nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒08‒23
34 papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Knowledge Flows, Organization and Innovation: Firm-Level Evidence from Malaysia By Cassey LEE
  2. Organizational strategies, firms’ performance and spatial spillovers: the Canadian case in research and development. By Rosa, Julio Miguel
  3. Knowledge, Location, and Internationalization: Empirical Evidence for Manufacturing SMEs By Anna Lejpras
  4. Determinants of R&D Cooperation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Hyunbae Chun; Sung-Bae Mun
  5. Globalization, Innovation and Productivity in Manufacturing Firms: A Study of Four Sectors of China By Jacques MAIRESSE; Pierre MOHNEN; Yanyun ZHAO; Feng ZHEN
  6. Firm technological innovation persistence: Organizational innovation matters By HANED Naciba; LE BAS Christian; MOTHE Caroline; NGUYEN Thi Thuc Uyen
  7. Private Equity and the Innovation Strategies of Entrepreneurial Firms: Empirical Evidence from the Small Business Innovation Research Program By Link, Albert N.; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Siegel, Donald S.
  8. Business group affiliation and R&D propensity By Enrico Guzzini; Donato Iacobucci
  9. Do Exporting Firms in the People’s Republic of China Innovate? By Ganeshan Wignaraja
  10. Assessing a relative technological competitiveness using patent and paper information at the country level: Model and application in mobile communications By Cho, Ilgu
  11. Determinants of Evolutionary Change Processes in Innovation Networks – Empirical Evidence from the German Laser Industry By Muhamed Kudic; A. Pyka; Jutta Günther
  12. The role of human capital in lowering barriers to engage in innovation: evidence from the Spanish innovation survey By D'Este,Pablo; Rentocchini,Francesco; Vega Jurado,Jaider M.
  13. Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance By Mercedes Delgado; Michael E. Porter; Scott Stern
  14. Trust as a consequence of perceived commitment: Implications on organizational learning capability and product innovation By Joaquín García-Cruz; Juan Carlos Real
  15. The Cluster Scoreboard: Measuring the Performance of Local Business Clusters in the Knowledge Economy By Yama Temouri
  16. Open innovation strategy of Japanese SMEs: From viewpoint of ICT use and innovative technology By Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu
  17. Performance of Business Models: Empirical Insights from the Software Industry By Schief, Markus; Pussep, Anton; Buxmann, Peter
  18. Connected innovation:An international comparative study that identifies mixed modes of innovation By Marion Frenz; Ray Lambert
  19. Financial and organizational perspectives on small and medium-sized business groups By Enrico Guzzini; Donato Iacobucci; Peter Rosa
  20. Business Strategy and Skills in New Zealand By Stevens, Philip
  21. Business Strategies and Employment Decisions: Interviews with New Zealand Firms By Kaye-Blake, William; Flagler, Bette; Campbell, Rachel
  22. Innovation and Exports of German Business Services Enterprises: First evidence from a new type of firm data By Alexander Vogel; Joachim Wagner
  23. Product-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm Productivity By Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders
  24. Sources of Learning-by-Exporting Effects: Does Exporting Promote Innovation? By Keiko ITO
  25. The cluster concept as a multi-dimensional thematic field: Methodological and substantive perspectives By Stahlecker, Thomas; Kroll, Henning
  26. On the Relations Between Management Accounting Systems and Intellectual Capital. Evidence for Portuguese Companies By Jorge Casas Novas; António Sousa; Maria do Céu Alves
  27. How to Sustain Entrepreneurial Performance during the Current Financial Crisis By Michael Kianfar; Helen Lawton Smith
  28. The Determinants of National Competitiveness By Mercedes Delgado; Christian Ketels; Michael E. Porter; Scott Stern
  29. Why Do Entrepreneurial Parents Have Entrepreneurial Children? By Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; van Praag, Mirjam
  30. The Resource-Based Horizontal Acquisition Strategy of JBS By Ronald Jean Degen
  31. Co-opetition in next-generation access provisioning: An analysis of the German broadband market By Limbach, Felix; Zarnekow, Ruediger; Düser, Michael
  32. Government performance indicators in a strategic approach By Kárpáti, József
  33. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice By Thomas Markussen; Ernesto Reuben; Jean-Robert Tyran
  34. Interlinkages and structural changes in cross-border liabilities: a network approach By Alessandro Spelta; Tanya Araujo

  1. By: Cassey LEE (Cassey LEE School of Economics, University of Wollongong, Australia)
    Abstract: Technological upgrading of a countryfs manufacturing sector requires the enhancement of firm-level capabilities. Knowledge flows within firms and those between firms and other entities are important aspects of this process. The nature and significance of such knowledge flows for innovation-related activities (such as in-house R&D, acquisition of technology-embedded investments and training) are likely to differ for each type of activity. The links between innovation and knowledge flows are particularly important for innovation activities in the form of acquisition of machinery, equipment and software. There is also some weak evidence that globalization-related variables such as foreign direct investment and exporting can affect certain types of innovation activities such as training and acquisition of machinery, equipment and software. This study also finds that firm-level organizational dimensions and innovations are related to both internal and external knowledge flows. However, there is evidence that the links between innovative firms in Malaysia and other firms abroad in terms of co-operative activities are relatively weak. This raises the issue of whether such firms are able to tap the global technological-pool effectively.
    Date: 2012–06–01
  2. By: Rosa, Julio Miguel (Maastricht University)
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Anna Lejpras
    Abstract: This paper investigates the links between locational conditions, innovative capabilities and internationalization of manufacturing SMEs. Two modes of foreign market servicing are explored: exporting activity and relocating of selected business activities abroad. The empirical analysis employs two probit models based on survey of about 3,000 firms. The results reveal that the outputs of SMEs' innovative activities-i.e., product innovations and patent applications-enhance exporting propensity as expected. Nevertheless, the input-side indicator-R&D intensity-appears to exert no impact. Further, the locational factor proximity to research institutions promotes SMEs' engagement in exporting. Regarding the determinants of selective relocations abroad, the findings show that SMEs with a high degree of R&D are less likely to separate production from other operations and relocate it abroad. Moreover, manufacturing SMEs assessing the proximity to research facilities, as well as support from various regional authorities and other bodies as important and good-quality locational conditions, exhibit a significantly lower likelihood to relocate selected activities abroad. Indeed, emphasizing the role of institutional setting in firm activity, our findings coincide in this respect with the previous literature focused on innovative milieu, learning regions and regional innovation systems.
    Keywords: Export, innovation, location, manufacturing SMEs, selective relocation abroad
    JEL: R30 O30 M16 L25
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Hyunbae Chun (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul); Sung-Bae Mun (Korea Information Society Development Institute, Kwachun, Kyunggi-do, 427-710 Korea)
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of R&D cooperation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using firm-level data from the 2002 Korean Innovation Survey and applying a probit model with sample selection, we find that incoming spillovers of knowledge have a significant and positive impact on SMEs¡¯ decisions to engage in R&D cooperation. In particular, the effect of knowledge spillovers on R&D cooperation is much larger for smaller firms. Despite the importance of external knowledge for SMEs, the estimation results suggest that SMEs may be at a disadvantage in establishing external R&D linkages because of their absolute size limitations.
    Keywords: R&D Cooperation, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Spillovers
    JEL: L20 O32
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Jacques MAIRESSE (Jacques MAIRESSE INSEE-CREST (France), UNU-MERIT (Netherlands), and NBER (USA)); Pierre MOHNEN (Pierre MOHNEN UNU-MERIT (Netherlands), and Maastricht University); Yanyun ZHAO (Yanyun ZHAO Renmin University of China); Feng ZHEN (Feng ZHEN Bank of China, and Chinese Academy of Social Science)
    Abstract: This paper investigates relationships between innovation input, innovation output and labor productivity in China for four major manufacturing sectors; textiles, wearing apparel, transport equipment and electronic equipment. It uses a large sample of firm level micro data and a structural model in the estimation. The data from 2005 to 2006 is estimated, and results of all the sectors show positive effects from innovation input to output, and then to firm performance. Globalization has various impacts on innovation, through exports. It has a positive effect on both the decision to carry out R&D, and intensity of R&D input in sectors with competitive advantage, such as textiles and transport equipment, but not in sectors with high levels of overseas capital control, such as electronic equipment and wearing apparel. Ownership reveals the same story in different sectors, namely that foreign firms tend to do less in innovation input and output, but they do have higher level of productivity. Moreover, market share, subsidy, firm size and other characters of firms are involved in the estimation, which explains significant difference in engaging in innovation and production. Thus, in all the sectors, market share improves R&D input, continuous R&D input and exports improve new products output. Subsidy sustains R&D input, but not innovation output.
    Date: 2012–06–01
  6. By: HANED Naciba; LE BAS Christian; MOTHE Caroline; NGUYEN Thi Thuc Uyen
    Abstract: Organizational innovation favors technological innovation, but does it also influence technological innovation persistence? This article investigates empirically the pattern of technological innovation persistence and tests the potential impact of organizational innovation using firm-level data from three waves of the French Community Innovation Surveys. Evidence shows a positive effect of organizational innovation on technological innovation persistence, according to various measures of organizational innovation. Moreover, this impact is more significant for complex innovators (i.e., those who innovate in both products and processes). These results highlight the complexity of managing organizational practices with regard to the firm?s technological innovation. They also add to comprehension of the drivers of innovation persistence, through a focus on an often forgotten dimension of innovation in a broader sense.
    Keywords: organizational innovation; technological innovation; persistence
    Date: 2012–06
  7. By: Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Ruhm, Christopher J. (University of Virginia); Siegel, Donald S. (University at Albany, SUNY)
    Abstract: There is great interest in evaluating the impact of private equity investments on innovation and economic growth. However, there is no direct empirical evidence on the effects of such transactions on the innovation strategies of entrepreneurial firms. We fill this gap by examining a rich project-level data set consisting of entrepreneurial firms receiving Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program research awards. We find that SBIR firms attracting private equity investments are significantly more likely to license and sell their technology rights and engage in collaborative research and development agreements. Our results suggest that private equity investments accelerate the development and commercialization of research-based technologies, thus contributing to economic growth. We conclude that both public investments and private investments are key to innovation performance.
    Keywords: Private equity; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; SBIR
    JEL: G24 G34 L26 O31 O33 O38
    Date: 2012–08–02
  8. By: Enrico Guzzini (Università degli Studi eCampus, Italy); Donato Iacobucci (Dept. of Information Engineering Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse whether belonging to a business group enhances firms’ R&D propensity and intensity as a result of the greater opportunities to co-ordinate R&D strategies and internalize the positive spillovers. We analyse the organization of R&D management within a business group and how the positioning of firms within the group influences their propensity for and intensity of R&D. We find a strong association between the degree of diversification of business groups and the way in which R&D is organized. Monosector groups are more likely to centralize R&D while diversified groups tend to give more autonomy to affiliated firms. We find also that R&D autonomy is significantly associated with both a higher R&D propensity and intensity in controlled firms. For the firm heading the group, we find that R&D autonomy (centralization) is associated with reduced (increased) R&D intensity, but that this association is less significant for R&D propensity.
    Keywords: business groups; R&D investment; knowledge spillovers; diversification; R&D management
    Date: 2012–07
  9. By: Ganeshan Wignaraja (Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI))
    Abstract: With international trade spluttering amidst the Great Recession, there is renewed interest in the factors driving firm-level export performance in Asia’s super exporter—The People’s Republic of China (PRC). While early studies suggested that innovation was important, there has been little research on opening up the black box of technology at firm-level in the PRC. This paper undertakes econometric analysis of innovation, learning, and exporting in automobiles and electronics firms in the PRC using a large-scale dataset to identify the most appropriate innovation proxy. Drawing on recent literature on innovation and learning in developing countries, it tests two alternative proxies : (i) a technology index (TI) to capture a variety of minor activities involved in using imported technologies efficiently; and (ii) the research and development (R&D)-to-sales ratio, which represents formal technological efforts to create new products and processes, often at world frontiers. A higher TI (representing minor technological activities) increases the probability of exporting in both industries, while the R&D-to-sales ratio was not significant. Foreign ownership, technical manpower, and the characteristics of the general manager/chief executive officer also matter. The findings suggest that the PRC’s remarkable success in the export of automobiles and electronics since initiating an open-door foreign direct investment (FDI) policy in 1978 is linked to technology transfer from multinationals; systematic investments in and upgrading of minor technological activities (like search, engineering, quality management, and design); and human capital. As the PRC’s per capita income rises over time, however, formal R&D activities are likely to become more important to sustain competitiveness and technological upgrading in automobiles and electronics.
    Keywords: Exporting firms, China, PRC, Export performance, innovation, technology index, R&D, technology transfer
    JEL: F23 O31 O32 L63 O57
    Date: 2012–07
  10. By: Cho, Ilgu
    Abstract: Science and technology have been the driving force of development for knowledge-based economies. In particular, as competition in mobile communications technology innovation among countries become more intense, there are growing needs for enhanced judgment, evaluation, and prediction of technological capabilities in order to improve a national competitiveness. Over the past decade, the mobile communications can be considered as the fastest growing industry. The worldwide mobile subscribers were 5.28 billion in 2010 and are expected to 7.3 billion in 2016. Until now, several models of a national technology level evaluation have been evaluated on only expert surveys or restricted patent and paper information respectively. However, the different methodologies are a result of a certain theoretical and empirical consensus and they generally lead to identify different results depending on the methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the technological capabilities using patent synthetic indicators, paper synthetic indicators, and composite technology level evaluation of patent and paper synthetic indicators in mobile communications technology (3G, 3G transitional, and 4G) among countries (US, EU, Japan, China, and Korea). We also conduct an empirical study to validate the technology level evaluation measures. This research will offer more objective technology level evaluation than a subjective expert or peer surveys. --
    Keywords: Patent,Paper,Technological competitiveness,Technology level evaluation,Mobile communications
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Muhamed Kudic; A. Pyka; Jutta Günther
    Abstract: We seek to understand the relationship between network change determinants, network change processes at the micro level and structural consequences at the overall network level. Our conceptual framework considers three groups of determinants – organizational, relational and contextual. Selected factors within these groups are assumed to cause network change processes at the micro level – tie formations and tie terminations – and to shape the structural network configuration at the overall network level. We apply a unique longitudinal event history dataset based on the full population of 233 German laser source manufacturers and 570 publicly-funded cooperation projects to answer the following research question: What kind of exogenous or endogenous determinants affect a firm’s propensity and timing to cooperate and enter the network? Estimation results from a non-parametric event history model indicate that young micro firms enter the network later than small-sized and large firms. An in-depth analysis of the size effects for medium-sized firms provides some unexpected yet quite interesting findings. The choice of cooperation type makes no significant difference for the firms’ timing to enter the network. Finally, the analysis of contextual determinants shows that cluster membership can, but do not necessarily, affect a firm’s timing to cooperate.
    Keywords: network evolution, timing of network entry, innovation networks, German laser industry
    JEL: B52 D85 O32
    Date: 2012–07
  12. By: D'Este,Pablo; Rentocchini,Francesco; Vega Jurado,Jaider M.
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of human capital in attenuating the barriers that block firms from engaging in innovation activities. The paper distinguishes between firms facing deterring barriers to innovation (firms deterred from engaging in innovation activities) and firms confronting revealed barriers (firms that experience barriers alongside their engagement in innovation activities). We investigate whether human capital has a particularly strong impact in lowering barriers among the former group of firms, since a strong skill base is likely to compensate for the lack of previous experience in innovation-related activities or the necessary complementary assets associated to innovation. We draw on four waves of the Spanish Innovation Survey and examine the impact of human capital on three types of obstacles to innovation: cost, knowledge and market obstacles. Results reveal that human capital has a significant impact in attenuating deterring barriers to innovation associated to knowledge shortages and market uncertainties.
    Keywords: Barriers to innovation, Innovative firms, Human Capital
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2012–08–03
  13. By: Mercedes Delgado; Michael E. Porter; Scott Stern
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the role of regional cluster composition in the economic performance of industries, clusters and regions. On the one hand, diminishing returns to specialization in a location can result in a convergence effect: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be declining in the level of activity of that industry. At the same time, positive spillovers across complementary economic activities provide an impetus for agglomeration: the growth rate of an industry within a region may be increasing in the size and “strength” (i.e., relative presence) of related economic sectors. Building on Porter (1998, 2003), we develop a systematic empirical framework to identify the role of regional clusters – groups of closely related and complementary industries operating within a particular region – in regional economic performance. We exploit newly available data from the US Cluster Mapping Project to disentangle the impact of convergence at the region-industry level from agglomeration within clusters. We find that, after controlling for the impact of convergence at the narrowest unit of analysis, there is strong evidence for cluster-driven agglomeration. Industries participating in a strong cluster register higher employment growth as well as higher growth of wages, number of establishments, and patenting. Industry and cluster level growth also increases with the strength of related clusters in the region and with the strength of similar clusters in adjacent regions. Importantly, we find evidence that new regional industries emerge where there is a strong cluster environment. Our analysis also suggests that the presence of strong clusters in a region enhances growth opportunities in other industries and clusters. Overall, these findings highlight the important role of cluster-based agglomeration in regional economic performance.
    JEL: L26 R11 R30
    Date: 2012–07
  14. By: Joaquín García-Cruz (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain); Juan Carlos Real (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper aims at explaining the role performed by organizational commitment, trust and organizational learning capability (OLC) regarding product innovation and, more specifically, testing double mediation from a manager perspective. On the one hand, we test the mediator role performed by supervisors’ trust between the employees commitment perceived by managers and organizational learning capability. On the other, we test the mediator role performed by organizational learning capability between the trust provided by supervisors and product innovation. Our findings thus indicate that, although some commitment was perceived and both supervisors’ trust and OLC show significant relationships, trust does not mediate between these variables. Also, we conclude that trust is related to product innovation through organizational learning capability, which verifies its full mediator role. We conclude that, first, OLC is the mechanism by which the trust perceived by employees has an impact on innovation, and second, the manager decides to trust those employees that display commitment..
    Keywords: North-South, growth model, innovation assimilation
    Date: 2012–04
  15. By: Yama Temouri
    Abstract: This paper shows the performance of eighty leading innovative local clusters on six measures of enterprise performance: share of new and young firms and growth of employment, turnover, profitability, liquidity ratio and solvency ratio. The data show the performance of clusters before and during the global economic crisis and suggest that clusters doing well in the phase of economic expansion had different characteristics from those that were able to grow in a time of economic slowdown. The data permit comparison of performance among the clusters. In the pre-recession period the two top performing clusters were the Madison Research District and Silicon Valley in the United States, while during the recession the two leading clusters were the Coimbra Biotech cluster in Portugal and Daedoek Science Town in Korea.
    Date: 2012–08
  16. By: Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2012
  17. By: Schief, Markus; Pussep, Anton; Buxmann, Peter
    Abstract: This paper analyses business models of software firms. The underlying framework comprises eight variables derived from a comprehensive software industry business model conceptualisation. Using this framework, we classify the business models of the global top 100 software firms based on their annual reports. Then, we run clustering algorithms in order to identify business model patterns. Clustering allows comparing patterns within and between business model clusters on different levels of granularity. Based on the business model clustering, we then analyse the firms’ financial performance in three categories: market value, profitability, and operating efficiency. Our results demonstrate which business model elements can be retrieved from annual reports. Further, we identify unique and similar business models among the sample firms. Some business models are found to outperform others and have distinguishing characteristics. This paper contributes to practice and research. Both can benefit from a structured industry overview in terms of today’s business models and their performance. This can be used to analyse the software industry and its firms. Practitioners can align their firms with the characteristics of top performing business models. For research, we also contribute to the body of knowledge of empirical business model performance.
    Date: 2012–07–11
  18. By: Marion Frenz (Department of Management, Birkbeck College University of London); Ray Lambert (Department of Management, Birkbeck College University of London)
    Abstract: This paper develops a typology of mixed modes of innovation - bundles of activities done by firms jointly to bring about new developments – and examines the role of the innovation modes in performance through the empirical analysis of innovation survey data from 18 OECD countries.
    Date: 2011–09
  19. By: Enrico Guzzini (Università degli Studi eCampus, Italy); Donato Iacobucci (Dept. of Information Engineering Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy); Peter Rosa (Centre for Entrepreneurship Research, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK)
    Abstract: Most theories seeking to explain why business groups are formed are focused on large firms, but in recent years there is growing interest on why business groups are formed in the small firms sector. In this paper we contrast two theoretical perspectives that may account for business group formation, both based on the idea that business groups allow entrepreneurs to differentiate the ownership structure of new activities from the established one(s). These are the financial perspective and the organizational/entrepreneurial perspective. Theoretical propositions derived from these perspectives are tested using data on Italian business groups. The empirical results show that the financial and the organizational perspectives can be seen as complementary in explaining business groups in the small business sector. Specifically, the financial explanation is in accordance with the data in predicting the prevalence of capital intensive firms in business groups while the organizational explanation is in accordance with the data in predicting the presence of knowledge intensive firms in business groups. Furthermore, the organizational perspective seems more appropriate when the diversification strategies of business groups are concerned and when explaining the ownership structure of controlled companies.
    Keywords: business groups; pyramids; small businesses; ownership; diversification
    Date: 2012–06
  20. By: Stevens, Philip (Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand)
    Abstract: This paper summarises the results from two projects that investigated skills in New Zealand businesses. The first – The Impact of Skills on New Zealand Firms – combined three different surveys to investigate the availability of skills and skilled workers both within the firm and their ability to source them from the market. The second – Management Matters in New Zealand – benchmarked management practices in medium and large New Zealand manufacturers against their peers in 16 other countries.
    Keywords: skill shortage; skill gap; firm performance; management capability; training
    JEL: D22 I25 J24 M50
    Date: 2012–05–01
  21. By: Kaye-Blake, William (National Institute of Economic Research); Flagler, Bette (Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University); Campbell, Rachel (Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University)
    Abstract: A firm’s business strategy does not exist in a vacuum; it requires employees to implement it. However, firms often say that they have difficulties hiring certain types of employees. Through interviews with firms and analysis of the 2008 New Zealand Business Operations Survey, this research explored the interaction between strategy and employees’ skills, and differences between high value-add (HVA) and medium value-add (MVA) firms. MVA firms focused more on production methods, technical skills, and margins over costs. HVA firms focused more on the business skills of a few, professional core employees, as well as the marketing aspects of their products.
    Keywords: business strategy; core employees; high value-add; hiring; New Zealand
    JEL: D21 J24
    Date: 2012–05–01
  22. By: Alexander Vogel (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany); Joachim Wagner (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature by providing the first evidence on the link between innovation activities (measured by the share of engineers and scientists in the workforce) and exports of German business services firms based on a large representative longitudinal sample of enterprises. The data combine for the first time information at the firm-level that is taken from data produced by the Statistical Offices and by the Federal Labour Agency. We document that R&D activities are positively linked with exports, and that this link is present when observed firm characteristics (including firm size, productivity, and human capital intensity) and unobserved time-invariant firm characteristics are controlled for. From an economical point of view the effect is, however, rather small. Furthermore, we find some evidence for self-selection of innovative services firms on export markets. We have to admit, however, that the panel is too short, and that the number of firms that start to export and start to perform R&D during the period under investigation is too small, for any convincing attempt to investigate the direction of the causal link between exports and innovation activities.
    Keywords: Innovation, export, business services, Germany
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2012–08
  23. By: Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Sørensen, Anders (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is argued that marketing and product innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is found that product and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth than in unskilled-intensive firms that introduce this combination of innovation activities. More precisely, an increase in the share of educated workers of one percentage point, increases productivity growth by around 0.1 percentage point in firms with product and marketing innovation. In addition, it is found that firms that engage in product innovation but not in marketing innovation or the other way around do not demonstrate a growth effect from their innovation activities. It is also found that product and marketing innovation has an independent role in productivity growth that cannot be attributed to organisational changes, even though the majority of innovative firms engage in this latter innovation type. JEL codes: J24, O31, M31
    Keywords: Product innovation; marketing innovation; organizational innovation; productivity growth; educational composition
    JEL: J24 M31 O31
    Date: 2012–07–04
  24. By: Keiko ITO (Keiko ITO School of Economics, Senshu University)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether first-time exporters achieve productivity improvements through learning-by-exporting effects. The results suggest that starting exporting to North America/Europe has a strong positive effect on sales and employment growth, R&D activity, and productivity growth. On the other hand, starting exporting to Asia does not have any strong productivity enhancing effects, although it does tend to raise the growth rates of sales and employment and be associated with an increase in R&D expenditure. However, even for these variables, the positive impact of starting exporting to North America/Europe is much larger. Further analysis shows that export starters to North America/Europe are larger, more productive, more R&D intensive, and more capital intensive than export starters to Asia even before they start exporting, suggesting that the former are potentially better performers than the latter. In other words, the former have greater absorptive capacity, and this absorptive capacity itself may be a source of the larger positive learning-by-exporting effects. Moreover, export starters to North America/Europe become more innovative than export starters to Asia after starting exporting. The results obtained imply that potentially innovative non-exporters should be supported through an export promotion policy. Firms that have the potential to be sufficiently innovative to export to developed regions are likely to benefit from doing so through the positive interaction between exporting and innovation.
    Date: 2012–06–01
  25. By: Stahlecker, Thomas; Kroll, Henning
    Abstract: The empirical sub-sections of this article have shown that the both production and technology oriented clusters are a very diverse and regionally embedded phenomenon. Within this context, the observed diversity of political strategies and support measures whose ultimate goal is to 'generate cluster advantages' cannot genuinely surprise, even if its remains criticized by academics (Kiese 2007; Martin/Sunley 2003). --
    Date: 2012
  26. By: Jorge Casas Novas (CEFAGE-UE, Departamento de Gestão, Universidade de Évora, Portugal); António Sousa (CEFAGE-UE, Departamento de Gestão, Universidade de Évora, Portugal); Maria do Céu Alves (NECE, Departamento de Gestão e Economia, Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal)
    Abstract: The present study is focused on the contribution of management accounting systems (MAS) in the development of intellectual capital (IC). Based on empirical evidence that supports the proposition that the value creation process is strongly associated to the level of IC, the study also examines the mediating effect of MAS on performance through their positive direct effect on IC. These relationships were consolidated into a model and empirically tested with data from 281 Portuguese firms using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The findings show that six out of nine hypothesized relationships were supported by data with positive and significant causal links between MAS and the human and structural dimensions of IC. Results also confirmed the conceptual validity of the inner circular model for the interactions among the three IC dimensions. Finally, results showed a positive and significant direct effect of structural capital on performance. Overall, the results confirmed the validity of the proposed conceptual model and contributed to the literature on the role of MAS in supporting the development of the IC.
    Keywords: Management accounting systems; knowledge production; intellectual capital; performance.
    JEL: L21 L25 M19 M49
    Date: 2012
  27. By: Michael Kianfar (Synergy Capital, UK); Helen Lawton Smith (Department of Management, Birkbeck College University of London)
    Abstract: The current phase of the financial crisis which poses problems to companies, policy makers and academicians, requires profound re-thinking and reorganization of strategies, actions and instruments.
    Date: 2012–01
  28. By: Mercedes Delgado; Christian Ketels; Michael E. Porter; Scott Stern
    Abstract: We define foundational competitiveness as the expected level of output per working-age individual that is supported by the overall quality of a country as a place to do business. The focus on output per potential worker, a broader measure of national productivity than output per current worker, reflects the dual role of workforce participation and output per worker in determining a nation’s standard of living. Our framework highlights three broad and interrelated drivers of foundational competitiveness: social infrastructure and political institutions, monetary and fiscal policy, and the microeconomic environment. We estimate this framework using multiple data sets covering more than 130 countries over the 2001-2008 period. We find a positive and separate influence of each driver on output per potential worker. The microeconomic environment has a positive effect on output per potential worker even after controlling for historical legacies. Using our framework we define a new concept, global investment attractiveness, which is the cost of factor inputs relative to a country’s competitiveness. This analysis reveals important insight into the economic trajectory of individual countries. Our framework also offers a novel methodology for the estimation of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated measure of national competitiveness.
    JEL: O12 O47 O5
    Date: 2012–07
  29. By: Lindquist, Matthew J. (SOFI, Stockholm University); Sol, Joeri (University of Amsterdam); van Praag, Mirjam (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Parental entrepreneurship is a strong, probably the strongest, determinant of own entrepreneurship. We explore the origins of this intergenerational association in entrepreneurship. In particular, we identify the separate effects of pre- and post-birth factors (nature and nurture), by using a unique dataset of Swedish adoptees. Its unique characteristic is that it not only includes data on occupational status for the adoptees and their adoptive parents, but also for their biological parents. Moreover, we use comparable data on entrepreneurship for a large, representative sample of the Swedish population. Based on the latter sample, and consistent with previous findings, we show that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about 60%. We further show that for adoptees, both biological and adoptive parents make significant contributions. These effects, however, are quite different in size. The effect of post-birth factors (adoptive parents) is approximately twice as large as the effect of pre-birth factors (biological parents). The sum of these two effects for adopted children is almost identical to the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship for own-birth children. We explore several candidate explanations for this important post-birth effect and present suggestive evidence in favor of role modeling.
    Keywords: occupational choice, intergenerational mobility, self-employment, entrepreneurship, adoption, role model
    JEL: J24 J62 L26
    Date: 2012–07
  30. By: Ronald Jean Degen (International School of Management Paris)
    Abstract: This paper examines the resource-based horizontal acquisition strategy of JBS. This strategy transformed a relatively small business that was founded in 1953 (comprising a butcher shop and small abattoir located in a small town in the interior of Brazil) into the world?s biggest meat producer by 2010.
    Keywords: JBS, world?s biggest meat producer, horizontal acquisition strategy, resource-based strategy
    JEL: M0 M1
    Date: 2012–04–23
  31. By: Limbach, Felix; Zarnekow, Ruediger; Düser, Michael
    Abstract: The growing customer demand for next-generation access networks requires large investments into novel broadband infrastructures. Politicians, scientists and practitioners have been discussing the question if cooperation between today's broadband carriers can contribute to a cooperative setup of next-generation access networks. In order to advance this discussion we asses horizontal, vertical and diagonal cooperation between today's carriers based on a grounded theory approach. We base our findings on more than twenty-five expert interviews in eleven telecommunication companies of the German broadband market. Our results indicate that cooperation is currently primarily evolving at vertical and diagonal cooperation interfaces. Moreover, the German broadband provisioning market is heading towards a continuously deconstructed telecommunication value chain and standardized wholesale products which are primarily offered at vertical and diagonal cooperation interfaces. --
    Date: 2012
  32. By: Kárpáti, József
    Abstract: When state intends to keep an active role in economy and everyday interactions in society - as it tends to be a trend among states after the crisis, called the "Neo-Weberian" type of state, one of it's greatest challenges is to report on it's own activity and confirm it's decisions, according future plans, current redistribution etc. since the society expects a clarification in exchange for the active state role. Both economic phenomena and others beyond need to be measured and interpreted somehow. Numerous countries and international organizations started creating strategic level indicator sets to monitor the activity with more or less success. This paper summarizes the current status of these approaches and introduces a possible complex strategic level of indicators in Hungary to assess four sides of the story: state organization, fiscal, economic and social phenomena.
    Keywords: Neo-Weberian state; strategic indicators; government performance
    JEL: H50 H11
    Date: 2012
  33. By: Thomas Markussen (Department of Economics); Ernesto Reuben (Columbia University and IZA); Jean-Robert Tyran (University of Vienna, University of Copenhagen, and CEPR)
    Abstract: The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains in efficiency are foregone.
    Keywords: public goods; competition; tournament; cooperation; voting
    JEL: D72 J33 H41
    Date: 2012–05–01
  34. By: Alessandro Spelta; Tanya Araujo
    Abstract: We study the international interbank market through a geometrical and a topological analysis of empirical data. The geometrical analysis of the time series of cross-country liabilities shows that the systematic information of the interbank international market is contained in a space of small dimension, from which a topological characterization could be conveniently carried out. Weighted and complete networks of nancial linkages across countries are developed, for which continuous clustering, degree centrality and closeness centrality are computed. The behavior of these topological coecients reveals an important modication acting in the nancial linkages in the period 1997-2011. Here we show that, besides the generalized clustering increase, there is a persistent increment in the degree of connectivity and in the closeness centrality of some countries. These countries seem to correspond to critical locations where tax policies might provide opportunities to shift debts. Such critical locations highlight the role that specic countries play in the network structure and helps to situates the turbulent period that has been characterizing the global nancial system since the Summer 2007 as the counterpart of a larger structural change going on for a more than one decade.
    Keywords: Cross-border exposures, interbank networks, nancial linkages, debt shifting
    Date: 2012–07

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