nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒06‒25
23 papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Innovation et externalisation des services: une analyse empirique sur données d'entreprises tunisiennes By Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi , Mohamed
  2. Regional innovation policy and innovative behaviours. A propensity score matching evaluation By Antonioli,Davide; Marzucchi,Alberto; Montresor,Sandro
  3. How the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Matters By Link, Albert N.; Scott, John T.
  4. Management of Knowledge Workers By Hvide, Hans K.; Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard
  5. Knowledge Production Process, Diversity Type and Group Interaction as Moderators of the Diversity-Performance-Link: An Analysis of University Research Groups By Kerstin Pull; Birgit Pferdmenges; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  6. Marketing in smes: the role of entrepreneurial sensemaking By Bettiol, M; Di Maria, E; Finotto, Vladi
  7. Knowledge Spillovers, Collective Entrepreneurship, & Economic Growth: The Role of Universities By Leyden, Dennis; Link, Albert N.
  8. Dollar Enterprise – Integrating Experiential Leaning in Teaching Community Entrepreneurship By Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen)
  9. From competitive advantage to dynamic capabilities: small and medium-sized multinationals in Asia By Tattara, Giuseppe
  10. A New Index Measure of Technological Capabilities for Developing Countries By Nabaz T. Khayyat; Jeong-Dong Lee
  11. Rethinking the role of intermediaries as an architect of collective exploration and creation of knowledge in open innovation By Marine Agogue; Anna Yström; Pascal Le Masson
  13. Effects of entrepreneurship education at universities By Viktor Slavtchev; Stavroula Laspita; Holger Patzelt
  14. The emergence of new technology-based sectors at the regional level: a proximity-based analysis of nanotechnology By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
  15. Market Familiarity and the Location of South and North MNEs By Azemar, Celine; Darby, Julia; Desbordes, Rodolphe; Wooton, Ian
  16. Innovation and market dynamics: A two-mode network approach to user-producer relation By Uwe Cantner; Marco Guerzoni; Arianna Martinelli
  17. Managerial spans, industry tasks and ICT: evidence from the U.S. By Westling, Tatu
  18. Exploring the causes behind the persistence of French technological specializations By Mafini Dosso
  19. La collaboration entre les universités et les organismes professionnels - une autre chance de marché du travail By Iacob, Constanta; Brabete , Valeriu
  20. Technology Spillovers Embodied in International Trade: Intertemporal, regional and sectoral effects in a global CGE By Enrica De Cian; Ramiro Parrado
  21. Does Institutional Quality Affect Firm Performance? Insights from a Semi-Parametric Approach By Sumon Bhaumik; Ralitza Dimova; Subal C. Kumbhakar; Kai Sun
  22. Customers, employees, NGOs - Which stakeholders do really count? A holistic conceptual framework for stakeholder prioritization and expectation management By Grunert, Stefanie; König, Maike
  23. Research collaboration in co-­inventor networks: combining closure,bridging and proximities By Cassi, Lorenzo; Plunket, Anne

  1. By: Sdiri, Hanen; Ayadi , Mohamed
    Abstract: Recently, outsourcing services became an important component of the organizational strategy of the firm. However, a large number of studies focused mainly on the determinants of outsourcing ignoring its structural effects. The aim of this paper is to examine to what extent outsourcing relationships can be a source of innovation in industrial services using a sample of 108 Tunisian service firms. Specifically, we are interested in the domestic outsourcing of auxiliary activities. Our results support the evidence of positive effects of outsourcing service activities on the capacity of innovation. This suggests that outsourcing allows Tunisian service firms to create value, to increase flexibility and to improve the quality of their services.
    Keywords: Innovation; Externalisation; Secteur des services
    JEL: D23 L21 O32 O31 L80
    Date: 2012–05
  2. By: Antonioli,Davide; Marzucchi,Alberto; Montresor,Sandro
    Abstract: The paper aims at evaluating the additionality of innovation policy in terms of innovative behaviours at the regional level. Innovation behaviours are distinguished, depending on their occurrence within and across the firms and the regional boundaries.The policy role with respect to them is evaluated for a sample of firms in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, by making use of an original, survey-based dataset, to which a Propensity Score Matching approach is applied. Funded firms are more likely to upgrade their competencies, when compared to similar non subsidised companies. On the other hand, their innovation cooperation with other business partners is not significantly affected by the policy, both within and outside the region, unless in the interaction with particular partners. All in all, the investigated innovation policy in the ER region seems to show more of what could be termed ‘cognitive capacity additionality’, rather than ‘network additionality’. 
    Keywords: Innovation Cooperation, Regional Innovation Systems, Behavioural Additionality
    JEL: O32 O38 R11 R58
    Date: 2012–06–13
  3. By: Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John T. (Dartmough College)
    Abstract: This note describes several performance characteristics of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The numerical examples are based on our analysis of the 1,878 randomly selected projects conducted at firms that responded to the 2005 National Research Council survey. The data show that firms receiving SBIR funding are able to overcome the initial technology-based hurdles that small, entrepreneurial firms frequently face, thus facilitating a more permanent and possibly longer-term employment growth.
    Keywords: Small Business Innovation Research program; R&D; Employment growth
    JEL: L26 O31
    Date: 2012–06–07
  4. By: Hvide, Hans K. (University of Aberdeen); Kristiansen, Eirik Gaard (Norwegian School of Economics (NHH))
    Abstract: We study how firm-specific complementary assets and intellectual property rights affect the management of knowledge workers. The main results show when a firm will wish to sue workers that leave with innovative ideas, and the effects of complementary assets on wages and on worker initiative. We argue that firms protected weakly by complementary assets must sue leaving workers in order to obtain positive profits. Moreover, firms with more complementary assets pay higher wages and have lower turnover, but the higher pay has a detrimental effect on worker initiative. Finally, our analysis suggests that strengthening firms' property rights protection reduces turnover costs but weakens worker initiative.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, intellectual property rights, litigation, personnel economics, R&D, start-ups, worker mobility
    JEL: J30 J60
    Date: 2012–05
  5. By: Kerstin Pull (Department of Human Resource Management and Organization, University of Tuebingen); Birgit Pferdmenges (University of Tuebingen); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: In our paper, we explore the diversity-performance link in knowledge production and argue it to be the result of two countervailing effects (resource vs. process perspective). Theoretically, we show that the relative strength of the two effects crucially depends on moderating factors that relate to specificities of the knowledge production process, the type of diversity and group interaction. We empirically test our hypotheses based on an original data set of 45 university research groups from different disciplinary fields which are by nature expected to produce new knowledge and are faced with complex tasks. Employing traditional OLS regressions as well as non-parametric LOWESS analyses, our hypotheses are largely born out by the data. In particular, we find a U-shaped relation between cultural diversity and performance in research groups from the humanities & social sciences and a negative link between functional diversity and per-formance in research groups from the natural sciences. As the disciplinary fields proxy different underlying knowledge production processes, the implications of our study can be generalized to other settings and help derive general conclusions for the management of diversity and future competitiveness strategies in knowledge intensive economies.
    Keywords: diversity, performance, knowledge production process, group interaction
    JEL: M54 J44 I23
    Date: 2012–06
  6. By: Bettiol, M; Di Maria, E; Finotto, Vladi
    Abstract: Marketing literature has emphasized the factors hampering marketing planning and strategizing in small firms, in particular resource scarcity, lack of specialized structures and competences. Recent streams of literature in entrepreneurial marketing have nonetheless shown that small firms do engage in peculiar marketing strategies and activities that do not necessarily reflect codified processes observed in large organizations. Within this line of research, the article aims at contributing to extant theory in entrepreneurial marketing placing under scrutiny the generative moments of marketing strategies in small firms. Through the integration of literature in entrepreneurial marketing and in entrepreneurship and through the analysis of four case studies, the article proposes a conceptual framework that emphasizes the centrality of entrepreneurial sensemaking in small and medium-sized enterprises’ marketing strategies. We posit that entrepreneurs are engaged in the construction of interpretive frameworks that, when explicated and made accessible to consumers and stakeholders, legitimate novel business ideas and logics. These interpretive frameworks structure the content and processes of marketing activities. Theoretically, the article aims at contributing to the debate on marketing in small businesses shedding light on the processes underlying the formation of marketing strategies. Propositions are offered to guide future empirical research based on the proposed conceptual framework.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Marketing; Sensemaking
    JEL: M31 M13
    Date: 2012–06–01
  7. By: Leyden, Dennis (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper develops a formal context for understanding the role that universities play in facilitating the transmission of knowledge to private-sector firms so as to generate economic growth. To the degree the university seeks to act as a complement to private-sector firm-with-firm collaborative R&D, it needs to structure its programs so that firm revenues increase and firm R&D costs, if they rise at all (and a fall would be better), rise by a smaller proportion than revenues increase. Such a structure is consistent with university interests but requires that the university be subsidized. In the absence of such support, it is unlikely that the university will have much success. The university will have to cover its costs through a fee charged to participating firms, and that will result in university being seen as a substitute rather than a complement to firm-with-firm collaborative R&D. However, while there may be good reasons why such subsidization is rational from an efficiency perspective, such arguments, as current governmental fiscal pressures in the US and other countries reveal, may not be persuasive with legislatures. Hence, there is a fundamental policy tension.
    Keywords: Collective entrepreneurship; Knowledge spillovers; University collaboration
    JEL: D73 L26 O31
    Date: 2012–06–07
  8. By: Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen)
    Abstract: Everybody has had dreams. Some of the dream ideas have the potential to be developed into successful enterprise concepts (for commercial enterprises or non-profit organizations), if we know how to proceed to prepare for success and failure. Unfortunately sometimes a dream idea can also become a nightmare for people who do not have adequate skills and knowledge to capitalize on opportunities. Being an entrepreneur does not imply one must own a business. Those who have dreamed about being their own boss one day, always wonder what it would be like to actually start and run their own business. Dollar Enterprise, an integrated and unique activity offered by the Department of Community Development and Applied Economics through a course “Introduction to Community Entrepreneurship” provides a perfect opportunity for young entrepreneurs to gain firsthand experiences about new venture creation and community development. The purpose of this course is to help students learn more about how and why people become entrepreneurial, how successful entrepreneurs make decisions, why entrepreneurs fail, career ideas, and existing situations in our society related to entrepreneurial issues by engaging in reading, writing, discussion, and activities. The teaching team includes the instructor, guest speakers, and library support staff and hopes to bring a broader understanding of entrepreneurship and relationship between entrepreneurship and community development into every learner’s heart and daily life in a safe, comfortable, and interactive learning environment. The Theory of Community Entrepreneurship has been created and introduced to Dollar Enterprise. Community Entrepreneurship is a process of transformation – individuals, enterprises, and communities. The major difference between Community Entrepreneurship and general Entrepreneurship lies in the sense of “community involvement and transformation of the community.” Community Entrepreneurship focuses on community building and capacity improvement, by strengthening the root of entrepreneurship in each community. Each community has its own characteristics and culture. Some communities are in rural areas where small family businesses are the norm of the culture, and most of the residents know each other for generations. Other communities locate in large metropolitan areas where advanced technology companies and higher income residents dominate. Entrepreneurs interact with different communities in many ways – creating new jobs, supporting existing jobs, improving income and employment situations, stimulating organizational collaborations, and encouraging innovation and creativity in general. Community Entrepreneurship represents the links between entrepreneurs, organizations, and people given the constraints of resources and opportunities. In general, Entrepreneurship represents the process of transforming limited resource to value added goods and services by seeking and/or creating new opportunities in the market or/and in an institution. Entrepreneurship exists everywhere and can happen at any time. Creating a business is only one dimension of interpreting Entrepreneurship. People can be entrepreneurial with or without creating/owing businesses. Entrepreneurial individuals often are willing to explore the potential of generating goods, services, and knowledge for others. These individuals are also willing to take actions considering opportunities and resource constraints. The Dollar Enterprise activity was created, managed, operated, and monitored by the instructor, who also supplied the seed money ($1 to each individual and $11 to $12 per team) for each new venture team. Dollar Enterprise simulates a formation of any business in the real world from teamwork, generating resources, creating coalitions, and building community partners, to dealing with day-to-day operations, assessment, optimization, and time management. This activity runs twice a year in each semester with 120 to 140 students in each semester who form 11 to 14 teams. It takes one month to prepare for all paperwork and business details. Each team runs their business for 4 weeks (at least 3 hours every day from Monday through Friday, between 8am to 5pm) during the semester in various pre-reserved locations on campus only. Each team goes through the same process that any entrepreneur would in creating a new venture—brainstorm ideas, team building, organize business structure, assign workload to employees, gather resources (money and materials), plan business procedures, design and create products or services, conduct market research, define target market and advertising strategies, conduct financial analysis, and assess daily operations. The objectives of the Dollar Enterprise are to learn how to become a successful entrepreneur, what it takes to become a successful entrepreneur, teamwork, business planning, challenges and success of being an entrepreneur, risks and regulatory issues. Each business meets certain requirements such as supporting organic and fair trade products. Each team needs to apply and gain permission from various UVM organizations before starting the businesses. It takes one month to prepare all paperwork and business details. Weekly team reports and team member’s assessments are completed and returned to the instructor at the end of each week during the operation period. At the end of the 4-week business activity, each team concludes with a business report, financial report, self assessment, and final team member assessment. Each team donates all proceeds to local charities and a Community Entrepreneurship Education fund that has been established to assist future students who are interested in becoming successful Community Entrepreneurs. Results of Dollar Enterprise have supported learning outcomes. Over 1000 undergraduate students in more than 32 majors (2/3 female and 1/3 male) had participated in this course activity. Most students participated in their Sophomore and Junior years. Since Spring 2005, Dollar Enterprise has worked with many Vermont organizations such as Sodexho Campus Dining Services at UVM, Shelburne Orchard, Champlain Orchard, Cheese Trader, City Market of Burlington, Miguel’s Stowe Away restaurant, Hannaford Supermarkets, and Klinger Bread. These community partners generously donated or offered discounts to students who needed materials for their products. To date, Dollar Enterprise has generated more than $3,000 for the Entrepreneurship Education fund. Total donations to charities exceeded $27,000 in six years and had been delivered to many organizations such as the Make-A-Wish Foundation, Humane Society, American Red Cross, Food Shelf, Youth and Family Centers, Women Crisis Centers, and Northeast Organic Farming Association. The ultimate goal of Dollar Enterprise is to generate sufficient funds and support the creation of more innovative mini new ventures that would (1) utilize minimum resources to generate maximum impacts and outputs; and (2) lead students to learn entrepreneurship that combines business knowledge, critical thinking skills, sustainability, social responsibility, and community development strategies.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, teaching, education, experiential learning, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Tattara, Giuseppe
    Abstract: Italian firms have recently engaged in direct investment abroad through the establishment of production facilities in China and India. Using data gathered from interviews conducted in those countries in 2009 with 16 Italian predominantly small and medium-sized firms, this article explores: the motivations behind Italian parent companies’ decisions to create subsidiaries in Asia; relations between the newly established production facilities and their local suppliers and markets; any subsequent organizational adaptations; and the cultural and administrative difficulties the enterprises have encountered. The article provides a novel perspective on how predominantly small and medium-sized manufacturing firms achieve cost and differentiation advantages by leveraging their dynamic capabilities.
    Keywords: Strategic management of multinational firms; Value chains; Capability-based strategies
    JEL: L25 F23 F14
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Nabaz T. Khayyat (TEMEP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University); Jeong-Dong Lee (TEMEP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University)
    Abstract: This study is conducted to develop a new measurement tool to analyze the extent of innovation by developing nations. The role of science and technology in enhancing the rate of innovation is also investigated. The existing methods for measuring innovation such as Technology Index (WEF), Technology Achievement Index (UNDP), Industrial Development Scorecard (UNIDO), ArCo (Archibugi and Coco) and Science and Technology Index (RAND Corporation) are compared and based on their limitations a new tool with higher advantage is developed. The new index labeled as Technology Creation Index (TC-index) is decomposed into six distinct components. The index is estimated for 61 developing countries from Asia, North and South America and Africa. The countries are classified into three groups based on their extent of innovation derived from principal component analysis to assess the country group heterogeneity. The results suggest that in construction of the TC-index patents granted, human development index, local availability of specialized training and resources, foreign direct investment inflows, number of citations per science and education articles, secondary gross enrollment rate and science and education journals are identified as the main contributors to the higher rate of innovation in developing nations.
    Keywords: Innovation measurement, technological infrastructure, diffusion of innovations, human skills, economic and social indicators.
    JEL: C19 C49 I32 J24 O30 O32
    Date: 2012–06
  11. By: Marine Agogue (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech); Anna Yström (Chalmers - Chalmers University of Technology - Chalmers University of Technology); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: This paper questions the applicability of traditional notions of intermediary activities, which are usually categorized as either brokering or networking, in cases of high uncertainty regarding technologies, markets or which actors to involve. In the case of collaborative open innovation, especially in circumstances when no single organization is able to take on the challenge alone, the activities traditionally associated with intermediation do not suffice to describe what an intermediary can do to support innovation. This paper presents two cases of intermediaries working with the early phases of traffic safety innovations, and how they have managed to develop their activities beyond solely brokering and networking, but also to take an active role in the process of joint exploration and creation of knowledge. We use a qualitative approach to analyze the two cases in order to provide examples of how rethinking intermediation activities can support open innovation in a collaborative setting. The findings suggest that intermediaries taking on a more active role, which could be described as an architect which designs prerequisites and offers leadership in the process of joint exploration and creation of knowledge.
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Bat Batjargal
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of network’s structural holes, i.e., the absence of a link between two contacts who are both linked to an actor, on product development and profit growth of software ventures in two different institutional contexts of China and Russia. Using interview data of 159 software entrepreneurs in Beijing and Moscow, the study found that the effect of structural holes is contingent upon country institutional context and venture development stage. Specifically, structural holes have a positive main effect on product portfolio but a negative main effect on profit growth in the second revenue year - early stage of venture development. Structural holes are more useful in the Russian institutional context compared to the Chinese institutional context due to the polycentricity of institutions. The research implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, networks, institutions, Russia, China
    JEL: L26 L29 L86 P20
    Date: 2012–05–01
  13. By: Viktor Slavtchev (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration); Stavroula Laspita (Technical University Munich, TUM School of Management, and EBS European Business School, Chair for Entrepreneurship, Strascheg Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SIIE)); Holger Patzelt (Technical University Munich, TUM School of Management)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impact of entrepreneurship education at universities on the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the short-term (immediately after graduation) and in the long-term (five years after graduation). A difference-in-differences approach is applied that relates changes in entrepreneurial intentions to changes in the attendance of entrepreneurship classes in the same period. To account for a potential bias due to self-selection into entrepreneurship classes, only individuals having no prior entrepreneurial intentions are analyzed. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of entrepreneurship education on students' intentions to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the long-term but a discouraging effect on their intentions in the short-term. These results support the conjecture that entrepreneurship education provides more realistic perspectives on what it takes to be an entrepreneur, resulting in 'sorting'. Overall, the results indicate that entrepreneurship education may improve the quality of labor market matches, the allocation of resources and talent, and increase social welfare. Not distinguishing between short- and long-term intentions may lead to misleading conclusions regarding the economic and social impact of entrepreneurship education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education, university, entrepreneurial intentions, academic entrepreneurship, difference-in-differences approach
    JEL: A20 I20 J24 L26 M13 H43
    Date: 2012–06–05
  14. By: Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the emergence of new technology-based sectors at the regional level. We focus on the specific case of nanotechnology as representative of an industry based on a technology still in infancy whose evolution can be reliably traced on the basis of filed patent submissions. We implement a methodological framework based on the „product-space? approach, which allows us to investigate whether the development of new technologies is linked to the structure of the existing local knowledge base. We use patent data over the period 1986-2006 to carry out the analysis at the NUTS 2 level over the EU 15 countries. The results of the descriptive and econometric analysis supports the idea that history matters in the spatial development of a sector, and that the technological competences accumulated at the local level are likely to shape the future patterns of technological diversification.
    Keywords: product space, technological diversification, new industries, capabilities, EU Regions
    JEL: R11 N94
    Date: 2012–06
  15. By: Azemar, Celine; Darby, Julia; Desbordes, Rodolphe; Wooton, Ian
    Abstract: We use a systematic empirical analysis of the determinants of South-South (SS) and North-South (NS) foreign direct investment (FDI) as a canvas to explore how multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) location decisions are shaped by better acquaintance with a foreign market resulting from bilateral ties, experience of international expansion, and knowledge of how to deal with poor governance. We find that these various aspects of market familiarity, which can interact together, are important to explain and differentiate the location behaviours of South MNEs (S-MNEs) and North MNEs (N-MNEs) in developing countries.
    Keywords: South-South FDI, governance, institutions, familiarity, distance,
    Date: 2012
  16. By: Uwe Cantner; Marco Guerzoni; Arianna Martinelli
    Abstract: In this paper we propose a new mental representation of how markets, technology and their interaction concur in explaining the why of a certain innovation instead of another. We empirically test this theory in the telecommunication switches industry. We consider innovation as a new alignment of needs and opportunities, where markets and technology are not the sources, but the actors in this alignment process. In order to accomplish this task, we suggest proxies for technological opportunities, market needs, and, at the same time, for interactions of these two elements. We make use of a statistical tool that grasps the matching nature of this interactive phenomenon.
    Keywords: user-producer interaction, two-mode network, telecommunication manufacturing industry
    Date: 2012–06–06
  17. By: Westling, Tatu
    Abstract: The knowledge theoretic view of organization of production postulates that ICT, tasks and hierarchies intertwine. Utilizing Occupational Employment Statistics and O*NET data, this study investigates the proposition by exploiting the substantial cross-industry variation in hierarchical forms, which are here captured by spans of control among middle and corporate managers. Information [IT] and communication technologies [CT] are explored separately, and the parsimonious task taxonomy depicts industries in four dimensions: tacit knowledge, cognitive, physical/technical and interaction. The key predictions of the knowledge hierarchy literature can hence be tested and the findings largely reverberate with theory. First, ICT influences middle and corporate manager spans dissimilarly reflecting technological asymmetries in hierarchies. Higher IT utilization narrows organizations yet CT expands middle management. Second, industry tasks govern organizational outcomes. Cognitive tasks flatten and technical/physical tasks narrow hierarchies. Third, the descriptive evidence suggests that hierarchies are highly non-pyramidal across U.S. industries. Finally, the key insight is that spans in top hierarchy are insular to tasks yet organizations down the middle management reflect the nature of industry. With some exceptions the results are robust to exogenous variation in ICT utilization.
    Keywords: Organization; hierarchy; span of control; tasks; ICT; cross-industry
    JEL: L23 J21 L22
    Date: 2012–05–24
  18. By: Mafini Dosso
    Abstract: Responding to the research on the persistence of technological specializations, this paper puts forward a complementary explanation for the stability in the fields in which a country performs well relatively to other countries. The study investigates the French institutional and historical features that may explain the evolution of the relative technological strengths of French organizations since the end of the seventies. More precisely it focuses on the interplay between three related institutional factors, the relatively high commitment of the State, the prevailing role of French large firms and of the technical experts from the Grandes Ecoles in shaping France?s innovation system.
    Keywords: Technological specializations, Institutions, large firms
    Date: 2012–06–08
  19. By: Iacob, Constanta; Brabete , Valeriu
    Abstract: Option for a knowledge society requires investment in human resources development to encourage employees to acquire new skills and accept occupational mobility. Effective strategies to improve access to learning and training throughout life, in order to eliminate the deficit of competence, shared responsibilities to ensure coordination of public authorities, social partners and individuals with relevant contribution from civil society. The social partners are requested to negotiate measures to improve education and training continue and to increase their resilience. Investing in human resource development and use of their high contribution to competitiveness, to increase quality jobs and avoid job losses. In a society where every individual will be determined by the ability to learn and master fundamental skills. "Learning relationship" will become dominant in the structure of future society and the relationship between universities and professional bodies will become more apparent.
    Keywords: initial training; continuing education; practice; universities; professional bodies
    JEL: L38 I21
    Date: 2012–06–12
  20. By: Enrica De Cian (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), and Centro Euro-mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)); Ramiro Parrado (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) and Ca’ Foscari University of Venice)
    Abstract: This paper uses a dynamic CGE model to assess the intertemporal and spatial dimension of technology spillovers embodied in international trade within a climate and trade policy framework. Three are the main contributions of the study. First, to include endogenous factor-biased technical change based on trade flows in a CGE model, particularly for energy and capital. Second, to analyse the implications of specific spillovers embodied in trade of capital goods (machinery and equipment), and third, to highlight the implications of accounting for indirect effects induced by spillovers. We find that explicitly modelling trade spillovers reveals significant effects thanks to the transmission mechanisms underlying imports of capital commodities. We then assess the net contribution of modelling trade spillovers within three policy scenarios. The aggregated net effects of spillovers are rather small confirming findings from previous studies. However, there are important international and intersectoral redistribution effects due to technology transfers represented as embodied spillovers.
    Keywords: Computable General Equilibrium Models, Climate Change, Economic Growth, Technological Spillovers
    JEL: C68 E27 O12 Q54 Q56 O33
    Date: 2012–05
  21. By: Sumon Bhaumik; Ralitza Dimova; Subal C. Kumbhakar; Kai Sun
    Abstract: Using a novel modeling approach, and cross-country firm level data for the textiles industry, we examine the impact of institutional quality on firm performance. Our methodology allows us to estimate the marginal impact of institutional quality on productivity of each firm. Our results bring into question conventional wisdom about the desirable characteristics of market institutions, which is based on empirical evidence about the impact of institutional quality on the average firm. We demonstrate, for example, that once both the direct impact of a change in institutional quality on total factor productivity and the indirect impact through changes in efficiency of use of factor inputs are taken into account, an increase in labor market rigidity may have a positive impact on firm output, at least for some firms. We also demonstrate that there are significant intra-country variations in the marginal impact of institutional quality, such that the characteristics of “winners” and “losers” will have to be taken into account before policy is introduced to change institutional quality in any direction.
    Keywords: Institutional quality; Firm performance; Marginal effect; Textiles industry
    JEL: C14 D24 K31 O43
    Date: 2012–02–01
  22. By: Grunert, Stefanie; König, Maike
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2012
  23. By: Cassi, Lorenzo; Plunket, Anne
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of co-inventor tie formation using micro-data on genomic patents from 1990 to 2006 in France. In a single analysis, we consider the relational and proximity perspectives that are usually treated separately. In order to do so, we analyse various forms of proximity as alternative driving forces behind network ties that occur within existing components (i.e. closure ties) as well as those between two distinct components (i.e. bridging ties). In doing so, we contrast network and proximity determinants of network formation and we investigate to what extent social networks allow economic actors to cross over geographical, technological and organizational boundaries.
    Keywords: Social networks; relational perspective; proximity; co-patenting; network formation
    JEL: L65 Z13 O33 O31 D85 R11
    Date: 2012–05

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