nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒10‒20
24 papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Innovation and Exports of German Business Services Enterprises: First evidence from a new type of firm data By Vogel , Alexander; Wagner, Joachim
  2. X-Efficiency of Innovation Processes: Concept and Evaluation based on Data Envelopment Analysis By Herimalala, Rahobisoa; Gaussens, Olivier
  3. Globalisation de la R&D et innovation collaborative : l’expansion des frontières de la firme GLOBALIZATION OF R&D AND COLLABORATIVE INNOVATION: THE EXPANSION OF THE FIRM’S BORDER By Dimitri UZUNIDIS; Sophie BOUTILLIER
  4. Politique de clusterisation et systèmes sectoriels d’innovation en Pologne: le cas des TIC à Gdansk CLUSTERING POLICY AND SECTORAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION IN POLAND: THE CASE OF THE ICTS IN GDANSK By Maria LOREK
  5. Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Technology Transfer: A Survey By Anja Breitwieser; Neil Foster
  6. Entrepreneurship, Economic Mobility, and Entrepreneurial Propensity: A Regional View Based on the Analysis of Selected Latin American Countries By Hugo D. Kantis; Juan S. Federico; Luis A. Trajtenberg
  7. Latin American Middle-Class Entrepreneurs and their Firms: A Regional View and International Comparison By Hugo D. Kantis; Juan S. Federico; Luis A. Trajtenberg
  8. Linking HR and Line Agents’ Implementation of High- Performance Work Systems to Intentions to Leave and Job Performance: A Social Exchange Perspective By N. SOENS; D. BUYENS; M. S. TAYLOR
  9. Cross-Industry Heterogeneity in Export Participation: The Role of Scale Economies in R&D By Ferguson, Shon
  10. Exports by Indian Manufacturing SMEs: Regional Patterns and Determinants By Pradhan, Jaya Prakash; Das, Keshab
  11. Trends and Prospects in China's R&D Sector By Yanrui Wu
  12. Results of the German Software Industry Survey 2012 By Pussep, Anton; Schief, Markus; Buxmann, Peter
  13. Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Values, and Public Policy in Argentina By Jose Anchorena; Lucas Ronconi
  14. Exporters and importers of services: firm-level evidence on Italy By Stefano Federico; Enrico Tosti
  15. Institutional Complexity and Managerial Efficiency: A Simple Model By Dimitri Paolini; J.D. Tena
  16. Can Venture Capital Foster Innovation in Canada? Yes, but Certain Types of Venture Capital Are Better Than Others By Tariq Fancy
  17. L’innovation permanente: un axe fort de l’entreprise. Le cas d’Intel THE PERMANENT INNOVATION: A MAIN AXIS FOR THE ENTERPRISE THE CASE OF INTEL By Laurent POUILLY
  18. What Are We Learning from Business Training and Entrepreneurship Evaluations around the Developing World? By McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
  19. Are Exporters More Environmentally Friendly than Non-Exporters? Theory and Evidence By Cui, Jingbo; Lapan, Harvey; Moschini, GianCarlo
  20. Distributed Learning in Hierarchical Networks By Hélène Le Cadre; Bedo Jean-Sébastien
  21. Le rôle de l’Etat dans la promotion du secteur pharmaceutique en Algérie: que nous enseigne l’approche par les systèmes sectoriels d’innovation THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN THE PROMOTION OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR IN ALGERIA: WHAT DOES THE SECTORAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION APPROACH TEACH US? By Samia GHARBI
  22. Le pôle de compétitivité : un courtier en connaissances ? By Bernard Dussuc; Sébastien Geindre
  23. Tertiary Education: Developing Skills for Innovation and Long-Term Growth in Canada By Calista Cheung; Yvan Guillemette; Shahrzad Mobasher-Fard
  24. Internationalization of Tertiary Education Services in Singapore By Toh, Mun-Heng

  1. By: Vogel , Alexander (Leuphana University Lueneburg); Wagner, Joachim (Leuphana University Lueneburg and IZA, Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature by providing the first evidence on the link between innovation activities (measured by the share of engineers and scientists in the workforce) and exports of German business services firms based on a large representative longitudinal sample of enterprises. The data combine for the first time information at the firm-level that is taken from data produced by the Statistical Offices and by the Federal Labour Agency. We document that R&D activities are positively linked with exports, and that this link is present when observed firm characteristics (including firm size, productivity, and human capital intensity) and unobserved time-invariant firm characteristics are controlled for. From an economical point of view the effect is, however, rather small. Furthermore, we find some evidence for self-selection of innovative services firms on export markets. We have to admit, however, that the panel is too short, and that the number of firms that start to export and start to perform R&D during the period under investigation is too small, for any convincing attempt to investigate the direction of the causal link between exports and innovation activities.
    Keywords: Innovation; export; business services; Germany
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2012–10–11
  2. By: Herimalala, Rahobisoa; Gaussens, Olivier
    Abstract: This paper investigates X-(in)efficiency of innovation processes in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). We have adopted the following approach: (a) we provide both a concept of X-(in)efficiency and a model of innovation processes for each SME; (b) from this model we evaluate both the dimensions of the innovation processes and the X-(in)efficiency of these processes using a variant of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model; (c) finally, we characterize X-inefficiency by using techniques of exploratory analysis derived from an empirical analysis. Our approach has been applied to regional SMEs in Normandy (France) with a representative random sample of 80 innovative businesses. The results show the existence of X- inefficiency in the innovation processes of SMEs in 71% of cases. This X-inefficiency arises primarily from the difficulties that entrepreneurs face in implementing the interacting rules and standards of exploitation and exploration activities.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Multiple Projections; X-Efficiency; Innovation Process
    JEL: D0 C43 Q55 O32 C67
    Date: 2012–10
  3. By: Dimitri UZUNIDIS (Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO); Sophie BOUTILLIER (Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO)
    Abstract: La création et l’accumulation de connaissances devient un phénomène de plus en plus collectif dépassant les frontières des économies nationales formant des réseaux de coopération technologique qui se tissent entre firmes. Cette stratégie vise la collecte d'importantes quantités d'informations S&T qui pourront à terme se transformer en innovations. Depuis quelques années, l’expression open innovation s’est imposée, alors que bien avant les formules d’innovation en réseau ou d’innovation collaborative étaient également très rependues. Dans ce document, nous présentons à l’aide de la théorie évolutionniste (qui insiste sur l’accumulation de connaissances comme moyen d’innover et comme origine de transformation des structures de la firme) les déterminants principaux de la globalisation de la R&D des grandes firmes globales et nous discutons de l’ouverture de la frontière de la firme. The creation and accumulation of knowledge is an increasingly collective phenomenon which goes beyond the borders of national economies forming networks that develop technological cooperation between firms. This strategy is the collection of significant amounts of S&T information that will eventually turn into innovations. In recent years, the term "open innovation" has become very popular, even if other formulas like network innovation or collaborative innovation have been also used for a long time. In this paper we present the main determinants of the globalization of R&D and discuss the opening of the border of the firm using evolutionary theory (which emphasizes the accumulation of knowledge as a way to innovate and as the origin of structural transformation of the firm).
    Keywords: innovation collaborative, R&D, firme multinationale
    JEL: F23 O31 O32
    Date: 2012–06
  4. By: Maria LOREK (Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO)
    Abstract: Si les clusters sont considérés comme des moyens pratiques permettant d'accroître l'avantage concurrentiel des économies locales (Porter, 1994) c'est aussi grâce à leur capacité à encourager l'innovation sectorielle, ce qui participe à l'efficacité (performance) du système sectoriel d'innovation (SSI). Nous allons chercher à tester ce constat en prenant l'exemple de la politique de clusterisation en Pologne qui vise à favoriser le développement de l'innovation dans les différents secteurs de haute technologie. En raison de son intensité en technologie et en ressources humaines hautement qualifiées, nous centrons notre analyse sur le cluster des TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication) dans la région de Gdansk. Nous nous intéressons enfin aux innovations créées au sein de ce cluster pour déterminer si elles sont bénéfiques pour l'ensemble du secteur des TIC en Pologne. If clusters are considered as practical means allowing to increase the competitive advantage of local economies (Porter, 1994) it is also due to their capacity to boost sectoral innovation, which participates to the efficiency (performance) of the sectoral system of innovation. We will test this statement by taking the example of the cluster policy in Poland which aims to facilitate the development of innovation in the various high-technology sectors. Because of his intensity in technology and in highly qualified human resources, we focus our analysis on the ICT cluster (information and communication technologies) in the region of Gdansk. We particularly study the innovations created within this cluster to determine if they are beneficial for the whole ICT sector in Poland.
    Keywords: innovation sectorielle, clusters, TIC, Pologne
    JEL: O31 O38 L96
    Date: 2012–09
  5. By: Anja Breitwieser; Neil Foster (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Following the conclusion of the TRIPS Agreement, much has been written on the potential costs and benefits of stronger Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection in terms of its impact on innovation and technology transfer, as well as economic growth and welfare. This paper documents the development of IPR regimes within countries and internationally, before surveying the theoretical and empirical literature linking the protection of IPRs to economic growth, innovation and technology diffusion.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights, economic growth, innovation, technology diffusion
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2012–06
  6. By: Hugo D. Kantis; Juan S. Federico; Luis A. Trajtenberg
    Abstract: Using household surveys from Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and El Salvador, this paper assesses the contribution of entrepreneurship to socioeconomic mobility and to understand the main variables associated with entrepreneurial propensity in selected Latin American countries. It is found that, at the aggregate regional level, income mobility is rather modest and that entrepreneurs do not outperform the rest of the population. However, entrepreneurs tend to perform as well as or better than non-entrepreneurs in countries where relative income mobility is moderate. In countries where relative income mobility is rather low, entrepreneurs tend to show less income mobility. Entrepreneurial propensity is rather modest, at 10 percent of the population. University graduates show the highest propensity in most of the countries studied, while women and young people were found to have the lowest entrepreneurial propensity.
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2012–07
  7. By: Hugo D. Kantis; Juan S. Federico; Luis A. Trajtenberg
    Abstract: Based on a cross-country comparison of dynamic new firms, this paper attempts to characterize Latin American middle-class entrepreneurs and their firms. In general, Latin American middle-class entrepreneurs tend to face more difficult conditions in terms of resources and skills acquisition than those belonging to more affluent social strata. They tend to have earlier exposure to business experience since they generally belong to families in which their fathers’ occupation allowed for such exposure, and the universities where they studied are sounder platforms for developing abilities and contacts. Likewise, compared to middle-class entrepreneurs from more developed regions, Latin American middle- class entrepreneurs tend to be less exposed to the business world and entrepreneurial role models. Additionally, they are more likely to rely on a less qualified and less business-specific support network, and initial financing is less accessible to them. The paper summarizes several key policy implications and recommendations derived from the analysis.
    JEL: L26 M13 O54
    Date: 2012–07
    Abstract: Unlike common assessments of the overall presence of high-performance work systems (HPWS), this study focuses on actual implementation of HPWS by two specific agents, i.e., the HR department and line management. We investigate how HPWS implementation by HR and line agents – as perceived by employees – relates to intentions to leave and job performance and we propose perceived organizational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX) as potential mediating mechanisms. Respondents (N=266) were nonmanagerial employees from a research organization in Belgium. Results revealed that HPWS implementation by the HR department was indirectly related to intentions to leave through POS. Furthermore, we found that HPWS implementation by line management related to intentions to leave through the mediation of POS and LMX and it related to job performance through the mediation of LMX. These findings contribute to the literature by providing a more refined picture of the social exchange mechanisms that mediate between HPWS and important employee outcomes and inform HR and line practitioners of the employee outcomes associated with their HRM actions.
    Keywords: High-performance work systems, implementation, line management, employee outcomes, social exchange
    Date: 2012–05
  9. By: Ferguson, Shon (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper shows that the R&D intensity of an industry plays an important role in determining international trade patterns via its e¤ect on scale economies. I first develop a model of trade with heterogeneous firms where firms compete with each other by spending on fixed product development costs such as R&D. The model predicts that a larger share of firms are exporters in industries where R&D is a large component of total costs. The model also predicts that R&D-intense industries are less sensitive to trade costs. I find empirical support for these predictions using firm-level data for Swedish manufacturing industries. The results also highlight the importance of controlling for firm size when measuring the firm extensive margin of exports.
    Keywords: International Trade; Trade Costs; Endogenous Sunk Costs
    JEL: F12 L11 O30
    Date: 2012–10–05
  10. By: Pradhan, Jaya Prakash; Das, Keshab
    Abstract: A unique firm level database was used to shed lights on national and regional patterns of SME export contribution in manufacturing activities. An eclectic conceptual framework for SME export performance was developed based on the reviews of extant theories of international trade, which incorporate firm-, sector-, policy- and region-specific variables. The model was estimated for using the Censored Quantile Regression. SMEs are found to have modest roles in the manufacturing exports from India during 1991–2008 and their exports is mostly dominated by low technology products. Regionally, SME manufacturing exports is heavily concentrated with Southern states alone accounting for half of it during 2000–08, followed by Western India. The export determinant analysis brought to the fore the significance of certain key physical and economic infrastructure for SMEs, particularly access to ports, power, telecommunications and loan finance. Local market conditions, namely the size, growth and per capita income of the host states also favourably affect SME export activities. SMEs are more dependent on foreign technologies for enhancing their exporting rather than in-house R&D. Apart from improving the key business supporting infrastructure, the state policy makers may better enhance export orientation of SMEs by networking them to R&D facilities and providing easier access to information on overseas markets. This is because SMEs are more dependent on foreign technologies for enhancing their exporting rather than in-house R&D. Relatively smaller enterprises need greater support as they are disadvantaged by their size.
    Keywords: Indian SMEs; Exports
    JEL: L11 F10
    Date: 2012–10–08
  11. By: Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper presents a critical review of trends and prospects in China’s research and development (R&D). Specifically it discusses the main achievements and the role of major players in China’s R&D sector. It also highlights the potential challenges which Chinese policy makers have to face in the future.
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Pussep, Anton; Schief, Markus; Buxmann, Peter
    Abstract: The goal of the German Software Industry Survey is to investigate the current state of the German software industry on a yearly basis. Conclusions are made based on grounded data and empirical findings. We hope that this type of research will contribute to the work of both, practitioners and researchers. As a public research institution we keep our respondent’s data strictly confidential. We conduct the German Software Industry Survey in the context of the Software- Cluster2, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research3under grant “01IC10S05”. The authors take the responsibility for the contents. Two topics have been the main focus of this year’s survey: business models and competitive strategies of software firms. We collected and analyzed more than 500 responses which lead us to the following main conclusions: (1) German firms have a very positive outlook on the next five years, expecting to grow by almost 30% per year; (2) The nature of business models in the German software industry is multifaceted; (3) The German software sector is highly competitive.
    Keywords: software industry survey, software industry, software firm, business model, strategy, value chain
    Date: 2012–09–17
  13. By: Jose Anchorena; Lucas Ronconi
    Abstract: This paper uses datasets from six surveys to describe entrepreneurship in Argentina. While the quantity of entrepreneurship in Argentina is high, its quality is low, given the high proportion of informal and necessity entrepreneurs. Income is found to play a greater role in determining probability of becoming an entrepreneur than parental wealth; entrepreneurship is, however, transmitted inter- generationally. Although it is found that Argentina promotes entrepreneurial values more than most Latin American countries, entrepreneurs face several obstacles. Finally, using panel data based on household surveys, the paper estimates the short and long-run effects of an increase in public employment on entrepreneurship, finding the effects to be negative and strong. Overall, the evidence suggests that changes in public policies and other areas are needed for Argentina to become an entrepreneurial economy.
    JEL: L26 L5 O17
    Date: 2012–07
  14. By: Stefano Federico (Bank of Italy); Enrico Tosti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This work contributes to the small but growing body of literature on international trade in services at firm level. Our dataset, based on a new Bank of Italy survey, provides information on exports and imports of services (excluding transportation and travel) in 2008-09 for almost 3,000 Italian industrial and services firms, divided by partner country and type of service. We report a set of stylized facts on trade in services. We also analyze the choice between export and foreign direct investment in services at the firm level, thus innovating with respect to the previous literature using industry data. The main findings are as follows: the export and import of services is highly concentrated in just a few firms; firm-level variation in trade is positively correlated with firm size and productivity; country-level variation is to a large extent explained by the standard gravity variables; distance strongly reduces trade in services in spite of their intangibility; smaller and less productive firms choose to export rather than sell through foreign affiliates.
    Keywords: trade in services, firm heterogeneity, intensive and extensive margin, foreign affliates, export versus FDI
    JEL: F14 F23 L80
    Date: 2012–09
  15. By: Dimitri Paolini; J.D. Tena
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relation between resource inputs and managerial effort in firms. The discussion is motivated by a theoretical model that suggests that firms use managerial effort as a substitute of capital resources in the production process. In this framework, different levels of effort are always optimal decisions given its relative cost. Thus, the relatively higher effort exerted by small (compared to big) firms is not a consequence of hidden information or incentive problems in the organization but it is a optimal decision of small firms to offset capital market restrictions. Managers in big firms, on the other hand, are not obliged to offer their maximum personal effort given that it can be more easily substituted by capital resources in the production process.
    Keywords: managerial effort; organizational diseconomies of scale; small firms
    JEL: L83 M50 J44
    Date: 2012
  16. By: Tariq Fancy (former Principal, CPP Investment Board)
    Abstract: Canada’s problem with lagging productivity growth has led policymakers to focus on boosting innovation, in part by supporting Canadian venture capital funding for business. But which types of venture capital (VC) funds are most effective in spurring innovation? This study examines that question in the Canadian context by examining the records of VC funding in generating new patent applications for the period 1996-2008. Overall, Canadian VC funding spurs innovation more effectively on a dollar-for-dollar basis than investment in research and development (R&D). The type of VC fund also matters. Private and institutional VC funds consistently foster innovation; corporate and government VC funds do reasonably well in promoting innovation; but retail, bank and other VC dollars perform poorly on that score.
    Keywords: Economic Growth and Innovation, venture capital, Canada
    JEL: G24 H2
    Date: 2012–09
  17. By: Laurent POUILLY (Master Electronique et Instrumentation, ULCO)
    Abstract: L’innovation tient actuellement un rôle important dans le développement et la pérennité des entreprises, c’est pourquoi étudier la place de l’innovation dans les actions qu’entreprend Intel parait intéressant au regard de l’importance des moyens que donne cette entreprise pour la recherche, l’optimisation et le développement afin de répondre constamment auxbesoinsdu marché.En effet, Intel a basé sa stratégie autour de l’innovation permanente dans le but de pérenniser sa compétitivité et d’accroitre son leadership sur les différents marchés qu’elle occupe,mais aussi étendre ses activités à de nouveaux marchés prometteurs. Innovation currently holds an important role in the development and the continued existence of companies. This is why it is interesting to study the role of innovation in the actions undertaken by Intel with regard to the important resources that the company dedicates to research, optimization and development to constantly meet market needs. Indeed, Intel has based its strategy on permanent innovation in order to ensure its competitiveness and increase its leadership in various markets but also to extend its business to new promising markets.
    Keywords: innovation, concurrence, Intel, stratégie de l'innovation, compétitvité
    JEL: L22 L23 O31 O32
    Date: 2012–03
  18. By: McKenzie, David (World Bank); Woodruff, Christopher (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Business training programs are a popular policy option to try to improve the performance of enterprises around the world. The last few years have seen rapid growth in the number of evaluations of these programs in developing countries. We undertake a critical review of these studies with the goal of synthesizing the emerging lessons and understanding the limitations of the existing research and the areas in which more work is needed. We find that there is substantial heterogeneity in the length, content, and types of firms participating in the training programs evaluated. Many evaluations suffer from low statistical power, measure impacts only within a year of training, and experience problems with survey attrition and measurement of firm profits and revenues. Over these short time horizons, there are relatively modest impacts of training on survivorship of existing firms, but stronger evidence that training programs help prospective owners launch new businesses more quickly. Most studies find that existing firm owners implement some of the practices taught in training, but the magnitudes of these improvements in practices are often relatively modest. Few studies find significant impacts on profits or sales, although a couple of the studies with more statistical power have done so. Some studies have also found benefits to microfinance organizations of offering training. To date there is little evidence to help guide policymakers as to whether any impacts found come from trained firms competing away sales from other businesses versus through productivity improvements, and little evidence to guide the development of the provision of training at market prices. We conclude by summarizing some directions and key questions for future studies.
    Keywords: business training, consulting, randomized experiments, firm productivity
    JEL: O12 J16 L26 M53
    Date: 2012–10
  19. By: Cui, Jingbo; Lapan, Harvey; Moschini, GianCarlo
    Abstract: This paper studies the firm-level relationship between decision to export and environmental performance. To guide the empirical work, we introduce environmental pollution and technology choice into a trade model with heterogeneous firms. The model predicts that a productive firm is more likely to adopt emission-saving technology and to export. Using facility-level criteria air emission data in the U.S. manufacturing industry, for a variety of pollutants, empirical tests are supportive of our two primary theoretical predictions. First, facility productivity is negatively correlated with emission intensity, measured by emissions per value of sales. Second, conditional on the estimated facility productivity and the facility’s exposure to environmental regulation, exporters have lower emission per value of sales than non-exporters within the same industry.
    Keywords: Clean Air Act; export; Facility-Level Pollution; Heterogeneous Firms.
    JEL: F18 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2012–10–12
  20. By: Hélène Le Cadre (LIMA - CEA, LIST, Laboratory of Information, Models and Learning - CEA : SACLAY); Bedo Jean-Sébastien (Orange/France-Télécom - Telecom Orange)
    Abstract: In this article, we propose distributed learning based approaches to study the evolution of a decentralized hierarchical system, an illustration of which is the smart grid. Smart grid management requires the control of non-renewable energy production and the inegration of renewable energies which might be highly unpredictable. Indeed, their production levels rely on uncontrolable factors such as sunshine, wind strength, etc. First, we derive optimal control strategies on the non-renewable energy productions and compare competitive learning algorithms to forecast the energy needs of the end users. Second, we introduce an online learning algorithm based on regret minimization enabling the agents to forecast the production of renewable energies. Additionally, we define organizations of the market promoting collaborative learning which generate higher performance for the whole smart grid than full competition.
    Keywords: Algorithmic Game Theory; Coalition; Distributed Learning; Regret
    Date: 2012–10–09
  21. By: Samia GHARBI (Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO)
    Abstract: Le présent travail propose de s’interroger sur le rôle des pouvoirs publics par l’intermédiaire de différents organismes et institutions dans une approche d’appropriation de l’innovation du secteur pharmaceutique en Algérie. L’étude tente de répondre à la question suivante : Quel rôle jouent les pouvoirs publics dans une approche d’un système sectoriel pour promouvoir le secteur pharmaceutique algérien ? L’étude sera réalisée par une analyse du système sectoriel pharmaceutique en Algérie en appliquant la théorie de la sectorialisation de l’innovation. Puis elle examinera les flux de connaissances entrants d’autres secteurs et/ou sous-secteurs qui alimentent les processus d’innovation dans la production du médicament. Enfin, elle mettra l’accent sur les efforts réalisés et à entreprendre afin de renforcer le secteur pharmaceutique en mettant en avant ce que nous enseigne l'approche par les systèmes sectoriels d'innovation. The present work deals with the role of the public authorities through various bodies and institutions in an approach of the appropriation of innovation in the pharmaceutical sector in Algeria. The study tries to answer the following question: what is the role that the public authorities play in a sectoral system approach to promote the Algerian pharmaceutical sector? The study will first realize an analysis of the pharmaceutical sectoral system in Algeria by applying the theory of the “sectorialisation” of innovation. It will then examine the flows of incoming knowledge from other sectors and/or sub-sectors that feed the processes of innovation in the production of the drug. At the end of the research, we will emphasize the efforts realized and that have to be undertaken in order to strengthen the pharmaceutical sector by applying the lessons drawn from the sectoral systems of innovation approach.
    Keywords: système sectoriel d’innovation, industrie, secteur pharmaceutique, Algérie
    JEL: L65 O31
    Date: 2012–09
  22. By: Bernard Dussuc (EA3713 - Centre de Recherche Magellan - Université de Lyon - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III); Sébastien Geindre (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Les pôles de compétitivité constituent un outil aux services des entreprises qui les composent, à savoir essentiellement des PME Ils se doivent de favoriser le développement de l'innovation et donc la performance des organisations membres. Nous nous attacherons à envisager comment un pôle de compétitivité peut aborder cette mission première portant sur l'innovation. Pour traiter de cette question essentielle pour les PME, nous reprendrons les travaux relatifs au courtage de connaissances. Le recours à un courtier de connaissances est présenté comme une voie praticable et adaptée pour favoriser le développement de l'innovation. La structure d'animation d'un pôle de compétitivité peut-elle agir comme un véritable courtier en connaissances au profit des entreprises qui compose ce pôle ? Nous nous appuierons sur une étude réalisée pour le compte du pôle de compétitivité de la plasturgie, à savoir Plastipolis. L'enquête qualitative présentée permettra d'appréhender le rôle tenu par la structure d'animation du pôle et l'éventuelle activité de courtage de connaissances mise en œuvre.
    Keywords: Stratégie - Innovation -Accompagnement, conseil - Pôle de compétitivité
    Date: 2012–06–28
  23. By: Calista Cheung; Yvan Guillemette; Shahrzad Mobasher-Fard
    Abstract: The tertiary education system in Canada performs well in fostering a skilled workforce with generally good labour-market outcomes and is internationally recognised for its research contributions. Tertiary educational attainment is high, but participation rates will need to continue expanding to maintain the supply of highly skilled labour as the population ages and the needs of the knowledge-based economy rapidly evolve. This should be achieved by encouraging access to higher education for disadvantaged socio-economic groups, while enhancing the flexibility of the system to allow students with diverse needs to move between institutions more easily to meet their learning objectives. Immigration is another important source of skills that could be better utilised. The development of skills for innovation can be improved by increasing the integration of technical, business and communications skills training with practical industry experience within tertiary education programmes. In an environment of government spending restraint, the quality of tertiary education could be strengthened by increasing the distinction between institutions that target research and those that emphasise teaching and re-evaluating tuition policies in provinces where public finances are stretched. This Working Paper relates to the 2012 OECD Economic Review of Canada (<P>Enseignement supérieur : développer les compétences au service de l'innovation et de la croissance à long terme en Canada<BR>Le système d’enseignement supérieur canadien permet d’avoir une main-d’oeuvre qualifiée, qui obtient globalement de bons résultats sur le plan professionnel. Il est par ailleurs reconnu à l’échelle mondiale pour ses contributions à la recherche. Les taux de réussite dans le supérieur sont élevés, mais le taux de fréquentation va devoir s’améliorer si l’on veut maintenir l’offre de main-d’oeuvre qualifiée, à mesure que la population vieillit et que les besoins de l’économie du savoir évoluent. Il faudrait pour cela favoriser l'accès à l'enseignement supérieur des catégories défavorisées, tout en renforçant la flexibilité du système afin de permettre à des étudiants ayant différents besoins de changer d'établissement plus facilement pour atteindre leurs objectifs d'apprentissage. L'immigration constitue également une source précieuse de compétences, qui pourrait être mieux utilisée. Le développement des compétences au service de l’innovation peut être amélioré en associant davantage les compétences techniques, commerciales et de communication à l’expérience pratique dans le cadre des programmes d’enseignement supérieur. Dans un contexte de rigueur budgétaire, la qualité de l’enseignement supérieur pourrait être renforcée en faisant une plus grande distinction entre les établissements qui privilégient la recherche et ceux qui mettent l’accent sur l’enseignement, et en réévaluant les politiques en matière de droits d’inscription dans les provinces où les finances publiques sont tendues. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE du Canada 2012 (
    Keywords: participation rates, tertiary education, grants, access, tuition fees, student loans, graduation rate, attainment rate, access to tertiary education, foreign tertiary students, scholarships, tuition tax credits, taux de participation, subventions, éducation supérieure, frais de scolarité, taux de graduation, taux de réussite, accès à l’éducation supérieure, étudiants étrangers, bourses, prêts étudiants, crédits d’impôt pour frais de scolarité
    JEL: I22 I25 I28
    Date: 2012–09–20
  24. By: Toh, Mun-Heng (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper traces the development of the education sector from its nascent stage of serving economic development needs to the internationalization stage of fulfilling Singapore’s aspiration to be a global education hub. The state plays an important role in guiding and fostering development of the education sector in the creation and production of human capital for domestic production as well as cross-border trading to generate income and employment, and attract talent to the economy. Regional trading agreements can play a facilitating role for internationalization of higher education services, especially when commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are weak. Private education enterprises need no less regulatory measures than other economic sectors to function properly in the market economy—to add value, assure quality services, and yield benefits for education services purchasers.
    Keywords: education sector; Singapore; internationalization of education; tertiary education services; economic development; higher education services
    JEL: F16 I23 J24
    Date: 2012–10–14

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