nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒05‒08
eleven papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Working Paper 04-12 - Le système d’innovation en Wallonie By Bernadette Biatour; Coraline Daubresse; Chantal Kegels
  2. Entrepreneurship in Advanced and Developing Countries: A Microeconomic Perspective By Vivarelli, Marco
  3. Determinants of Pharmaceutical Innovation: The Role of Technological Opportunities Revisited By Bastian Rake
  4. Localization of Interfirm Transaction Relationships and Industry Agglomeration By NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko Umeno; UESUGI Iichiro
  5. The Manufacturing Industry – Coping with Challenges By David J. Dingli
  6. La dynamique des innovations d'exploration et d'exploitation des PME à travers les alliances stratégiques. By Bouzid, Inès
  7. How to Stir Up FDI Spillovers: Evidence from a Large Meta-Analysis By Tomas Havranek; Zuzana Irsova
  8. The Birth and the Rise of the Cluster Concept By Luciana Lazzeretti; Silvia Rita Sedita; Annalisa Caloffi
  9. Market familiarity and the location of South and North MNEs By Celine Azemar, Julia Darby, Rodolphe Desbordes and Ian Wooton; Julia Darby; Rodolphe Desbordes; Ian Wooton
  10. The influence of relational experience and contractual governance on the negotiation strategy in buyer-supplier disputes By Lumineau, Fabrice; Henderson, James
  11. The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment By Rosendahl Huber, Laura; Sloof, Randolph; van Praag, Mirjam

  1. By: Bernadette Biatour; Coraline Daubresse; Chantal Kegels
    Abstract: This working paper analyses the performances of the Walloon innovation system in 2010. It concentrates on the six dimensions of the innovation system: knowledge development, human resources, R&D valorisation, innovation absorption capacity, entrepreneurial skills and financing capacity. These pillars are assessed by comparing the Walloon performances with those of European countries and regions with a similar industrial heritage. The analysis underlines the good performances of the mobilisation of financial resources in favour of R&D activities but also a potential problem in terms of human resources available for these activities. Maintaining a sufficient flow of competence by new science graduates and engineers and by the implementation of lifelong learning remains the key challenge in the years to come.
    Keywords: Innovation, Regional economy, Assessment
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2012–02–28
  2. By: Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a contribution to the identification of the role of entrepreneurship in economic growth by mapping out: 1) alternative ways of looking at entrepreneurship, distinguishing 'creative destruction' from simple 'turbulence'; 2) the different microeconomic determinants of new firm formation, distinguishing 'progressive' from 'regressive' drivers; 3) the relationship between ex-ante characteristics (of the founder) and post-entry performance (of the new firm); and 4) the possible scope for an economic policy aimed at maximizing the impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth. Where possible and appropriate, throughout the paper particular attention is devoted to the specific features characterizing entrepreneurship in developing countries.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, new firm, innovation, development
    JEL: L26 O12
    Date: 2012–04
  3. By: Bastian Rake (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Graduate College "The Economics of Innovative Change")
    Abstract: Recent empirical contributions emphasize the importance of (potential) market size for the development of new pharmaceuticals. At the same time many scholars point out the importance of of scientific advances for the industry's R&D activities. Against this background I analyze the relationship between (potential) market size, technological opportunities, and the number of new pharmaceuticals in the United States. Technological opportunities are operationalized as growth rates of the relevant knowledge stock as proposed by Andersen (1999, 1998). I analyze a unique dataset by using an "entry stock" Poisson quasi-maximum likelihood estimator. The results reveal a rather robust and significantly positive response of the number of new pharmaceuticals, i.e., new molecular entities or new drug approvals, to market size and technological opportunities.
    Keywords: Determinants of Innovation, Pharmaceuticals, Demand, Technological Opportunities
    JEL: O31 J10 J20
    Date: 2012–05–03
  4. By: NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko Umeno; UESUGI Iichiro
    Abstract: Using a unique dataset of more than 140,000 manufacturing firms in Japan containing information on their suppliers and customers, this paper looks at the physical distances between transaction partners to examine the localization of transaction relationships. We find the following. First, based on a counterfactual that controls for the location of firms and their potential partners, transaction relationships in about 90%-95% of the 150 three-digit manufacturing industries can be labeled as localized at distances of 40km or less. This indicates that physical distance is a key factor in firms' choice of transaction partners. Second, based on a counterfactual that controls for the average distance of transaction relationships in the manufacturing sector as a whole, we find that about 40% of industries transaction relationships are localized at short distances not exceeding 40km. Third, the extents of industrial localization and localization of transaction relationships are positively correlated. However, there are a number of exceptions, for which we provide potential explanations.
    Date: 2012–04
  5. By: David J. Dingli (Assistant Professor Operations Management, Maastricht School of Management)
    Abstract: The perception of many people who live in the developed economies of Europe and America are often heard saying that the days of manufacturing are numbered in these countries and that China is the new “factory of the world”. This paper demonstrates how far from reality such a broad sweeping statement is. Manufacturing in developed economies is still flourishing and there is still scope to maintain and sometimes to bring back manufacturing to these parts of the world. Indeed, the landscape has changed; the types of industries, technologies, capabilities and manufacturing methodologies have been totally transformed over the years and now display high levels of sophistication. What has not changed is that the majority of companies around the world are still Small & Medium (SME) sized firms. The need for co-operation and collaboration has never been more needed than it is now as at individual firm level most SMEs do not possess all the resources and capabilities necessary to compete internationally. New challenges have also emerged. Indeed, the newly developing nations such as China, India and Korea have demonstrated a fast catch up capability. Competition is now global, greatly assisted by the revolutions undertaken in the communications and transportation sectors. Companies have also gone global through distributed organizations. The paper reviews current literature regarding trends and challenges in manufacturing and will illustrate how competition has shifted towards intangible assets, the capability to outsource, to innovate and to invest in advanced technologies not only to bring costs down but to enhance quality, cope with mass customization and develop the capability to produce high value added sophisticated products. Supply chains also form a new frontier to achieve competitive advantage and an area where competencies are being built. Malta is no exception. Being part of the European Union, and facing ever rising costs and global competition, manufacturing has shifted from low level labour intensive industries to more sophisticated, high technology companies within the pharmaceutical, electronics and medical products sectors among others. The total number of people employed in manufacturing has indeed reduced due to increased productivity of the manufacturing processes being deployed. The challenges to develop manufacturing capabilities and competencies remain as they have always been; central to competitive advantage. The change that has taken place is that many new manufacturing competencies had not traditionally been viewed as part of the manufacturing paradigm. The scope of the competency base has grown. Manufacturing companies have taken advantage of the globalization of industries by sourcing and producing where the highest competitive advantages can be reaped.
    Date: 2012–04
  6. By: Bouzid, Inès
    Abstract: L’objectif de cette recherche est de comprendre le rôle que peuvent jouer les alliances complémentaires et additives d’une PME pour concilier les innovations d’exploration et les innovations d’exploitation. La compréhension du contexte de la conclusion des alliances par la PME et les liens qui peuvent exister entre les différentes natures des alliances et des innovations étudiées a été conduite selon deux approches. En effet, la recherche réunit les apports d’une approche exploratoire qualitative et ceux d’une étude confirmatoire quantitative. La recherche montre que la conduite des innovations d’exploration et d’exploitation au moyen des alliances stratégiques est influencée par un ensemble de facteurs contextuels, organisationnels et stratégiques. La phase exploratoire a permis de distinguer clairement les alliances de la PME avec l’industrie et celles avec le monde académique. La phase confirmatoire quant à elle a permis d’éclairer les spécificités des différentes alliances des PME en termes de ressources mobilisées, de choix des partenaires, d’objectifs stratégiques et d’innovations conduites. Cette recherche montre que la conciliation des innovations d’exploration et d’exploitation au sein d’une même PME, au moyen de la mise en oeuvre des alliances complémentaires et additives, s’opère avec différentes natures de partenaires.
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to understand the role played by the complementary and additive alliances of Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in order to conciliate both explorative and exploitative innovation. The understanding of the context of the conclusion of SMEs alliances and the links which can exist between the various natures of the alliances and the studied innovations was led according to two approaches. In fact, the research brings together both the contributions of a qualitative exploratory approach with those of a quantitative confirmatory study. The research shows that the driving of both explorative and exploitative innovations by means of the strategic alliances is influenced by a set of contextual, organizational and strategic factors. The exploratory phase has allowed distinguishing clearly between the SMEs’s alliances with the industry and those with the academic word. In the other hand, the confirmatory phase has allowed to clarify the specificities of the various alliances of the SMEs in terms of mobilized resources, partner’s choice, strategic objectives and driven innovation. This research shows that the conciliation of explorative and exploitative innovation within the same SMEs, by means of the implementation of the complementary and additive alliances, takes place with various natures of partners.
    Keywords: Explorative innovation; Exploitative innovation; Complementary alliance; Additive alliance; Resources and competencies; SMEs; Innovation d’exploration; Innovation d’exploitation; Alliance complémentaire; Alliance additive; Ressources et compétences; PME;
    JEL: L14 C93 O31
    Date: 2011–12
  7. By: Tomas Havranek; Zuzana Irsova
    Abstract: The voluminous empirical research on horizontal productivity spillovers from foreign investors to domestic rms in transition and developing countries has yielded mixed results. In this paper, we collect 1,205 estimates of horizontal spillovers from the literature and examine which factors in uence spillover magnitude. To identify the most important determinants of spillovers among 43 collected variables, we employ Bayesian model averaging. Our results suggest that horizontal spillovers are on average zero, but that their sign and magnitude depend systematically on the characteristics of the domestic economy and foreign investors. The most important determinants are the technology gap between domestic and foreign rms and the ownership structure in investment projects. Foreign investors who form joint ventures with domestic rms and who come from countries with a modest technology edge create the largest benets for the domestic economy.
    Keywords: Bayesian model averaging; Foreign direct investment; Productivity spillovers; Determinants; Meta-analysis
    JEL: C83 F23 O12
    Date: 2011–11–26
  8. By: Luciana Lazzeretti (University of Firenze); Silvia Rita Sedita (University of Padova); Annalisa Caloffi (University of Padova)
    Abstract: Why has the cluster concept proved so successful in this millennium? Which are the authors, the scientific areas, and journals that have helped to enliven the debate in this era, characterized by the transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity, as the well-known sociologist Zygmunt Bauman would say? With this work, we have aimed to answer these research questions by adopting an evolutionary approach. By means of a bibliometric analysis based on descriptive statistics and social network analysis tools, we have identified the founders and the main disseminators of the cluster concept across time. The point of departure is an original database, created by the authors, consisting of 1586 academic articles about industrial clusters that have been published from 1989 to 2010 in international scientific journals (source: ISI Web of Science). Our claim is that the Porterian contribution on clusters opens up a global debate over a concept that was Òin the airÓ many years before. The cluster concept is rooted in the Marshallian tradition, and is strongly related to the Italian and European literature, which is more familiar with the narrower concept of the industrial district. By relaxing some of the specific features that characterized the industrial district model, a more inclusive concept is promoted, which, in a prey-predator relationship, assimilates previous contributions. By now, the cluster concept has gained international recognition and been constantly sustained by a theoretical discussion that encompasses a variety of disciplines and approaches. Our evidence shows that this success can be attributed basically to the liquid properties we have identified: multi-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary qualities and global dimension.
    Keywords: cluster, industrial districts, liquid modernity, bibliometric analysis, co-citation analysis.
    JEL: R1
    Date: 2012–04
  9. By: Celine Azemar, Julia Darby, Rodolphe Desbordes and Ian Wooton; Julia Darby; Rodolphe Desbordes; Ian Wooton
    Abstract: We use a systematic empirical analysis of the determinants of South-South (SS) and North-South (NS) foreign direct investment (FDI) as a canvas to explore how multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) location decisions are shaped by better acquaintance with a foreign market resulting from bilateral ties, experience of international expansion, and knowledge of how to deal with poor governance. We find that these various aspects of market familiarity, which can interact together, are important to explain and differentiate the location behaviours of South MNEs (S-MNEs) and North MNEs (N-MNEs) in developing countries.
    Keywords: BSouth-South FDI; governance; institutions; familiarity; distance
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2012–04
  10. By: Lumineau, Fabrice; Henderson, James
    Abstract: This paper theoretically refines and empirically extends the debate on the type of interplay between relational experience and contractual governance in an under-researched area: supply chain disputes. We define relational experience as either cooperative or competitive; distinguish between control and coordination functions of contractual governance; and assess their interplay on the negotiation strategy used in disputes. Using a unique data set of buyer-supplier disputes, we find, in particular, that increasing contractual control governance weakens the positive effect of cooperative relational experience on cooperative negotiation strategy. However, increasing contractual control governance for a buyer-supplier dyad with competitive relational experience will increase cooperative negotiation strategy. Contractual coordination governance reinforces the positive effect of cooperative relational experience. Through this study, we reach a better understanding of how and when contractual and relational governance dimensions interact; rather than whether they act as substitutes or complements as has been studied in prior research. We discuss the implications of these findings for the field of supply chain management.
    Keywords: Buyer-supplier relationships; contractual governance; relational experience; supply chain governance; negotiation; dispute
    JEL: L14 D21 D23 K40 D74 L22
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Rosendahl Huber, Laura (University of Amsterdam); Sloof, Randolph (University of Amsterdam); van Praag, Mirjam (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils' development of relevant skill sets for entrepreneurial activity, both cognitive and non-cognitive. The results indicate that cognitive entrepreneurial skills are unaffected by the program. However, the program has a robust positive effect on non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills. This is surprising since previous evaluations found zero or negative effects. Because these earlier studies all pertain to education for adolescents, our result tentatively suggests that non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills are best developed at an early age.
    Keywords: skill formation, field experiment, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 I21 J24 C93
    Date: 2012–04

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