed studies of particular aspects of the rules of the game deemed to be of particular importance for entrepreneurship, innovation-based firm growth and its ensuing impact on the economy. Particular aspects of entrepreneurship and economic dynamism are covered by pairs (or in one case three) coauthors, who are renowned specialists in the area and with deep knowledge of the pertinent institutions in Sweden and the US. These two countries have been argued to be located at either end of the spectrum of the types of capitalism with respect to the degree coordination and government intervention. This introductory essay sets off by giving a short overview of the institutional differences that distinguish these economies, but also stresses that convergence has occurred in the last decades in several respects. Still, as is obvious from the summary of the eight comparative analyses included in this issue, considerable differences remain. These constitute the basis for the concluding policy discussion.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Firm growth; Economic dynamism
    JEL: G28 H30 K30 L26 L53 O43 O57
    Date: 2013–11–20
  18. By: M. Constanza Demmel (Universitat de València and ERI-CES); Juan A. Máñez (Universitat de València and ERI-CES); María E. Rochina-Barrachina (Universitat de València and ERI-CES); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (Universitat de València and ERI-CES)
    Abstract: The literature on firm level productivity in developed countries recognizes the important role played by firm innovation activities on the evolution of firm productivity. However, the literature on this topic for developing and emerging economies is scarcer and far from conclusive. The aim of this paper is to study the innovation-productivity link at the firm level for four Latin American countries (Argentina, Mexico, Colombia and Peru) for the manufacturing sector. The paper distinguishes between different innovations types such as process and product innovations. The data used have been drawn from the World Bank panel Enterprise Surveys, which provides data for these countries for the years 2006 and 2010. Our estimation strategy follows two-steps: first, we estimate TFP measures following De Loecker (2010) approach and Wooldridge (2009) estimation procedure (this allows us to compare results both considering an exogenous or endogenous Markov process for the dynamics of productivity); and, second, we use the estimated TFPs as dependent variables in several models with innovation activities as covariates, in order to disentangle the effects of those variables on the TFP. From our results we confirm that the most productive firms self-select into innovation activities under the endogenous Markov, driven by product innovations, only for Argentina and Mexico. Further, we obtain that there are returns to innovation in terms of productivity for all innovation types, under an exogenous or endogenous Markov process but, again, only for Argentina and Mexico.
    Keywords: innovation types, Total Factor Productivity (TFP), GMM, endogenous Markov
    Date: 2013–03
  19. By: Bruno Amable (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, CEPREMAP - Centre pour la recherche économique et ses applications, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique); Ivan Ledezma (LEDa - Université Paris-Dauphine, IRD - DIAL - UMR 225)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of product market regulation on the propensity to export at the industry level for 13 OECD countries and 13 industries over the 1977-2007 period. Recent economic policy and academic literature insists on the negative effects of product market regulation on productivity or innovation, and hence on "competitiveness", a term that we interpret as the ability to export. Similar to the conclusions of some contributions to a recent literature on competition and growth, the "common sense" is that product market regulation should be detrimantal to competitiveness. Testing through a two-step estimation the impact of upstream pressures of product market regulation on productivity and the effect of the latter on the propensity to export, this paper shows that upstream regulatory pressures have a significantly positive impact on productivity and thereby on the capability of an industry to attract resources and to sell its production in international markets.
    Keywords: Exports; product market regulation; competitiveness
    Date: 2013–02
  20. By: Jesús F. Lampón (REDE & University of Vigo); Pablo Cabanelas-Lorenzo (University of Vigo); Santiago Lago-Peñas (REDE & University of Vigo & IEB)
    Abstract: The paper analyses the drivers of international production relocation using a model built on intra-corporate factors. The results of an empirical research on an original and thorough data base for the Spanish automobile parts sector over the period 2001-2008 show the impact of corporate restructuring strategies on flexibility for transferring resources overseas. In particular, the larger the number of alternative plants in other countries, the greater the operational flexibility and, therefore, the more likely relocation will be. Second, lean supply requirements and technological complexity in the product or process at production plant level are both serious barriers to mobility. Finally, our results confirm that sunk costs are irrelevant in comparison with corporate factors.
    Keywords: International production relocation, corporate strategy, lean supply, technology
    JEL: F2 F23 L2 L23
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Matthieu Crozet (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics,Institut Universitaire de France et CEPII); Emmanuel Milet (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics et CESIfo); Daniel Mirza (Université François Rabelais - GERCIE, CEPII/CIREM et Banque de France)
    Abstract: In order to promote international trade in services, the WTO-GATS aims at progressively eliminating discriminatory regulations, which apply to foreign suppliers, byguaranteeing equal national treatment. This paper looks instead at the trade effect of domestic regulations, which apply to all firms indifferently and do not intend to exclude foreign suppliers. We propose a theory-based empirical test to determine whether or not these domestic regulations affect foreign suppliers more than local ones. We take this test to the data by using French firm-level exports of professional services to OECD countries. Our econometric results show that domestic regulations in the importing markets matter significantly for trade in services. They reduce both the decision to export and the individual exports. These results tend to prove that domestic regulations are de facto discriminatory even if they are not de jure.
    Keywords: Trade in services, Domestic regulations, firm heterogeneity.
    JEL: F1 L8
    Date: 2013–02
  22. By: Masja van Meeteren (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Sonia Pereira (Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, University of Lisbon)
    Abstract: This paper draws on qualitative and quantitative data on the migration experiences of Brazilians living in Portugal and the Netherlands to reflect and expand upon the existing knowledge on the role of social networks in migration processes. We consider different migrant profiles based on principal migration motives to identify differentiated socio-demographic profiles and relate these to migration strategies. We show that differences in the ways migrants access and use social networks in their migration projects can be related to these different migration motives and profiles. Simultaneously, we compare two distinct immigration contexts both in terms of contemporary immigration regimes and working opportunities and historical links to Brazil. Our findings demonstrate that migration scholars need to move beyond the narrow conceptualisation of social networks based on community or kin relationships, to consider multiple configurations involving different agents – both in the origin and destination countries – at different stages of the migration process. In addition, we show that future analyses would benefit from taking into account the differences between migrants driven by distinct motivations in different places.
    Keywords: Social networks, immigration, migration motives, Portugal, Brazil, Netherlands
    Date: 2013–03
  23. By: Hamanaka, Shintaro (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: In this paper, we will examine the level of services trade integration in Asia in comparison with Europe and North America. The main empirical findings of this paper are that (i) the regional bias of services trade in Asia is as high or higher than in Europe and North America; (ii) in Asia, the regional bias of services trade is higher than that of goods trade, which is in sharp contrast to Europe and North America, where the regional bias of goods trade is higher than that of services trade; and (iii) while Asia’s regional bias of goods trade shows a declining trend, that of services trade remains high, although in the future its decline is expected. Asia’s relatively high-level of regional bias of services trade can be explained by the following factors: (i) a relatively high prevalence of a shared language (Chinese), which is essential to services trade, but not to goods trade; and (ii) the archipelagic nature of the region, which inhibits goods trade more than services trade. In contrast, for example, major European countries share land borders with their neighbors and they speak different languages. In order to deepen Asia’s services trade integration, two policies are necessary. First, effective regional services agreements are critical to enhancing the level of integration. Second, policies to increase the trade of crisis-resilient services, such as professional services and insurance, as opposed to crisis-vulnerable services, such as transport and travel, are necessary.
    Keywords: Services trade; regional integration; trade integration; determinants of trade; regional bias; regional trade agreement (RTA)
    JEL: F15
    Date: 2013–03–01
  24. By: Anna Bohnstedt
    Abstract: We develop a general equilibrium model of international trade with heterogeneous firms that accounts for productivity spillovers transmitted by foreign exporters. Everything else equal, stronger spillovers increase welfare. We embed the model framework into a trade policy scenario where countries strategically set inter-country variable trade costs for the trading partner. In the strategic Nash-equilibrium policy, governments trade-off welfare gains from protectionism and those which are due to spillovers from foreign exporters. The equilibrium degree of protectionism is decreasing in the strength of the spillover. Policy coordination induces welfare gains, but these gains can be hump-shaped in the spillover strength.
    Keywords: Spillovers; heterogeneous firms
    JEL: F1 L25
    Date: 2013–01
  25. By: Cozzi, Guido; Galli, Silvia
    Abstract: The incentives to conduct basic or applied research play a central role for economic growth. How does increasing early innovation appropriability affect basic research, applied research, innovation and growth? In a common law system an explicitly dynamic macroeconomic analysis is appropriate. This paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of patent protection by incorporating a twostage cumulative innovation structure into a quality-ladder growth model with skill acquisition. We focus on two issues: (a) the over-protection vs. the under-protection of intellectual property rights in basic research; (b) the evolution of jurisprudence shaping the bargaining power of the upstream innovators. We show that the dynamic general equilibrium interactions may seriously mislead the empirical assessment of the growth effects of IPR policy: stronger protection of upstream innovation always looks bad in the short- and possibly medium-run. We also provide a simple "rule of thumb" indicator of the basic researcher bargaining power.
    Keywords: Endogenous Growth, Basic and Applied Research, Endogenous Technological Change, Common Law.
    JEL: O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2013–03
  26. By: Flora BELLONE; KIYOTA Kozo; MATSUURA Toshiyuki; Patrick MUSSO; Lionel NESTA
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the international productivity gaps; this evidence is built from large scale firm-level data from the French and Japanese manufacturing industries. Our primary finding is that international productivity gaps are sensitive to the export status of firms. We establish that the productivity gap between French and Japanese exporters differs systematically from the average industry gap—this gap is wider in the industries in which Japan has a productivity lead and narrower in the industries in which France has a productivity lead. We relate this basic finding to the new models of international trade with heterogeneous firms. Under this framework, our data predict that Japanese firms, on average, face higher trade costs than French firms.
    Date: 2013–03

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