nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒06‒13
twenty-six papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Knowledge flows, knowledge externalities and regional economic development By Karlsson, Charlie; Gråsjö, Urban
  2. Establishment and Development of Academic Spin Off Firms by Evidence from Turkey and Some Policy Recommendations By Yelda Erden; Alp Eren Yurtseven
  3. Firm technological innovation persistence: Organizational innovation matters By Naciba Haned; Christian Le Bas; Caroline Mothe; Uyen Nguyen
  4. Flexibility vs. screening: The performance effects of temporary agency work strategies By Michael Beckmann; Dieter Kuhn
  5. Technology and institutions: Theoretical aspects of institutional innovation and its deficiency in Haiti By Paul, Bénédique
  6. International Knowledge Diffusion and the Comparative Advantage of Nations By Bahar, Dany; Hausmann, Ricardo; Hidalgo, Cesar A.
  7. A framework for assessing innovation collaboration partners and its application to India By De Prato, Giuditta; Nepelski, Daniel
  8. Engaging Small and Medium Enterprises in Production Networks: Firm-level Analysis of Five ASEAN Economies By Wignaraja, Ganeshan
  9. Stimulating Different Types of Eco-Innovation in the UK: Government Policies and Firm Motivations By Pelin Demirel; Effie Kesidou
  10. M&A as a Driver of Global Competition in the Brewing Industry By Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars
  11. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008 By Gaston Heimeriks; Ron Boschma
  12. Task Allocation and Corporate Performance: Is There a First-Mover Advantage? By Kathrin Armbruster; Michael Beckmann; Dieter Kuhn
  13. Clean-Tech Clustering as an Engine for Local Development: The Negev Region, Israel By Jonathan Potter; Gabriela Miranda; Philip Cooke; Karen Chapple; Dieter Rehfeld; Gregory Theyel; Dan Kaufmann; Miki Malul; Mosi Rosenboim
  14. Entrepreneurial aging and employment growth in the context of extreme growth events By Schimke, Antje
  15. Modularity and Economic Organization: Concepts, Theory, Observations, and Predictions By Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.
  16. Towards a Stakeholder Theory of Strategic Management By Mahoney, Joseph T.
  17. Do networks make a difference? Explorations of working processes in a European humanitarian network By Clara Egger
  18. Current issues of motivation, academic performance and internet use- implications for an education of excellence By Turturean, Monica
  19. Université et entrepreneuriat en Haïti By Paul, Bénédique
  20. Urban Regions in Europe – Preconditions and Strategies for Growth and Development in the Global Economy By Gråsjö, Urban; Karlsson, Charlie
  21. Trust and innovation activity in European regions: A geographic instrumental variables approach By Schild, Christopher-Johannes
  22. Learning from Neighbors' Export Activities: Evidence from Exporters' Survival. By Ana Fernandes; Heiwai Tang
  23. Progression of HR Practices in Danish Firms during Two Decades By Eriksson, Tor
  24. Industrial policy for SMEs renewal: the opportunity of service platforms By B. Basalisco; Guido M. Rey
  25. Internationalisation of ICT R&D in Asia vis a vis the world regions By Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta
  26. Foreign Direct Investment Relationship and Plant Exit: Evidence from the United States By Marilyn Ibarra-Caton

  1. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School); Gråsjö, Urban (University West)
    Abstract: New knowledge generated by an economic agent in a region will tend over time to flow to other economic agents in the same region but also to economic agents in other regions. It is quite common in the literature to use the concept of knowledge spillovers for such knowledge flows, irrespective of whether they are intended or non-intended. The potential for intra-re-gional knowledge spillover effects depends on the volume and character of the generation on new knowledge in each region as well as of the general characteristics of the individual re-gional economic milieu, i.e., those location attributes, which are regionally trapped and which include how well integrated it is with other regions. The larger this potential, the higher the probability that firms dependent upon knowledge spillovers will locate there and the higher probability that entrepreneurs will take advantage of this potential to launch innovations and to create new knowledge-based firms. To the extent that firms and entrepreneurs can enjoy these knowledge spillovers, they represent an externality or more specifically a knowledge externality in the regional economy. Great importance is in the literature attributed to knowledge spillovers and knowledge exter-nalities as drivers of regional economic development. Some authors, for example, claim that regional variations in localised knowledge spillovers are one of the main reasons behind re-gional variations in innovation performance. Against this background, the purpose of this chapter is, based upon a general characterization of knowledge flows, to analyse the character of knowledge externalities and, in particular, their sources, their economic nature, their recipients, their mechanisms and channels, their geographic reach, and their economic conse-quences generally and for regional economic development in particular.
    Keywords: Knowledge flows; Knowledge externalities; Knowledge spillovers; Regional growth
    JEL: O18 R11 R12
    Date: 2012–06–01
  2. By: Yelda Erden (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Alp Eren Yurtseven (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the main characteristics of academic spin off firms, which evolve from universities through commercialization of intellectual property and transfer of technology developed within academic institutions. Academic spin off firms can be conceptualized as a subset of new technology-based firms and they emerge as important actors of the innovation system in Turkey. Despite the extensive empirical evidence pointing to the conclusion that most new technology-based firms do not grow and more importantly do not even want to grow, the dominating view of new technology-based firms is presuming rapid growth, or at least an aspiration towards it. In addition to problems associated with the liability of newness, academic spin off firms also face two fundamentally different difficulties: Academic spin off firms evolve from non commercial environments, i.e. universities and research laboratories, and have to overcome substantial obstacles on the way to become a profitable organization. Moreover key stakeholders in the founding process (i.e. the academic entrepreneurs, university management, finance suppliers etc.) may have conflicting interests, which may influence the growth pattern of academic spin off firms. Solution of these problems call for a redefinition of parent organization’s structure and mission statement. Recently emerging third mission paradigm puts forward entrepreneurialism as a new pillar in addition to teaching and research. This study attempts to highlight key characteristics of ASOF’s and obtained results are expected to contribute to the intellectual debate about transformation of universities with an entrepreneurial mind set. Obtained results indicate that founders of academic spin off firms have precedent joint research experience, i.e. network of researchers and role of research group as a quasi- firm is influential in the founding process of academic spin off firms. Moreover academic spin off firms are embedded in networks, rather than being atomistic entities and either structure of these networks change, or academic spin off firms partake in different networks during their development.
    Keywords: Academic spin-off, new technology-based firm, entrepreneurial university
    Date: 2012–05
  3. By: Naciba Haned (ESDES Ecole de management de Lyon - Université Catholique de Lyon); Christian Le Bas (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure - Lyon); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Uyen Nguyen (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: Organizational innovation favors technological innovation, but does it also influence technological innovation persistence ? This article investigates empirically the pattern of technological innovation persistence and tests the potential impact of organizational innovation using firm-level data from three waves of the French Community Innovation Surveys. Evidence shows a positive effect of organizational innovation on technological innovation persistence, according to various measures of organizational innovation. Moreover, this impact is more significant for complex innovators (i.e., those who innovate in both products and processes). These results highlight the complexity of managing organizational practices with regard to the firm's technological innovation. They also add to comprehension of the drivers of innovation persistence, through a focus on an often forgotten dimension of innovation in a broader sense.
    Keywords: Organizational Innovation; Technological Innovation; Persistence
    Date: 2012–06–01
  4. By: Michael Beckmann; Dieter Kuhn (University of Basel)
    Keywords: Temporary agency work, firm performance, flexibility strategy, screening strategy
    JEL: C23 J24 J42 J82 M55
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Paul, Bénédique
    Abstract: In the recent decades, in Haiti, a growing propensity to accept new technologies is observed. More than ever, the national market represents a potential advantage, as well as the cheapness of the labor force. Meanwhile, the country cannot take plenty advantage of its technological development potential in order to stimulate the economic growth. The paper analyzes the disadvantage factors. The conclusion show that in addition to the low level of education and the expatriation of skilled human resources, institutional characteristics may help to understand the ineffectiveness of economic development strategies implemented in Haiti in recent years. Then, we propose institutional innovation as both an analytical framework and a challenge to understand and foster economic development through technology in Haiti.
    Keywords: technology; institutional innovation; institutional capital; institutional deficiency; Haiti
    JEL: D23 B52 O17 L52 N46 L26 O31
    Date: 2012–05–30
  6. By: Bahar, Dany (Harvard University); Hausmann, Ricardo (Harvard University); Hidalgo, Cesar A. (MIT and Harvard University)
    Abstract: In this paper we document that the probability that a product is added to a country's export basket is, on average, 65% larger if a neighboring country is a successful exporter of that same product. We interpret our result as evidence of international intra-industry knowledge diffusion. Our results are consistent with the overall consensus in the literature on technology spillovers: diffusion is stronger at shorter distances; is weaker for more knowledge-intensive products; and has become faster over time.
    Date: 2012–05
  7. By: De Prato, Giuditta; Nepelski, Daniel
    Abstract: We develop a framework for assessing innovation collaboration partners. Based on the evidence from existing empirical studies, we identify four elements relevant as drivers of innovation collaboration. These elements include inventive capacity, technological specialization patterns, openness to international innovation collaboration and economic potential of technology. In order to make the framework operational, we propose a set of patent-based indicators that capture the relevant elements. In a second step, we apply the framework to analyse the attractiveness of India as a partner for innovation collaboration. Except for mapping India’s technological specialization patterns evolution, we show that it is a country very open to international collaboration. Moreover, as a lion’s share of India’s inventions is patented outside of the country, it can be expected that the technology developed in India has supranational commercial potential.
    Keywords: collaborative innovation; science and technology collaboration; globalisation of technology; patent analysis; India
    JEL: O30 F23 O57 D80 O14
    Date: 2012–05–31
  8. By: Wignaraja, Ganeshan (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are under scrutiny for their engagement in production networks following recent emphasis on increasing intra-regional trade, rebalancing, and inclusive growth in Asia. Using a data set covering 5,900 firms in five ASEAN economies at different stages of development, this paper analyses the participation of SMEs in production networks, determinants, and policy implications. It finds that although large firms dominate production network engagement in ASEAN economies, there are signs that SMEs have modestly increased their participation since the late-1990s. This is linked to firm-specific factors (e.g., firm size, foreign ownership, skills, technological capabilities, and access to credit) as well as a supportive business environment. Tackling residual supply-side and policy constraints can further the participation of ASEAN SMEs in production networks.
    Keywords: small and medium enterprises; production networks; asean; intra-regional trade
    JEL: F10 F23 O14
    Date: 2012–06–01
  9. By: Pelin Demirel (Nottingham University Business School, Nothingham University); Effie Kesidou (Nottingham University Business School, Nothingham University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we adopt a recent OECD framework and examine the role of external policy tools and internal firm specific factors for stimulating three different types of eco-innovations that range on a spectrum of lower to higher technological and environmental impact: End-of-Pipeline Pollution Control Technologies, Integrated Cleaner Production Technologies and Environmental R&D. Using a novel firm-level dataset from a DEFRA survey, we estimate a Tobit model, which provides empirical evidence showing that these eco-innovations are motivated by different external policy tools and internal firm specific factors. Our findings indicate that End of Pipeline Technologies and Integrated Cleaner Production Technologies are mainly driven by equipment upgrade motives with a view of improving efficiency while environmental regulations are effective in stimulating the End-of-Pipeline technologies and Environmental R&D. Interestingly, alongside government induced regulations, we find that market factors, mainly motivated by cost savings, are effective in driving Environmental R&D. Finally, ISO14001 certification is effective in strengthening the positive impact of environmental management systems on both End-of-Pipeline technologies and Environmental R&D while CSR policies have no significant impact on motivating any of the eco-innovations.
    Keywords: Cleaner Production, Environmental Regulation, Environmental Taxes, Environmental Management Systems, Eco-R&D, ISO14001
    Date: 2012–05
  10. By: Madsen, Erik Strøjer (Department of Economics, Aarhus School of Business); Pedersen, Kurt (Institut for Marketing og Organisation - Ledelse); Lund-Thomsen, Lars (BSS, Biblioteker - Biblioteket)
    Abstract: The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry
    Keywords: No; keywords
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2011–09–21
  11. By: Gaston Heimeriks; Ron Boschma
    Abstract: This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitive developments within this scientific field. Our analyses show that biotech is subject to a path- and place-dependent process of knowledge production. We observed a high degree of re-occurrences of similar key topics in biotech in consecutive years. Furthermore, slow growth cities in biotech are characterized by topics that are less technologically related to other topics, while high growth cities in biotech contribute to topics that are more related to the entire set of existing topics. Slow growth and stable growth cities in biotech introduced more new topics, while fast growth cities in biotech introduced more promising topics. Slow growth cities also showed low levels of research collaboration, as compared to stable and high growth cities.
    Keywords: title words, branching, geography of biotechnology, scientific knowledge production, path dependence, place dependence
    JEL: O33 R11 L65 D83
    Date: 2012–06
  12. By: Kathrin Armbruster; Michael Beckmann; Dieter Kuhn (University of Basel)
    Keywords: Task Allocation, First Mover, Late Adopter, Firm Performance, Switzerland
    JEL: C21 C24 D24 M12
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Jonathan Potter; Gabriela Miranda; Philip Cooke; Karen Chapple; Dieter Rehfeld; Gregory Theyel; Dan Kaufmann; Miki Malul; Mosi Rosenboim
    Abstract: This report summarises the findings of a case study project on growing clean-tech cluster activity in the Negev region of Israel as part of a series of reviews on Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development carried out by the Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). <P>The review examines entrepreneurship, SMEs and local development in the Negev in the south of Israel, where there is strong potential for the growth of significant clean-tech industry cluster activity, involving a critical mass of firms, human capital, research organisations, support infrastructure and associated formal and informal linkages. <P>This report looks at the ways in which such capacity can be strengthened by public policies, including investment in centres of research excellence and specialised testing facilities, creation of spaces for innovation exchange, and the introduction of a green strategy and eco-city approach. The analysis provides guidance and policy recommendations on how best to support the emergence and expansion of clean-tech cluster activity that will enhance economic development capacity in the region while contributing to national green growth objectives.
    Date: 2012–05
  14. By: Schimke, Antje
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirical evidence on the linkage between entrepreneurial aging of the workforce and firm growth. More precisely, it aims to analyse the impact of aging on employment growth in the context of extreme growth events. Basically, the study is conducted to capture the overall impact of the average age structure and aging effect on employment growth. For the empirical estimation we apply a linked employer-employee dataset providing 2.100 German firms covering the time period from 2001 to 2006. Using quantile regression techniques, the specific quantiles θ of extremely growing (θ 0.90), medium growing (θ 0.50) or shrinking firms (θ 0.10) can be explicitly analysed. The results show, on average, that employment growth seems to decline as the workforce is getting older. Put differently, extreme growth events seem to be less likely when the average aging of the workforce rapidly accelerates. Firm-specific characteristics such as size, industry affiliation and location matter hereby. --
    Keywords: entrepreneurial aging,firm growth,employment growth,extreme growth events,age,workforce
    JEL: J11 J21 L26 O33
    Date: 2012
  15. By: Sanchez, Ron (Copenhagen Business School); Mahoney, Joseph T. (University of IL)
    Abstract: This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential for achieving important integrations of microeconomic and macroeconomic theory. We suggest some areas for further research that may be especially fruitful in this regard.
    Date: 2012–05
  16. By: Mahoney, Joseph T. (University of IL)
    Abstract: This paper suggests that due to the changing nature of the firm, viewing shareholders as the sole residual claimants is an increasingly tenuous description of the actual relationships among a corporation's various stakeholders. Examining the corporation from a (team production) property rights perspective of incomplete contracting and implicit contracting provides a foundation for the revitalization of a stakeholder theory of the firm in the strategic management discipline.
    Date: 2012–05
  17. By: Clara Egger (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques (IEP) - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I)
    Abstract: Most of the current studies focusing on network organizations analyze how interorganizational networks are created, how they develop and how they overcome the limitations of rigid and ill-adapted bureaucracies. This paper proposes a different stance and empirically studies how work is concretely carried out in NGOs network in order to assess the specificity of this new organizational space. The paper proposes a fine-grained analysis of the biggest humanitarian NGO network in Europe, VOICE, where the author spent eight months doing field observations and interviewing the network's staff and European policy-makers. The results presented here explore the nexus between work and organizations in terms of innovation, framing and mimicry processes, organizational culture, power asymmetry and organizations' pathologies. First of all, networks face difficulty to innovate. Through isomorphism, network's staff members tend to copy the structure and functioning of organizations they consider successful. Moreover, one of the key tasks of the permanent secretariat of a network is to create a specific organizational culture, which can bring rival organizations together. Finally, the research shows that networks can suffer from the same pathologies affecting other organizations in terms of power asymmetry and path dependence. These findings suggest that in future research about interoganizational networks, they also need to be considered as a workplace in order to fully understand the specificities of these new organizational spaces.
    Keywords: Interorganizational cooperation, organizational culture, institutional mimicry, path dependence, network organization
    Date: 2012–05–23
  18. By: Turturean, Monica
    Abstract: Today’s world is facing many problems caused by the economic crisis leading thus to an education crisis. Witnessing major changes in the curricula, at different ways of assessment, at teaching and learning in transdiciplinary manner which took by surprise the students who, in turn, feel disarmed and unable to cope with these changes that take place in a very fast rate. And internet has a big influence in students learning and their performance. Many universities try to introduce the internet and new technologies to facilitate student learning, to enhance their motivation for study and to improve their academic performance. Given that, if we want to provide an education of excellence, we have to know the student professional motivation, which determines them to obtain academic performance, to enhance their learning using internet to successfully cope with the challenges of knowledge-based society.
    Keywords: motivation; academic performance; internet technology; critical thinking; active learning
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2012–04–26
  19. By: Paul, Bénédique
    Abstract: This article analyzes the university's role in the reconstruction of Haiti through an economic perspective. To rebuild themselves, Haitians need to be able to realize their dreams and meet their own needs, while fighting the behavioral bias created by the assistantship. By studying the relationship between university and entrepreneurship in Haiti, the article emphasizes the need for the Haitian university to be redesigned in order to act as vector of an entrepreneurial culture for the country's economic development.
    Keywords: Université; Entrepreneuriat; Innovation; Formation; Recherche; Haïti
    JEL: D03 O17 A23 B52 L26
    Date: 2012–04–16
  20. By: Gråsjö, Urban (University West); Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Nowadays it is well-established fact that urban regions and large ones in particular are crucial for promoting creativity, innovation and subsequent economic growth in the economy. There-fore, it is important to focus policies in Europe on how to improve the existing conditions of urban regions so they can function as engines of economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to discuss policies needed to meet the current urban challenges and to make urban regions in Europe more competitive. A problem with current spatial policies at the EU-level as well as at the national level in most countries is that the policies mainly ignore functional urban re-gions and instead focus on administrative regions. A reason for this is that there is often no political body with authority over the whole functional urban region. In this paper, we present ideas for a new type of spatial policies in Europe focusing on innovation and growth. For in-stance, there is a need to take measures to increase the density of population and companies in functional urban regions and to improve transport infrastructure to increase the geographical extension of functional regions. There is also a need to develop more urban regions into real innovation nodes by developing more elite universities with a proper R&D funding and a ca-pacity to compete with the best universities in the US. Another focus must be on increased investments in higher education as well as policies aiming at increasing the attractiveness of urban regions in terms of housing infrastructure and supply of amenities.
    Keywords: Urban regions; Urban policy; Growth; Innovation; Europe
    JEL: O18 R11 R58
    Date: 2012–06–01
  21. By: Schild, Christopher-Johannes
    Abstract: For a cross-section of 123 European regions, a positive causal effect of generalised trust on innovation activity is identified using a set of geographic instrumental variables from climate and soil data. The geographic instrumental variables are defined and discussed. The popular explanation for spatial clustering of innovation by 'interregional knowledge spillovers' is empirically tested. It is found that spatial clustering of innovation activity can be better explained by a positive in uence of trust on innovation combined with the fact that neighboring regions typically show similar levels of trust. --
    Keywords: Social Capital,Trust,Innovation,Regional Economics,Europe
    JEL: O31 R11 R12 Z13
    Date: 2012
  22. By: Ana Fernandes; Heiwai Tang
    Abstract: Recent studies in international trade report that new exporters often start selling small amounts and cease exporting in the first year. These findings reflect a substantial amount of uncertainty facing new exporters. In this paper we study whether export activities in the neighborhood reveal information about export profitability and thus enhance new exporters' performance. Using transaction-level data for the universe of exporters in China over the period of 2001-2005, we find that new exporters; first-year sales and probability of survival are both higher in cities where there are more existing export activities in the same market (industry or destination country). Export activities in other markets do not generate any positive spillovers, and in some cases we find negative spillovers. Spillovers from processing exporters are weaker. Foreign exporters benefit less from neighboring export activities. The relaion between the magnitude of spillovers and the proxies for demand uncertainty is non-monotonic. We empirically verify that our findings are unlikely to be spurious or resulted from spillovers through the credit- constraint or the imported-material channels.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillovers, uncertainty, export dynamics, multi-product exporters.
    JEL: F1 F2
    Date: 2012
  23. By: Eriksson, Tor (Department of Economics, Aarhus School of Business)
    Abstract: This paper describes the spread of new work and pay practices in Danish private sector firms during the last two decades. The data source is two surveys directed at firms and carried out ten years apart. The descriptive analysis shows that large changes in the way work is organized in firms have occurred during both decades, whereas the progression of pay practices predominantly took place in the nineties. There is considerable firm heterogeneity in the frequency of adoption of the practices. In particular, the prevalence of both incentive pay and work practices is higher in multinational companies and firms engaged in exporting
    Keywords: High performance work practices; Pay practices; Performance pay
    JEL: M52
    Date: 2012–06–07
  24. By: B. Basalisco; Guido M. Rey (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa)
    Abstract: This work considers the application of a platform strategy in order to promote the adoption of advanced network infrastructures by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). First, we analyse the incentives of industrial players in a context where SMEs playing an important economic role and where traditional rather than high-tech sectors of activity are predominant – with specific reference to the Italian case. Second, we review the contributions of the economic and managerial literature on platforms or two-sided markets. We leverage this by proposing a policy application of the platform concept, showing its potential benefits in allowing the manufacturing sector to gain from access to the service economy. We classify platforms according to their function and identify those types which can serve the purpose of industrial promotion. This leads us to review governance aspects which are paramount to platform functioning given the policy context.
    Keywords: Platforms; SMEs; Manufacturing; Service economy; Innovation; Governance; Industrial policy.
    JEL: F23 M21 O14 O25 O32
    Date: 2012–03–01
  25. By: Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta
    Abstract: We analyse the internationalisation of ICT R&D in Asia and compare it with the other world regions. Despite the strong linkages between Japan, the US and the EU, Asia seems to be very attractive as a location for R&D activities. It is also striking how the role of Japan as a partner of other Asian countries decreased mainly in favour of the US. At the aggregate level, there are strong differences in R&D internationalisation across regions. This might indicate that each region follows a different R&D internationalisation path. Alternatively, it might also be a sign of unequal capabilities of "going global". In this respect, the US offers an interesting example of a region which benefit from the process of internationalisation of inventive activity not only through building research collaborations with foreign inventors, but also through successfully capturing innovations developed by foreign researchers.
    Keywords: Globalisation; R&D internationalization; R&D location; patent statistics
    JEL: O32 D80
    Date: 2011–12–01
  26. By: Marilyn Ibarra-Caton (Bureau of Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that U.S. manufacturing plants belonging to U.S. multinational companies (MNCs) are more likely to shut down than other manufacturing plants, once plant and industry attributes have been controlled for (Bernard A. and Jensen B., 2007). This research has concentrated on the importance of plant characteristics and the role of the firm structure, while largely ignoring the impact of the U.S. MNCs’ foreign operations. This study extends that research in two ways. First, this study looks at inward direct investment-that is, the U.S. manufacturing plants of foreign MNCs and not just the U.S. manufacturing plants of U.S. MNCs. It uses enterprise data from BEA’s survey of inward direct investment on the U.S. operations of foreign-owned MNCs combined with establishment data from the Census Bureau’s 1997 and 2002 Census of Manufacturing (CMF). The data are used to demonstrate that U.S. manufacturing plants of foreign MNCs are more likely to shut down than non-MNC plants and less likely to shut down than U.S. MNC plants, thereby providing the first empirical evidence for the United States.
    Date: 2012–01

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