nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒11‒11
six papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  2. Innovation and e-commerce in clusters of small firms: The case of a regional e-marketplace By Eleonora Lorenzini
  3. Promoting Graduate Entrepreneurship in Tunisian Universities By OECD
  4. Desenvolvimento Tecnológico Por Empresas Multinacionais no Brasil e na Correia do Sul By Graziela Ferrero Zucoloto
  5. Emergence, growth and transformation in local clusters - Environmental industries in the region of Upper Austria By Christoph Höglinger; Tanja Sinozic; Franz Tödtling
  6. Gender Differences in Competitive and Non Competitive Environments: An Experimental Evidence By David Masclet; Emmanuel Peterle; Sophie Larribeau

  1. By: Paola Cardamone; Valeria Pupo; Fernanda Ricotta (Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of universities on Italian firm TFP at the provincial level separating the effects of main university functions, such as the creation of knowledge through research, the creation of human capital through teaching and the technology transfer. Overall, results show that the presence of the universities does not seem to affect firm productivity. If, instead, we focus only on the most developed and productive area of the country, the North of Italy, the results change: we find that university activities significantly improve firm performance.
    Keywords: University, R&D activities, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: O30 D24 C21
    Date: 2012–10
  2. By: Eleonora Lorenzini (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia)
    Abstract: This paper draws on the literature on innovation in clusters and e-commerce to investigate how a particular kind of innovation project, the establishment of a regional e-marketplace (REM), may contribute to regional development. Using a firm-centred perspective, the role of geographical and cognitive proximity, absorptive capacity and other firm characteristics in the adoption and development of this particular type of innovation project is assessed. Hypotheses are tested with reference to the case of an REM recently established in the Italian area of Valtellina. The policy implications of the study are that REMs deserve support as an instrument of territorial development both in the establishment and in the implementation phase, more with “soft policies” than with “hard policies”.
    Keywords: clusters, innovation policy, e-commerce, proximity, Italy
    Date: 2012–10
  3. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report provides the main findings and recommendations of a case study review of entrepreneurship education and business start-up support in Tunisian universities and universities of applied sciences as part of a series of reviews on Skills and Competences for Entrepreneurship carried out by the Local Economic and Employment Development (OECD) Programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).<P> The review examines current strategies, structures and practices for entrepreneurship promotion in Tunisian universities highlighting activities to instil entrepreneurial intentions and to favour business creation among graduates. One of the core strengths of the Tunisian system is that it reaches a large proportion of students with basic entrepreneurship teaching. The report sets out the opportunities to improve this teaching using international best practice models and to complement it with more intense start-up support for those students ready to go further. <P> To this end, the report recommends the creation of a national graduate entrepreneurship strategy with clear objectives, indicators and incentives, methods for benchmarked learning and a resource bank of teaching materials together with an exchange platform for universities on entrepreneurship support practices, with an interface through university enterprise champions, an academic association, and improved training of trainers. The existing basic teaching in entrepreneurship should be improved with new activities and approaches and a new level of deeper business creation and growth support introduced including incubation, coaching and referral and post start-up support.
    Date: 2012–10–29
  4. By: Graziela Ferrero Zucoloto
    Abstract: O presente artigo compara a performance tecnológica de empresas norte-americanas no Brasil e na Coreia do Sul. Esta análise é associada às diferenças entre o modelo de industrialização no Brasil, marcado pela atração de empresas multinacionais, e o modelo sul-coreano, historicamente caracterizado por grandes conglomerados nacionais e pela restrição ao investimento direto estrangeiro (IDE) até a década de 1990. Com base nos exemplos brasileiro e sul-coreano, conclui que a abertura ao capital estrangeiro não é suficiente para estimular a atração de atividades tecnológicas. Outros fatores, associados à estrutura setorial, ao grau de desenvolvimento tecnológico das empresas locais, e ao desenvolvimento do sistema nacional de inovação - incluindo educação e qualidade da infraestrutura de ciência, tecnologia e inovação (CT&I) - parecem essenciais para promover a geração de inovações por empresas estrangeiras. Palavras-chave: Coreia do Sul, Brasil, globalização tecnológica, pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D). The present article compares the technological performance of United States enterprises in Brazil and South Korea. This analysis is based on the differences between the industrialization models in these countries. While Brazilian industrialization was based on the attraction of multinational companies, South Korea historically based its development on the support of national companies and limited Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) until the 1990s. It concludes that opening to foreign capital is not enough to stimulate the attraction of technological activities. Other factors, as sectorial structure, technological development of national firms and strong national system of innovation are essential to stimulate technological performance of foreign enterprises. Keywords: South Korea, Brazil, technological globalization, research and development (R&D).
    Date: 2012–05
  5. By: Christoph Höglinger; Tanja Sinozic; Franz Tödtling
    Date: 2012
  6. By: David Masclet (University of Rennes1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France and CIRANO, Montréal, Canada); Emmanuel Peterle (University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France); Sophie Larribeau (University of Rennes 1 - CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France)
    Abstract: We present a new experimental design that permits us to explore gender differences in both performance and compensation choice. We design a game in which participants are asked to choose between a flat wage and a tournament scheme and to perform under each scheme. Our data indicate that men and women of similar ability differ in both performance and compensation choice. Men are more likely to choose a tournament than a flat wage scheme. These findings reflect both higher women (men)‟s concerns for equality (competitive preferences) and stronger men‟s overconfidence. Our data also indicate significant gender differences in effort provision. Men increase significantly more their effort than women when moving from a flat wage to a tournament. More surprisingly, our data show that women provide significantly more effort than men under a flat wage scheme despite the absence of any penalty for shirking and the fastidious and boring dimension of the task. This gender gap remains highly significant after controlling for several individual and social preferences. As such, we believe that an interpretation in terms of gender differences in intrinsic motivation is the most consistent with all of our experimental findings.
    Keywords: PME, Experiment, Gender differences, Tournament Scheme, Flat Wage Scheme
    JEL: C91 J16 J31 M52
    Date: 2012–07

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