nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒06‒05
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. The Role of Data and Knowledge in Firms’ Service and Product Innovation By Heli Koski
  2. What are the channels for technology sourcing? Panel data evidence from German companies By Harhoff, Dietmar; Mueller, Elisabeth; Van Reenen, John
  3. An Agent-Based Model of Schumpeterian Competition By Alessandro Caiani
  4. Micro-geographies of clusters of creative industries in Europe By Rafael Boix; Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver; Blanca De Miguel-Molina
  5. Open Innovation and Firm's Survival: An empirical investigation by using a linked dataset of patent and enterprise census By MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  6. Les déterminants de l’innovation dans les services : une analyse à partir des formes d’innovation développées By Michelle Mongo; Corinne Autant-Bernard
  7. How do geographically mobile innovators influence network formation? By Ernest Miguélez
  8. Linking competitiveness clusters with public higher education and research: the French puzzle By Philippe Lefebvre; Frédérique Pallez; Daniel Fixari
  9. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese) By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  10. A Theory of Expert Leadership By Goodall, Amanda H.
  11. Revealing the influence of managerial practices and entrepreneurs' characteristics on hotel efficiency By Marco Corsino; Enrico Zaninotto
  12. R&D Intensive Goods Trade and Competitiveness of Turkey in the European Union Market By Dilek Seymen; Baþak Gümüþtekin
  13. How to Educate Entrepreneurs? By Graevenitz, Georg von; Weber, Richard
  14. Micro evidence for sources of innovation in European countries By Piacentino, Davide
  15. The Role of Services for Manufacturing Firms’ Exports By Lodefalk, Magnus

  1. By: Heli Koski
    Abstract: The importance of data and different sources of knowledge in the development of new services and products, and further in the creation of new markets, has dramatically increased during the past few decades. This empirical study uses data from 531 Finnish firms to explore the determinants of generation of new data-based products and services. The empirical findings emphasize the role of a firm’s absorptive capacity and its ICT competence in data-based innovation. It seems that generally a firm’s external information sources play a more prominent role than internal information sources. Particularly customer involvement in innovation process positively relates to the production of new data-based products and services. The reported empirical findings further indicate that data-based product and service innovation tends to be rather strongly demand-driven.
    Keywords: firm performance, innovation, data-based products and services, ICT
    JEL: D22 L20 O31
    Date: 2012–05–24
  2. By: Harhoff, Dietmar; Mueller, Elisabeth; Van Reenen, John
    Abstract: Innovation processes within corporations increasingly tap into international technology sources, yet little is known about the relative contribution of different types of innovation channels. We investigate the effectiveness of different types of international technology sourcing activities using survey information on German companies complemented with information from the European Patent Office. German firms with inventors based in the US disproportionately benefit from R&D knowledge located in the US. The positive influence on total factor productivity is larger if the research of the inventors results in co-applications of patents with US companies. Moreover, research cooperation with American suppliers also enables German firms to better tap into US R&D, but cooperation with customers and competitors does not appear to aid technology sourcing. The results suggest that the brain drain to the US can have upsides for corporations tapping into American know-how. --
    Keywords: technology sourcing,knowledge spillovers,productivity,open innovation
    JEL: O32 O33
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Alessandro Caiani (Department of Economics and Business, University of Pavia)
    Abstract: The paper presents an Agent-Based extension of Nelson-Winter model of schumpeterian competition. The original version did not provide any insight about the direction of firms’ innovative activities and of technological change as a whole. As a result, it lacked an explicit structure governing firms interaction and the shape of externalities. We address these criticisms by taking explicitly into account the structure of technology in use in the industry, that we shape as a directed network of nodes and links: nodes represent technological skills to be learnt by firms looking for ’new combinations’ and links represent their reciprocal interdependencies. The network is created in order to reflect the defining properties of Technological Paradigms and Technological Trajectories, as they emerge by evolutive-neoschumpeterian literature. Firms’ ability to learn technological skills through imitation of competitors generates spillover effects related to the process of diffusion of innovation. The basic model presented here focuses on a particular aspect of schumpeterian competition: the relationship between industry initial concentration and its overall innovative performance and, vice-versa, between innovation process and the evolution of industry structure over time. In this same perspective we also analyze how firms’ interactions and the structure of technology concur in determining the success or failure of an innovative strategy. Finally we argue that the model presented here might constitute a flexible framework worthy of further applications in the study of innovation process and technological progress.
    Date: 2012–05
  4. By: Rafael Boix; Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver; Blanca De Miguel-Molina
    Abstract: What makes special the geography of the clusters of creative industries (CI)? This paper considers the symbolic knowledge-base and the preference for location in urban spaces observed in those clusters. The study avoids classic research designs based on synthetic knowledge bases and regional-based administrative-constrained design, using instead micro-data (550,000 firms in creative industries) and geo-statistical algorithms. Results contribute to the economic geography by: (i) providing a specific observation of the spatial dimension (where) in the cluster theory; (ii) identifying and mapping the clusters of CI in Europe; (iii) exploring particular forms of agglomeration and co-location (urban and non-urban) followed by clusters of CI. Results present implications for scholars and policy-makers suggesting to stress the articulation of within and between-cluster policy strategies for existing clusters rather than fostering the generation of new clusters.
    Keywords: creative industries, clusters, symbolic knowledge, micro-data, geolocalization
    JEL: R12 C49 Z0
    Date: 2012–05
  5. By: MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This paper uses patent filings as an indicator of innovation and investigates the relationship between innovation and firms' survival, based on the linked dataset of the Census of Establishment and Enterprise and the Institute of Intellectual Property (IIP) Patent Database for Japanese firms. We have constructed the indicators on the organization of innovative activities, such as external collaboration in inventions and the type of collaborative partners, and disentangle two competing factors, i.e., technological capability (positive influence on firms' survival) and commercial risk (negative influence on firms' survival). We found that the risk factor surpasses the capability factor, thus the impact of patenting on survival has a negative correlation with firms' survival at the end.
    Date: 2012–05
  6. By: Michelle Mongo (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France); Corinne Autant-Bernard
    Abstract: This article makes a study of the influence of innovation determinants on their ability to innovate and the different types of innovation (technological and non-technological) developed within service sector. The statistics are provided from the community Innovation Survey. The estimation method is a probit with selection from the framework proposed by Heckman (1979) and refined by Van De Ven and Van Praag (1981). The first equation explains the innovative capacity and the second explicates the implementation of different types of innovation (technological and / or non-technological). The analysis focuses on the comparison of innovation behaviors in service sector and industry. The results demonstrate that the determinants of innovation ability are similar for service sector and industry and the differences are issued from different forms of innovation developed. More precisely, it comes from the orientation of each sector towards more or less technological innovation. The results bring up the question of the appropriateness of current policies of innovation especially in R&D’ promotion. The author proposes to take into account the consideration of different types of activities and innovation for this policy and suggests to focus on the lowtechnological but innovative and non-technological activities like intellectual services.
    Keywords: Non-technological Innovation, Services, Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Ernest Miguélez
    Abstract: In this paper, I aim to assess the influence of spatial mobility of knowledge workers on the formation of ties of scientific and industrial collaboration across European regions. Co-location has been traditionally invoked to ease formal collaboration between individuals and firms. Tie formation is costly and decreases as distance between the partners involved increases, making ties between co-located individuals more likely than between spatially separated peers. In some instances, highly-skilled actors might become mobile and bridge regional networks across long physical distances. The effect of trust and mutual understanding between members of a co-located community may well survive the end of their co-localisation, and therefore the formation of networks across the space may overcome long distances. In this paper I estimate a fixed effects logit model to ascertain whether there exists a ‘previous co-location premium’ in the formation of networks across European regions. The role of mobility in network formation has been lately discussed elsewhere, but, to my knowledge, barely empirically tested.
    Keywords: inventors’ mobility, technological collaborations, co-location, brain drain, panel data
    JEL: C8 J61 O31 O33 R0
    Date: 2012–05
  8. By: Philippe Lefebvre (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech); Frédérique Pallez (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech); Daniel Fixari (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: The importance of proximity in the field of innovation has been highlighted, notably, in studies which emphasize the growing role of the third mission of the universities, namely, regional economic development. Using an empirical approach, we have attempted to gain an insight into the ways in which networks involving local economic and academic actors are created. This study focuses on France, where the State has recently promoted an aggressive policy designed to develop clusters and reform higher education and research, with a view to bringing together universities, creating centres of excellence, research networks at the local level and promoting connections of both to clusters. The study reveals the existence of a wide variety of configurations and, in spite of globally positive dynamics, highlights areas in which insufficiently well coordinated governmental approaches could be improved. The study also underlines a number of hitherto neglected aspects: a less global approach to institutions should be taken, and analyses of the variety of possible links between science and innovation should be more nuanced. Lastly, the study highlights a profound transformation in the approaches taken by governmental agencies.
    Keywords: Clusters ;Territories; Regional studies;Universities;Science and Innovation ;Public policy
    Date: 2011
  9. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer time horizon in decision making, the important role of workers and customers as stakeholders, and the reluctance to reduce employees in case of deterioration of financial performance. On the other hand, recently, Japanese firms have attached importance on profit rather than sales as a performance measure. The influence of shareholders on managerial decision making is strengthening. Japanese firms have become active in restructuring their businesses through M&A and sales of unprofitable businesses.
    Date: 2012–05
  10. By: Goodall, Amanda H. (IZA)
    Abstract: How much knowledge should leaders have of their organization's core business? This is an important question but not one that has been addressed in the management literature. In a new 'theory of expert leadership' (TEL), this paper blends conceptual work with recent empirical evidence. It suggests that organizations perform more effectively when led by individuals who have a deep understanding of the core business of their organization. Being a capable general manager is not sufficient. Expert leaders are those with (1) inherent knowledge, acquired through technical expertise combined with high ability in the core-business activity; (2) industry experience, which stems from time and practice within the core-business industry; and (3) leadership capabilities, which include management skills and a leader's innate characteristics. This paper criticizes the rise of the professional manager and generalist CEO. It argues that expert leaders improve organizational performance through knowledge-based strategy, by acting as a standard bearer, by creating the right environment for core workers, and, finally, by adopting the long view. The paper concludes by identifying the potential boundaries of TEL.
    Keywords: expert leaders, CEOs, inherent knowledge, core business, organizational performance
    JEL: J24 M12 M51
    Date: 2012–05
  11. By: Marco Corsino; Enrico Zaninotto
    Abstract: Productive efficiency in hotels varies greatly. Based on a large dataset on the hotel industry in an Italian region, a two-stage approach was used, first to distinguish the component of inefficiency arising from external factors, linked to destination, and then to isolate the role that firm-level variables play on hotel efficiency. Stage 1 was carried out with non-parametric frontier analysis; stage 2 was based on an econometric model which regresses inefficiency scores on a set of firm-level variables. Investment behavior was found to play an important role, and family management had a negative influence on productive efficiency.
    Keywords: Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Two-stage estimation; Hotel industry; Managerial practices
    Date: 2012–05
  12. By: Dilek Seymen (Dokuz Eylül University); Baþak Gümüþtekin (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy)
    Abstract: This paper aims to measure trade competitiveness of Research and Development (R&D) intensive goods of Turkey in the European Union (EU) market, using different trade indices. Concentration Ratio (Michaely, 1958), Export-Import Commodity Composition Index (Muscatelli, 1991), Intra-Industry Trade Index (Grubel, Lloyd, 1971) and Sectoral-Bilateral Trade Intensity Ratios (Seymen, 2009) are calculated to analyze the technology composition of manufacturing goods trade between Turkey and the EU27. Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (Balassa, 1965), Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Index (Brulhart, 1994), and Sectoral-Bilateral Competitiveness Index (Seymen, 2009) are employed to gain insight about the bilateral competition between two parties. Thus, once the general situation related to the R&D intensive goods trade between Turkey and the EU is detected, it will be possible to draw some policy implications through a future study in the following phase, by identifying the value added structures, exterior input dependence and vertical-horizontal specialization levels of the goods revealed to have competitive advantage in this study.
    Keywords: R&D intensive goods trade, competitiveness, Turkey & EU Trade
    JEL: F10 F14 F15
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Graevenitz, Georg von; Weber, Richard
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship education has two purposes: To improve students’ entrepreneurial skills and to provide impetus to those suited to entrepreneurship while discouraging the rest. While entrepreneurship education helps students to make a vocational decision its effects may conflict for those not suited to entrepreneurship. This study shows that vocational and the skill formation effects of entrepreneurship education can be identified empirically by drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. This is embedded in a structural equation model which we estimate and test using a robust 2SLS estimator. We find that the attitudinal factors posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior are positively correlated with students’ entrepreneurial intentions. While conflicting effects of vocational and skill directed course content are observed in some individuals, overall these types of content are complements. This finding contradicts previous results in the literature. We reconcile the conflicting findings and discuss implications for the design of entrepreneurship courses.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial intention; theory of planned behavior; structural equation models; two stage least squares.
    JEL: L11 L13 O34
    Date: 2011
  14. By: Piacentino, Davide
    Abstract: This paper investigates sources of product or process innovation, such as investments in research and development, machinery, personnel training and management systems, by examining microdata from eight European countries. We pay particular attention to the effect of research and development in favouring the absorption of new technologies, i.e. the absorptive capacity. Significant positive effects of each source on both product and process innovations are found. Significant evidence of positive absorptive capacity emerges only in firms with low predicted probabilities of introducing innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation; Absorption; Microdata; European countries
    JEL: D21 O32 O31
    Date: 2012–05–29
  15. By: Lodefalk, Magnus (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics)
    Abstract: Manufacturing firms increasingly focus on services. This trend is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and seemingly also in total sale. Firms’ services intensity may affect their productivity, and thereby competitiveness abroad. Services are also instrumental in connecting to the foreign market and can help firms to differentiate their offers. However, only bits and pieces of the relation between services and manufacturing’s exports have been analysed in previous literature. This study contributes by discussing the role of services for the firm, arriving at some conjectures and testing them empirically. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results suggest that there is an effect of services inputs, while controlling for covariates and firm heterogeneity. Raising the proportion of services in in-house production, on average, yields higher export intensity. Buying-in more services is associated with higher export intensity for firms in selected industries. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.
    Keywords: firm; export intensity; manufacturing; services; intangibles; innovation
    JEL: F14 L24 L25 L60 O33
    Date: 2012–05–24

This nep-cse issue is ©2012 by Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.