nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒09‒03
twelve papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. How to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs on regional development By Donato Iacobucci; Alessandra Micozzi
  2. The role of geographical proximity in innovation: Do regional and local levels really matter? By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  3. When High Tech ceases to be High Growth: The Loss of Dynamism of the Cambridgeshire Region By Erik Stam; Ron Martin
  4. Gains and Losses from International Trade in a Knowledge-driven Semi-endogenous Growth Model with Heterogeneous Firms By katsufumi, fukuda
  5. Sectoral System of Innovation and Exploring Technological Upgrading Strategies in Late-Industrializing Countries By TUNCEL, Cem Okan
  6. Entrepreneurial Employee Activity: A Large Scale International Study By Niels Bosma; Erik Stam; Sander Wennekers
  7. The Dynamics and Evolution of Local Industries – The case of Linköping By Fredin, Sabrina
  8. Regional development in the context of an innovation process By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  9. Managing Absorptive Capacity within R&D Cooperation By Bode, Alexander; Müller, Katja; Hill, Johannes
  10. The Emergence of a Small World in a Network of Research Joint Ventures By Stuart McDonald; Mohamad Alghamdi; Bernard Pailthorpe
  11. Does Geographical Proximity Still Matter? By Olivier Bouba-Olga; Marie Ferru
  12. Competition, Cooperation, and Collective Choice By Markussen, Thomas; Reuben, Ernesto; Tyran, Jean-Robert

  1. By: Donato Iacobucci (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche); Alessandra Micozzi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: The paper proposes a framework to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs at regional level and applies it to the context of the Marche region (Italy). Spin-off creation is the most complex way of commercializing academic research, compared to licensing and R&D collaborations, but with the highest potential impact on the regional context. The empirical analysis shows that when measured in quantitative terms the impact of spin-offs on local economies is rather low; however, there are qualitative direct and indirect effects that must be taken into consideration. By focusing on providing R&D services, spin-offs play an important role in promoting the up-grading of the regional industrial system, which is mainly based on small and medium-sized firms in low and medium-tech sectors. Though not very successful in terms of growth and job creation in the short run, spin-offs provide an entrepreneurial experience for a high number of young researchers. We can expect that in the longer terms these people can play an important role within the local system in the start-up of new companies or as agents of innovation for established firms.
    Keywords: spin-offs, technology transfer, regional innovation system
    Date: 2012–08
  2. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: Globalisation and the advent of information and communication technology (ICT) change the role of spatial distance in innovation activities. Geographical proximity used to be seen as a necessary condition to share tacit knowledge and to enhance trust between innovators; now this approach is being challenged by claiming that the role played by spatial distance diminishes with time. The aim of this paper is to present territorial innovation models as examples of theories based on assumptions of a crucial role of local environment and spatial distance in innovation processes and to present arguments against the said assumption. The paper concludes advocating the encouragement to cooperate both within the local network area and with distant partners and the creation of territorial innovation models as open systems engaged in interactive learning by global connectivity. --
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Erik Stam; Ron Martin
    Abstract: This paper analyses mechanisms of decline and renewal in high-tech regions, illustrated with empirical evidence on the Cambridgeshire high-tech region in the UK. The paper contributes to ecological ('carrying capacity') and evolutionary (path dependence) theories of regional development. It provides a longitudinal, multilevel analysis of invention, firm, and industry dynamics and change in the supply and costs of resources in order to explain the decline of high-tech regions. While expansion of the Cambridgeshire high-tech region has been sustained over time, recently forces of decline have been stronger than those of renewal. Decline in employment has been most marked in the local telecommunications and biotech sectors, while the creation of variety by new firms has fallen off most strongly in the local IT software & services industry. Increasing diseconomies of agglomeration are in evidence, together with a contraction of finance that may have been a harbinger of financial stringency to come.
    Keywords: high-tech regions, industrial dynamics, innovation, entrepreneurship, cluster decline
    JEL: L22 M13 O31 R11
    Date: 2012–08
  4. By: katsufumi, fukuda
    Abstract: We consider a semi endogenous R&D growth model with international trade, firm heterogeneity, and local knowledge spillover in a closed economy and international knowledge spillover in a symmetric two country economy. We show that by opening trade R&D difficulty (the number of varieties produced) and welfare are ambiguously affected. When the international spillover is large (small), the former is increased (decreased). When the size of the international knowledge spillover is large (small) or the size of the international knowledge spillover is small and the size of intertemporal knowledge spillover is small (large), the latter increases (decreses). Without intertemporal and international knowledge spillovers, welfare increases.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous Firms; Semi Endogenous Growth; Gains and Losses from International Trade
    JEL: F15 O30 F12 O33
    Date: 2012–08–21
  5. By: TUNCEL, Cem Okan
    Abstract: Latecomer sectors in late-industrializing economies follow different patterns in their development and growth processes, which largely determine the share acquired from the global value chain. The development and growth process of the sectors is generally argued to be the result of the interaction of macro level specific institutional context and micro level firm strategic choices. In this study I argue that meso-level sectoral systems also play a critical role in the development and growth process of latecomer sectors. Accordingly, I aim to integrate these three theoretical perspectives -resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, sectoral system of innovation (SSI) perspective, and technological capability perspective for late industrializing economies- to explain the relative developmental failure of Turkish automotive industry compared to other successful latecomer industries such as South Korean automotive industry In the light of theoretical framework, I will try to investigate sectoral technological upgrading trajectory and compare between Korean and Turkish automotive industry development path by using case study method. I will end by discussing how a multilevel framework that takes into account the systemic factors can guide research on sectoral development in late-industrializing countries. In the light of a comparative historical analysis of development of Turkish and Korean automotive industries it is argued that a pace of industrial transformation can be accelerated by multilevel proactive state intervention.
    Keywords: Sectoral System of Innovation; Upgrading Strategies; Late-Industrializing Countries; Korean and Turkish Automotive Industry
    JEL: L92
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Niels Bosma; Erik Stam; Sander Wennekers
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of the first large scale international comparative study of entrepreneurial employee activity (intrapreneurship). Intrapreneurship is a more wide-spread phenomenon in high income countries than in low income countries. At the organizational level, intrapreneurs have relatively high job growth expectations for their new business activities, as compared with independent young businesses. At the individual level, intrapreneurs are much more likely to have the intention to start a new independent business than other employees. However, at the country level there is a negative correlation between intrapreneurship and early- stage entrepreneurial activity. An explanation for these contrasting outcomes is the diverging effect of per capita income on intrapreneurship (positive effect) and early- stage entrepreneurial activity (negative effect). Underlying mechanisms include the role of larger firm presence, of higher education and of the opportunity costs of independent entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial employee activity, intrapreneurship, independent entrepreneurial activity, economic development, institutions
    JEL: J83 L26 M13 O43 O57
    Date: 2012–08
  7. By: Fredin, Sabrina (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse how innovative, individual activities influence the evolution of local industries according to three stages. When discussing the evolution of industries or economies, the concept of path dependency is often a central element. Its vague nature makes it however difficult to be used as an interpretative lens when studying the evolution of local industries. In order to limit the broad concept, several aspects have been identified for discussion; all are explicitly linked to path dependency in economic geography literature and all are acknowledged to be of significance for stimulating the evolution of local industries. Based on the review of the evolutionary economic theory literature, the following three stages have been identified: first, the entering of new knowledge which may, or may not, be the starting point for a new local industry; second, the formation of the new local industry; third, the anchoring process of the new local industry. All three stages are intertwined and include the question how the new emerging industry and the existing local structures relate to each other. The three stages will be illustrated through the discussion of the evolution of the IT industry in Linköping, Sweden.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; local economic development; institutional foundation; informal institutions; path dependency
    JEL: N94 O14 R11
    Date: 2012–08–20
  8. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify main components and driving forces behind an innovation process in order to support regions in organising their endogenous innovation process. To that end, we study models of an innovation process and analyse the case of Sophia Antipolis. This theoretical study allows us to identify general inputs leading to creation of an endogenous innovation process in a region. --
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Bode, Alexander; Müller, Katja; Hill, Johannes
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Stuart McDonald (School of Economics, The University of Queensland); Mohamad Alghamdi; Bernard Pailthorpe
    Abstract: Using a data set spanning the period 1899-2000, we construct a network of RJVs and track the pattern of growth of this network over time. The resulting R&D network is emergent in the sense that RJVs are contained within it, connected to other RJVs by the existence firms sharing membership with multiple RJVs. This paper shows that the largest growth in the R&D networks occurred during the last three decades of the Twentieth Century. During this growth period, the R&D network has a pattern of collaboration that can be characterized as having the “small world†property. This has implications for the rate of information diffusion across the network, as it implies that many non-collaborating firms are in fact quite close to each other in terms of degree of separation. We show that this network structure is due to the presence of a small number of highly connected firms that collaborate across multiple RJVs. These firms have an important characteristic in that without their presence in the network, the R&D network looses its cohesiveness and the small world property disappears. Hence, these highly connected firms have an important role to play in determining the overall robustness of the R&D network.
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Olivier Bouba-Olga (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers); Marie Ferru (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide possible answers, at an empirical level, to the question "Does geographical proximity still matter in collaborations for innovation?", since the lack of available data has made it impossible to provide real answers up to now. Relying on two real long-term relational databases relating to science-industry collaborations in France, and on two complementary indicators of geographical proximity, we will show that proximity continues to count (number of significant intradepartmental collaborations and low average distance between the partners). However, this dynamic analysis does allow us to state that the closest partnerships and the most distant ones increase the most over the study period. We shall also show that the role of geographical proximity and its evolution over the course of time differ according to the type of science-industry contract and the sectoral specialisation of the partners.
    Keywords: geographical proximity, collaborations, research, science-industry
    Date: 2012–08–23
  12. By: Markussen, Thomas; Reuben, Ernesto; Tyran, Jean-Robert
    Abstract: The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains in efficiency are foregone.
    Keywords: public goods; competition; tournament; cooperation; voting
    JEL: D72 H41 J33
    Date: 2012–08

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