nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2012‒03‒28
25 papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Identifying Clusters within R&D Intensive Industries Using Local Spatial Methods By Reinhold Kosfeld; Jorgen Lauridsen
  2. Integración regional y su relación con la dinámica de las plantas: un enfoque de diferencias-en-diferencias By Adriana Peluffo
  3. Compensation Structure and the Creation of Exploratory Knowledge in Technology Firms By Cui, Victor; Ding, Waverly W.; Yanadori, Yoshio
  4. Innovation Strategies and Employment in Latin American Firms By Gustavo Crespi; Pluvia Zuñiga
  5. Born global firms in knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) – what do we know of their performance? By Halldin, Torbjörn
  6. Management Roles in Innovative Technology Implementation: A Healthcare Perspective By Ljungquist, Urban
  7. Upstream R&D networks By Constantine Manasakis; Dusanee Kesavayuth; Vasileios Zikos
  8. Deployment of Core Competencies to obtain success in SMEs By Carlos M. F-Jardón
  9. Business Groups, Networks, And Embeddedness: Innovation And Implementation Alliances In Japanese Electronics, 1985-1998 By Lincoln, James R.; Guillot, Didier
  10. Born global firms – do they perform differently? By Halldin, Torbjörn
  11. University Technology Transfer: How (in-)efficient are French universities? By Claudia Curi; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Patrick Llerena
  12. Innovation vs imitation and the evolution of productivity distributions By König, Michael; Lorenz, Jan; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
  13. Knowledge and diversity of innovation systems: a comparative analysis of European regions By Christophe CARRINCAZEAUX (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Frédéric GASCHET (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
  14. Characteristics and Performance of New Firms and Spinoffs in Sweden By Andersson, Martin; Klepper, Steven
  15. X-Efficiency of Innovation Processes: Evaluation Based on Data Envelopment Analysis By Rahobisoa Herimalala; Olivier Gaussens
  16. Product-market competition, corporate governance and innovation: evidence on US-listed firms By Hashem, Nawar; Ugur, Mehmet
  17. The Relationship between Market Structure and Innovation in Industry Equilibrium: A Case Study of the Global Automobile Industry By Hashmi, Aamir Rafique; Van Biesebroeck, Johannes
  18. Academic patent value and knowledge transfer in the UK: Does patent ownership matter? By Valerio STERZI (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113 & KITES, Bocconi University)
  19. Complementary assets, patent thickets and hold-up threats: Do transaction costs undermine investments in innovation? By Schwiebacher, Franz
  20. The interdependence of R&D activity and debt financing of young firms By Fryges, Helmut; Kohn, Karsten; Ullrich, Katrin
  21. Entrepreneurship, Stages of Development, and Industrialization By Acs, Zoltan J.
  22. Entrepreneurship and Public Policy in Today and Tomorrow’s Portuguese Republic By Redford, Dana T.
  23. New Dimensions Added for Enhanced Core Competence Application By Ljungquist, Urban
  24. The globalization of technology in emerging markets: a gravity model on the determinants of international patent collaborations By Fabio MONTOBBIO (University of Turin & KITES, Bocconi University, Milan); Valerio STERZI (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113 & KITES, Bocconi University, Milan)
  25. Territorial strategic planning as a support instrument for regional and local development: a comparative analysis between Lisbon and Barcelona metropolitan areas By Marques, Bruno Pereira

  1. By: Reinhold Kosfeld (University of Kassel); Jorgen Lauridsen (Southern University of Denmark)
    Abstract: More recently, there has been a renewed interest in cluster policies for supporting industrial and regional development. By virtue of the linkage between growth and innovation, R&D intensive industries play a crucial role in cluster development strategies. Empirical cluster research has to contribute to the understanding the process of cluster formation. Some experiences with the use of local spatial methods like local Moran’s Ii and Getis-Ord Gi tests in pattern recognition are already available. However, up to now the utilisation of spatial scan techniques in detecting economic clusters is largely ignored (Kang, 2010). In this paper, the performance of the above-mentioned local spatial methods in identifying German R&D clusters is studied. Differences in cluster detection across the tests are traced. In particular, the contribution of Kulldorff’s spatial scan test in detecting industry clusters is critically assessed.
    Keywords: Spatial Clusters, R&D Intensive Industries, Local Spatial Methods, Spatial Scan Test
    JEL: R12 R15
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Adriana Peluffo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: In this work we examine technology/productivity spillovers to Uruguayan manufacturing firms through trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and learning by exporting, for the period 1997-2001. This work contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence of the dynamic gains from opening up to trade for a small developing country, analysing the various possible channels of international technology diffusion at he firm level. We use various methodologies. To this end we use various methodologies and we take into account the effect of endogenous technological capabilities of the firms. We find evidence of positive effects of imported intermediates, exports and foreing ownership on productivity. On the other hand the results for multinational presence at the industry level and backward linkages on domestic firms productity are mixed. Nevertheless, those firms that undertake their own R&D and/or training of workers and hence have higher absorptive capacity seem to be in a better position to take advantage of external knowledge. These results would indicate that absorptive capacity matters to take advantage of increased openness and FDI, so trade liberalization along with policies aimed to improve absorptive capacity such as investign in R&D and the training of workers through training are likely to play a role in facilitating knowledge spillovers and productivity gains.
    Keywords: trade, technology spillovers, foreign direct investment, learning by exporting, technology transfer
    JEL: F1 F2 O3
    Date: 2011–10
  3. By: Cui, Victor; Ding, Waverly W.; Yanadori, Yoshio
    Abstract: Given the importance of exploration in a firm’s overall innovation program, scholars have sought to understand organizational factors that give rise to exploration-oriented innovations. We propose theory and empirical evidence that relates firms’ use of financial incentives to their exploratory innovation performance. We expect that a larger proportion of long-term incentives in R&D employee compensation should be positively associated with the creation of exploratory innovation in a firm. In addition, we propose that a higher level of horizontal pay dispersion is negatively associated with the creation of exploratory innovation. We examine innovations reflected in the patents of a unique six-year, unbalanced panel dataset of 94 high-technology firms in the U.S. Empirical results confirm that firms with high level of horizontal pay dispersion have less exploratory patent innovations. However, surprisingly, firms that pay their R&D employees a higher proportion of long-term financial incentives in total compensation have lower level of exploratory innovation. This implies the possibility that popular longterm incentive plans in high-technology sectors (e.g., stock option plans) have failed to achieve their intended goals in practice. We discuss factors that might moderate the negative impact of long-term incentives on exploratory innovation.
    Keywords: Organizational Behavior and Theory
    Date: 2011–03–30
  4. By: Gustavo Crespi; Pluvia Zuñiga
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of innovation strategies on employment growth in four Latin American countries (Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay) using micro-data for manufacturing firms from innovation surveys. Building on the model proposed by Harrison et al. (2008), we relate employment to three innovation strategies: make only (R&D), buy only (external R&D, licensing of patents and know-how, technical assistance, and other external innovation activities) and make and buy (mixed strategy). Firms that conduct in-house innovation activities ("make only") have the greatest impact on employment; the "make and buy" strategy comes in second. Similar results are found for small firms. These results highlight the importance of fostering in-house technological efforts not only for innovation per se, but also to promote growth in firm employment. The impact of "make only" strategies is greater in high-tech industries, whereas "make only" and "make and buy" have a similar impact on employment in low-tech industries. Finally, the study provides evidence of the mechanisms through which innovation strategies affect employment. The findings show that innovation strategies enhance technological innovation, but their impact differs between product and process innovation. Product innovation is mainly motivated by in-house technology investments, followed by mixed strategies, whereas process innovation is basically driven by "buy" strategies.
    Keywords: Economics :: Productivity, Economics :: Economic Development & Growth, Private Sector :: SME, Science & Technology :: Research & Development, Science & Technology :: New Technologies, innovation, employment, external R&D, Latin America, innovation surveys, CTI, IFD, RG-K1164
    JEL: O12 O31 O33 O40 J21 O14
    Date: 2012–03
  5. By: Halldin, Torbjörn (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper studies the performance of KIBS firms that are aimed for global markets from inception. Despite the increasing importance of KIBS, no previous study has investigated born global firms in this sector of the economy. Three definitions are used to categorize firms as born global. Both OLS and a nearest neighbor matching approach are implemented to find evidence of higher growth in employment and sales per employee five years after firm foundation. Finally, the findings are robust to a finer array of born global definitions and time horizons of firm performance.
    Keywords: Born global firms; firm performance; knowledge intensive business sector
    JEL: F14 L25 L26 M13 M21
    Date: 2012–03–16
  6. By: Ljungquist, Urban (CSIR, Blekinge Inst of Technology)
    Abstract: The purpose with this paper is to categorise dynamic capability in technology innovation implementation from various management role perspectives. <p>The findings contribute to existing research of strategic change and healthcare management from an empirical case study based on interviews and archival documents. <p>Three organisational management roles (top, local, and ad hoc) are linked to the dynamic capability framework. Identifies an organisational paradox that puts undue pressure on sub-units to be high in both flexibility and consistency, which draws managerial attention to distinguish content from process of the daily activities. The analysis brings previously unexploited “common ground” to the three managerial roles, enhancing the potentials of mutual understanding and cooperation. Visualises the importance of management guidance and coordination of employee drive and enthusiasm.
    Keywords: Dynamic capability; Healthcare; Organisational chimneys; Innovation
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2012–03–08
  7. By: Constantine Manasakis (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece); Dusanee Kesavayuth (Research Institute for Policy Evaluation and Design, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, 126/1 Vibhavadee-Rangsit Road, Dindaeng, Bangkok, 104); Vasileios Zikos (School of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom; and Research Institute for Policy Evaluation and Design, Univer)
    Abstract: We study the endogenous formation of upstream R&D networks in a vertically related industry. We find that, when upstream firms set prices, the complete network that includes all firms emerges in equilibrium. In contrast, when upstream firms set quantities, the complete network will arise but only if within-network R&D spillovers are sufficiently low, while if R&D spillovers are sufficiently high, a partial network arises. Interestingly, when upstream firms set prices, the equilibrium network maximizes social welfare, while a conflict between equilibrium and socially optimal networks is likely to occur when upstream firms set quantities.
    Keywords: Networks, R&D collaboration, upstream firms.
    JEL: L13 J50
    Date: 2012–03–15
  8. By: Carlos M. F-Jardón
    Abstract: Sources of competitive advantage are firm characteristics that allow setting up in a better position than its competitors. From the Resources Based Theory is usual to consider these sources as internal and external factors of business. Entrepreneur organizes core competences combining these factors. They are competitive advantages when firm gets better performance than the competition. The process to obtain better performance from core competences isn’t well known. In this paper we define fifth core competencies: human and technological resources management, zone resources management, customer management, product marketing and innovativeness. We determine which is the process of influence of core competencies on business performance by PLS techniques. Findings indicate a causal process in generating business performance. Only innovativeness affect to performance. But better innovativeness is achieved combining from human and technological resources. This is improved by zone resources management. In turn, this I determined by management customers, associated with produc6 management.
    Keywords: Sources of Competitive Advantage, Resources based Theory; firm performance, SMEs, Core competencies.
    JEL: L21 L25 M21
    Date: 2011–12
  9. By: Lincoln, James R.; Guillot, Didier
    Abstract: This paper examines the changing process of strategic alliance formation in the Japanese electronics industry between 1985 and 1998. With data on 123-135 Japanese electronics/electrical machinery makers, we use a dyad panel regression methodology to address a series of hypotheses drawn largely from embeddedness theory on how the firms’ horizontal and vertical keiretsu business group affiliations and prior alliance networks supported and constrained partner choice in new R&D (innovation) and nonR&D (implementation) domestic economy alliances. We find that in the first half of our series (1985-91; the “preburst†period) keiretsu served as infrastructure or platform for new strategic alliances that had both innovation and implementation goals. In the second half of our series (1992-98, the “postbubble†period) the keiretsu effects on innovation alliance formation were gone, but the groups’ role in nonR&D or implementation alliances, the purpose of which was often cost reduction, had expanded. Our results suggest that Japanese electronics firms over this interval of time adapted rationally to the heightened uncertainty and stringency of the Japanese domestic economic environment by searching outside their preexisting networks for innovation alliances while at the same time exploiting those networks for implementation alliances addressed to cost-reduction and other operational aims. The study speaks to embeddedness theory in showing that economic actors are not deterministically constrained by business group or other preexisting network ties but may in rational fashion exploit or abandon those ties with an eye to advancing corporate and alliance goals.
    Keywords: Organizational Behavior and Theory
    Date: 2011–05–02
  10. By: Halldin, Torbjörn (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether born global firms perform differently compared to other newly founded manufacturing firms. A rigorous quantitative treatment of born global firms has been absent in the international entrepreneurship literature. The quantitative focus of the paper adds to this literature. To a simple OLS estimation is added a matching approach in order to circumvent the absence of counterfactual for born global firms had they not chosen to pursue a born global strategy. Measuring performance five years after firm foundation, born global firms are found to have higher growth in employment and sales per employee but no such effect is found when performance is measured by profitability or labor productivity. For robustness purposes, similar results are found when the analysis is augmented to include a wider spread of born global firm definitions and having performance measured three to seven years subsequent to firm foundation.
    Keywords: Born global firms; firm performance manufacturing firms
    JEL: F14 L25 L26 M13 M21
    Date: 2012–03–16
  11. By: Claudia Curi (Banque Centrale du Luxembourg); Cinzia Daraio (Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica "Antonio Ruberti" Sapienza, Universita' di Roma); Maria Patrick Llerena (University of Strasbourg, BETA (Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée))
    Abstract: This paper presents the first assessment of the efficiency of the technology transfer operated by the French university system and its main determinants. The analysis is based on a detailed and original database of 51 TTOs, categorized by type of university they belong to, over the period 2003-2007. Overall, we find a low level of efficiency and both intra-category and inter-categories efficiency variation. The analysis of determinants showed that French TTOs efficiency depends extensively on the nature of the category (with universities specialised in science and engineering being the most efficient ones), on institutional and environmental characteristics. We found that both the seniority of TTO and size of the university have a positive effect. In terms of environmental variables, the intensity of R&D activity (both private and public) has a positive impact; however, in terms of growth rate, only the Private R&D activity seems to be the main driver. Lastly, we find that the presence of a university-related hospital is detrimental for the efficiency. An extended discussion of the results within the existing literature is also offered.
    Keywords: Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs), French University System, Technical Efficiency, DEA, Bootstrap, Regional Growth
    Date: 2012
  12. By: König, Michael; Lorenz, Jan; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Abstract: We develop a tractable dynamic model of productivity growth and technology spillovers that is consistent with the emergence of real world empirical productivity distributions. Firms can improve productivity by engaging in in-house R&D, or alternatively, by trying to imitate other firms’ technologies subject to limits to their absorptive capacities. The outcome of both strategies is stochastic. The choice between in-house R&D and imitation is endogenous, and based on firms’ profit maximization motive. Firms closer to the technological frontier have less imitation opportunities, and tend to choose more often in-house R&D, consistent with the empirical evidence. The equilibrium choice leads to balanced growth featuring persistent productivity differences even when starting from ex-ante identical firms. The long run productivity distribution can be described as a traveling wave with tails following Zipf’s law as it can be observed in the empirical data. Idiosyncratic shocks to firms’ productivities of R&D reduce inequality, but also lead to lower aggregate productivity and industry performance.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity; growth; innovation; productivity difference; quality ladder; spillovers
    JEL: E10 O40
    Date: 2012–02
  13. By: Christophe CARRINCAZEAUX (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Frédéric GASCHET (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
    Abstract: This article aims at assessing the diversity of regional innovation systems and their economic performances within Europe. We propose to adapt the Social Systems of Innovation and Production (SSIP) framework developed by Amable, Barré and Boyer (1997) at the regional level by identifying specific arrangements of each part of the innovation and production system. A key feature of this approach is the concept of complementary institutions, allowing a limited number of viable and stable configurations to be identified. Three key features of European regions are investigated using this framework: the diversity of regional SSIPs, the interplay of regional and national determinants of such systems, and the impact of SSIPs on regional performance. We identify a typology of regional configurations resulting from the combination of scientific, technological, educational and industrial indicators, using multivariate data analysis. We then test the existence of specific regional growth regimes. The results highlight a persistently high level of diversity of regional configurations, notably among knowledge intensive regions, but also show that national institutional settings remain of fundamental importance in shaping a number of regional configurations. A final conclusion relates to the weak correlation observed between the structural characteristics of regions and their performances over the 2003-2007 period: regional performance remains primarily shaped by national trends. Overall, the paper questions the regional dimension of these “systems”.
    Keywords: Regional innovation systems, knowledge, regional growth, institutions
    JEL: R11 O43 O18
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Andersson, Martin (CIRCLE, Lund University); Klepper, Steven (Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: We analyze the rate of formation, the characteristics, and the performance of different types of new firms in Sweden over a decade. Comparisons to Denmark, Brazil, and the U.S. suggest that the environment for new firm formation in Sweden is not markedly different than elsewhere. In line with previous studies, spinoffs of incumbents perform better than other types of new firms, particularly if their parent firm continues to operate. A novel findings is that the rate of employment growth of spinoffs is greater the larger the size of their parent, which contrast sharply with findings for firms with a single owner.
    Keywords: Sweden; spinoffs; new firm formation; entrepreneurship; performance; employment growth
    JEL: J60 M13
    Date: 2012–02–27
  15. By: Rahobisoa Herimalala (UFR de sciences économiques et de gestion, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM-CNRS, UMR 6211); Olivier Gaussens (UFR de sciences économiques et de gestion, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, CREM-CNRS, UMR 6211)
    Abstract: Innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is a source of regional development and enables enterprises to improve their competitiveness. However, the intensification of innovation effort depends upon a better understanding of the innovation process, in particular the assessment of its innovation capacity to process its resources and various activities in efficient manner into better results. This paper deals with innovation process modeling and innovation measurement, in order to provide answers to these recurrent questions of the entrepreneurs in these SMEs. Thus, first we propose a model of innovation process as a collective design process that involves the interplay of two categories of activities, such as exploratory activities and value oriented activities, centered on the entrepreneur. Then from this model, we evaluate: (a) the innovation capacity from the process activities and too the outputs of innovation process; (b) the X-(in)efficiency using multiobjective (MOLP) data envelopment analysis (DEA) model of innovation processes. Through MOLP-DEA method, we decompose the X-inefficiency in technical inefficiency and congestion to highlighting the miss-use or the under-utilization of innovation capacity, as resources of process. Finally we measure X-inefficiency by an overall index taking into account of all aspects of inefficiency as the enhanced DEA Russell graph efficiency measure. For the empirical analysis, we use the data from a representative random sample formed by 80 innovative enterprises of regional SMEs of Normandy in France. The results show that most of innovation processes are X-inefficient in SMEs of Normandy. This X-inefficiency is more characterized by the congestion problem than the technical inefficiency. That shows the difficulties of some entrepreneurs to implement the rules and standards of interplay between some activities.
    Keywords: Innovation Process, X-Efficiency, Multiobjective Linear Programming, Data Envelopment Analysis, Russell measure
    JEL: C61
    Date: 2012–03
  16. By: Hashem, Nawar; Ugur, Mehmet
    Abstract: The debate on competition and innovation has produced a wide range of theoretical and empirical findings. Recently, corporate governance quality has emerged as an additional factor that may complement or substitute for competition’s effect on innovation. We aim to contribute to the debate by investigating whether product-market competition and corporate governance quality affect firm-level innovation, utilising a dataset for 1,400 non-financial US-listed companies. Using two-way cluster-robust estimation, we report several findings. First, the relationship between industry-level competition and input as well as output measures of innovation is non-linear. Secondly, the non-linear relationship is of an inverted-U shape with respect to input measures of innovation, but the relationship has a U-shape when output measure of innovation is estimated. Third, corporate governance indicators such as anti-takeover defences and insider control tend to have a negative effect on input measures of innovation but their effect is positive with respect to the output measure. Finally, when interacted with market concentration, anti-takeover defences and insider control emerge as substitutes, leading to sign reversals in the relationship between competition and innovation. The results are obtained by using two-way cluster-robust estimation that controls for dependence within company/year and industry/year clusters, but they are robust to different estimation methods including fixed-effect and Fama-Macbeth procedure.
    Keywords: Innovation, competition, corporate governance, two-way cluster-robust estimation
    JEL: D21 G3 O31 L1
    Date: 2011–12
  17. By: Hashmi, Aamir Rafique; Van Biesebroeck, Johannes
    Abstract: We first estimate a dynamic game for the global automobile industry and then compute a Markov Perfect equilibrium to study the equilibrium relationship between market structure and innovation. The key state variable in the model is the efficiency level of each firm and the market structure is characterized by the vector of efficiency levels across all firms. Efficiency is estimated to be stochastically increasing in the dynamic control--innovation--which is proxied by patenting behavior. Equilibrium innovation is a function of all state variables in the industry and the cost of R&D which includes a privately observed cost shock. We find that it exhibits the following patterns: 1) innovation by the industry leader is decreasing in the efficiency of other firms; 2) innovation is decreasing in the efficiency dispersion; 3) innovation is more concentrated that efficiency; 4) innovation is declining in the number of active firms; 5) the innovation gap between the leader and other firms increases with competition.
    Keywords: Competition; Dynamic game; Schumpeter
    JEL: C73 L13 L62 O31
    Date: 2012–01
  18. By: Valerio STERZI (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113 & KITES, Bocconi University)
    Abstract: This paper deals with an issue which is particularly relevant in the literature on IPR and university-industry knowledge transfer: is the ownership structure of academic inventions relevant for patent quality and the efficiency of the knowledge transfer process? This question is also particularly significant in Europe where some countries have followed the Bayh-Dole Act example in the USA to increase the involvement level of universities in IP management. The paper uses a novel dataset of academic inventors in the UK, which includes university patents (i.e. patents owned by universities) and corporate patents (i.e. patents signed by academic scientists but owned by private companies) in the period 1990-2001. The UK is an interesting case to study due to the tradition of university involvement in IP management as it was one of the first countries to implement the university ownership model. The main results may be summarised as follows.\r\n(1) Controlling for observable patent and scientist characteristics, corporate patents received more citations than university patents in the first three years after filing, but (2) this difference is less significant when considering a longer time window. However, (3) there is no knowledge fertilisation across public (university) and private institutions: university patents mainly cite other university patents and the same reasoning applies to corporate patents. Moreover (4) knowledge flows from university patents are even more geographically localised than those from corporate patents. Finally, (5) among scientists’ characteristics, a professor’s scientific quality and his patenting experience seem to be correlated with patent value. From a policy prospective, the results in points (1), (2) and (3) cast some doubts on the role of university ownership as an instrument to foster and facilitate knowledge transfer between academia and industry and raise serious questions about the effect of policies towards increasing the role of technology transfer offices in managing academic patents.
    Keywords: Academic patents; Technology transfer; Patent value; Citations
    JEL: L33 O33 O34
    Date: 2012
  19. By: Schwiebacher, Franz
    Abstract: Innovation is commercialization of technology. Imperfections in markets for technology should leave marks on physical investments for innovation. Two types of transaction costs could affect innovative investments: royality stacking and hold-up threats. Backward references in firm's patent portfolio indicate potential technology suppliers. I find a negative effect of ownership fragmentation on investments related to innovation for firms with small patent portfolios. Hold-up threats are credible when upstream patentees have less specific capital sunk than innovating firms. Differences in fixed capital stocks between downstream firms and upstream patentees negatively affect investments in innovation for firms with large patent portfolios. These effects are specific to investments in innovation. There are no comparable effects on investments in R&D or residual physical investments. The effects of patent thickets on innovation are thus not uniform. They depend on the characteristics of the downstream firm. --
    Keywords: Market for Technology,Complementary Assets,Transaction Costs,Patent Thickets
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2012
  20. By: Fryges, Helmut; Kohn, Karsten; Ullrich, Katrin
    Abstract: We investigate the interdependence of debt financing and R&D activities of young firms. Using micro-level data of the KfW/ZEW Start-up Panel, our estimation results show that firm characteristics are more important than personal characteristics of the founders for explaining young firms' leverage, whereas firm characteristics and human capital of both founders and employees heavily influence R&D intensity. Applying a bivariate Tobit model, we find that there is a positive interdependent relationship between the share of loan financing and R&D intensity. A higher share of loan financing allows for more R&D in young firms and, at the same time, a higher R&D intensity allows for a higher loan share. This relationship cannot be detected by merely estimating single-equation models for R&D intensity and debt financing. --
    Keywords: innovation financing,capital structure,start-ups,KfW/ZEW Start-up Panel,Germany
    JEL: G32 O32 L26
    Date: 2012
  21. By: Acs, Zoltan J.
    Abstract: Unlike in the past where industrial policy was either focused on creation and growth of state-owned firms or alternatively consisted merely of broadly functional policies without consideration for firm or entrepreneurial specifics, the requirement now is that future industrial policy ought to be a nuanced partnership between entrepreneurs and the state. In this paper we outline some considerations for such an industrial policy where the entrepreneur.state nexus is paramount. Moreover, we argue that such an industrial policy will need to take into consideration that the entrepreneur.state nexus is evolving, and that it depends on the stage of development of a particular country.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, industrialization, structural change, industrial policy, innovation, development
    Date: 2011
  22. By: Redford, Dana T.
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to advocate for an informed and concerted effort in developing and supporting public policy for entrepreneurship, with specific emphasis on the need to develop initiatives in education and training, in today and tomorrow’s Portugal. The development of entrepreneurship is viewed as a means to further a more pluralistic, democratic, participatory Portuguese Republic as well as a source for improving the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the country’s economic and social system as the Republica continues. Explicitly, this is a call to academic and civil society organizations to assist in the development of country-specific knowledge on Portugal that will provide the information needed by policymakers and the public- at-large to make informed decisions. Many in Portugal are concerned with fostering a more entrepreneurial and innovative environment, a country in which young people have the mindset and skills necessary to create opportunities for themselves as well as for society. Coordinated, sustained and focused public policy in entrepreneurship education, training and vocational education and training (VET) can provide one of the keys to unleashing this potential.
    Keywords: European History, European Studies/Civilization, Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations, Public Administration, Portuguese Republic, Entrepreneurship & Public Policy, Entrepreneurship
    Date: 2012–01–03
  23. By: Ljungquist, Urban (CSIR, Blekinge Inst of Technology)
    Abstract: We update the original core competence notions of identification and development to fit high efficient innovation processes in dynamic environments, with aim to progress the concept's applicability for scholars and practitioners. <p>To the core competence concept we add four dimensions previously missing: time (shared history and shared future aims), managerial hierarchy levels (corporate and SBU), innovation development modes and outcome types (radical/incremental and exploitation/exploration), and finally innovation team characteristics and support structure (homogenous/heterogeneous and formal/informal structure). <p>We propose that existing core competencies are ideally explored by homogenous teams managed at the SBU-level, in structured context, which infers competitive imitation protection. The process starts with identification then progressed by a change in structure: going from formal to informal, which will increase core competence and company performance.
    Keywords: Core competence; time; managerial hierarchy levels; innovation; ambidexterity; support structure.
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2012–03–08
  24. By: Fabio MONTOBBIO (University of Turin & KITES, Bocconi University, Milan); Valerio STERZI (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113 & KITES, Bocconi University, Milan)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of different types of international technological collaborations among patents’ inventors between emerging and advanced countries. Technological collaborations generate knowledge flows between inventors through interpersonal and face to face contacts. We use US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) patent applications for a panel of eleven emerging economies and seven advanced countries (90-04) and a novel database that exploits information on companies’ country of origin. We estimate the impact of geographical distance and various economic and institutional variables using the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood (PPML) and show that results vary according to the type of collaborations considered and to the country of origin (emerging vs. advanced) of the involved companies. Geographical distance affects international technological collaborations only when the applicant’s ownership is in the emerging country. Fixed effect estimates show that stronger IPRs positively affect international technological collaborations only when stemming from subsidiaries of multinational firms.
    Keywords: Knowledge flows, Emerging Countries, Patents, Inventors, Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: O30 O10 O11
    Date: 2012
  25. By: Marques, Bruno Pereira
    Abstract: The present work has the purpose of making a comparative analysis of local development processes at a metropolitan scale, territories whose administrative and institutional limits do not always match with their political and economic identity and are inserted in global processes of socioeconomic transformation. The main purpose of this work is to analyze and understand the competitive advantages that the local and metropolitan political powers have over the Central State in what may concern the creation of favorable measures for companies’ productivity and competitiveness; analyze new forms of democratic political participation, namely around the so-called Territorial Governance. In terms of Territorial Strategic Planning, the focus has been, frequently, in the realization of great cultural and sport events and in urban rehabilitation. In this sense, the perspective will be more centered in the analysis of processes that lead to Local Development Initiatives in the fields of Education, Professional Formation or support for Entrepreneurship, rather then more “traditionalist” analysis. Given the nature of the present work, a Master Degree Project Work, the practical component will be postponed for future Doctoral studies. Nevertheless, we have the intention of testing some hypothesis, more in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, then Barcelona Metropolitan Area, namely throughout statistical data analysis and interviews to local actors.
    Keywords: Barcelona; Lisbon; Metropolitan Areas; Regional and Local Development; Territorial Strategic Planning
    JEL: R58 R1
    Date: 2011

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