nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2011‒07‒27
seventeen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Evolution of Globalised business R&D: Features, drivers, impacts By Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello; Peter Voigt; Marco Vivarelli
  2. Companies' growth in the ES: What is research and innovation policy's role? By Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello
  3. Firm collaboration and modes of innovation in Norway By Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  4. Do firms rely on sources of information for organizational innovation? By MOTHE Caroline; NGUYEN Thi Thuc Uyen
  5. Factors of Competitive Advantage of Territory on the Regional Level By Borsekova, Kamila; Petrikova, Katarina; Vanova, Anna
  6. The geography of innovation in the Luxembourg metropolitan region: an intra-regional approach By DAUTEL Vincent; WALTHER Olivier
  7. Improving the Performance of Co-Innovation Alliances. By Stel, F.
  8. Knowledge Marketing and Development in the new Knowledge-based Economy By Matei, Ani; Matei, Lucica
  9. Community-based strategies in action: building and sustaining a product differentiation advantage By Andrea Fosfuri; Marco S. Giarratana; Esther Roca
  10. Imported intermediary inputs, R&D and Firm's Productivity: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing By Sharma, Chandan
  11. Personal Characteristics, Business Relationships and Entrepreneurial Performance: Some Empirical Evidence By Pinho, José Carlos; Sá, Elisabete
  12. University Stakeholders: Identification and Classification by Importan ce By Alves, Helena; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner; Raposo, Mario
  13. Governance of Public Policies in Decentralised Contexts: The Multi-level Approach By Claire Charbit
  14. Firm Growth in the Retail and Wholesale Trade Sectors – Evidence from Sweden By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Lang, Åsa; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas
  15. Entrepreneurial motives and performance: Why might better educated entrepreneurs be less successful? By Arnab Bhattacharjee; Jean Bonnet; Nicolas Le Pape; Régis Renault
  16. Globalization and International Economic Strategy (Japanese) By WAKASUGI Ryuhei
  17. An Empirical Analysis About Motivations Among Hospitals Volunteers By Ferreira, Marisa R.; Proença, João F.; Proença, Teresa

  1. By: Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello (JRC-IPTS); Peter Voigt (JRC-IPTS); Marco Vivarelli (Facoltà di Economia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy; SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; IZA, Bonn, Germany)
    Abstract: The globalisation of R&D activities has continued to grow as companies are increasingly trying to capture knowledge and market opportunities internationally. The rapid evolution of national economies and the ways to conduct knowledge-intensive businesses has brought researchers and analysts to pursue a deeper understanding of the globalisation of corporate R&D and the related driving factors and impacts. This Working Paper provides an overview of the evolution of globalised business R&D activities and an outline of trends is provided with quantitative information from 2001 to 2009. Thus, the literature on the main drivers and impacts of the research process is reviewed and controversial arguments are discussed and reflected upon in the light of recent empirical observations. In particular, the drivers for firms to undertake R&D in their home country, to internationalise their R&D operations and to select a particular location for R&D implementation are analysed according to both the perspective of S&T supply side and for goods and services demand side. Furthermore, the impact of the internationalisation of business R&D is analysed for firms' host or home countries, with a particular focus on the effects on competitiveness and employment. The conclusions and policy implications from the main results of this work are presented in the last section of the document.
    Keywords: Research and Development [R&D], Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D [BERD], internationalisation, innovation, investment gap, R&D policies
    JEL: F F L O
    Date: 2011–05
  2. By: Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello (JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: One of the main objectives of the new European research and innovation policy agenda is to favour the positive demographics (creation and growth) of EU companies operating in new/knowledge-intensive industries, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). These companies play an important role in shaping the dynamism of the economy’s sectoral composition, favouring the transition towards more knowledge-intensive activities (smart growth) and in contributing to the overall economic growth objectives and more and better jobs. But which kind of companies should be helped by policy? And how? This paper presents a literature review on the economics of research, innovation and competitiveness, focusing on the evidence available regarding the determinants for new and existing company creation and growth and the role played by Research, Development (R&D) and innovation. Furthermore, based on this, it draws a number of policy implications to design future research and innovation support instruments targeting innovative company growth in Europe. The result of this work indicates that: a) EU needs support policies to foster R&D investment in some specific typology of innovative companies and only where there are market failures and clear high social returns; b) the establishment of any targeted support instruments should take into account an integrated set of criteria including: firms' age and size, the sectors where firms operate, the involved risks in and potential for their innovative and commercial activities, the country/techno-economic environment, and the degree of internationalisation; c) to be successful, no matter the new targeted policies and supporting instruments, they should be designed using policy experimentation and its results should be regularly measured and evaluated using appropriate indicators and analyses.
    Keywords: Firm demographics and growth, Small and Medium Enterprises, economic dynamics, corporate research and innovation, EU competitiveness, EU policy.
    JEL: O31 L25 R38
    Date: 2011–07
  3. By: Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: This paper examines the sources of firm product and process innovation in Norway. It uses a purpose-built survey of 1604 firms in the five largest Norwegian city-regions to test, by means of a logit regression analysis, Jensen et al.’s (2007) contention that firm innovation is both the result of ‘science, technology and innovation’ (STI) and ‘doing, using and interacting’ (DUI) modes of firm learning. The paper classifies different types of firm interaction into STI-mode interaction (with consultants, universities, and research centres) and DUI-mode interaction, distinguishing between DUI interaction within the supply-chain (i.e. with suppliers and customers) or not (with competitors). It further controls for the geographical locations of partners. The analysis demonstrates that engagement with external agents is an important source of firm innovation and that both STI and DUI-modes of interaction matter. However, it also shows that DUI modes of interaction outside the supply chain tend to be irrelevant for innovation, with frequent exchanges with competitors having a detrimental effect on a firm’s propensity to innovate. Collaboration with extra-regional agents is much more conducive to innovation than collaboration with local partners, especially within the DUI mode.
    Keywords: Competitors; Customers; DUI; Firms; Innovation; Norway; STI; Suppliers; Universities
    JEL: L14 O31 O32
    Date: 2011–07
  4. By: MOTHE Caroline; NGUYEN Thi Thuc Uyen
    Abstract: The growing literature on knowledge and information has focused on the impact of information sources on technological innovation. Our objective was to explore the use made by firms of internal and external (market, research and generally available) sources of information for their organizational innovation practices’ implementation. Furthermore, we studies whether these sources may vary according to whether the firm operates in the manufacturing or service industry. Multivariate probit models’ results on 2008 Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data show notable differences between services and manufacturing, for instance that employees’ skill levels are more important for manufacturing than for services. Overall, this paper provides strong evidence of the heterogeneity in firms’ sources of information to engage in organizational innovation. On one hand, differences appear in the sources of innovation used for the various types of organizational innovation, indicating the appropriateness to differentiate organizational innovation practices rather than using an aggregated measure of organizational innovation. On the other hand, the sources of information vary according to the type of industry, even though some similarities appear. Managerial and theoretical implications for organizational innovation are provided.
    Keywords: CIS; manufacturing/services; organizational innovation; sources of information
    Date: 2011–07
  5. By: Borsekova, Kamila; Petrikova, Katarina; Vanova, Anna
    Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to identify the meaning of factors which influence creation, identification and utilization of competitive advantage of territory on the regional level. Through the theoretical knowledge and its analogical using in the conditions of regions and through the results of own researches, we characterize the meaning of various factors on the regional competitiveness. The basic assumption of the paper is that the market is the key element which defines the real competitive advantage which has the strategic meaning for regional development. The paper identifies the key factors of competitiveness including the cooperation in the conditions of regions and brings new theoretical approach to the utilization of competitive advantage in t erritories.
    Keywords: factors; regions; Competitive advantage
    Date: 2011
  6. By: DAUTEL Vincent; WALTHER Olivier
    Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to analyse the local determinants of innovation in the Luxembourg metropolitan region. We are particularly interested in the impact of the local milieu and characteristics of firms. Our paper addresses two specific research questions. Firstly, we examine the extent to which geographic space is a determinant of innovation for five intra-regional units based on an aggregation of municipalities. Secondly, we investigate whether innovation is dependent on accessibility to the mean centre. In both cases, we examine innovation propensity and innovation output using microdata from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS 2006) carried out in Luxembourg. The paper shows that space matters both in terms of spatial units and accessibility within the intra-regional context of Luxembourg. It provides, in particular, first evidence of a close link between the effects on innovation at the intra-regional level of firms? profiles and agglomeration externalities. Both favour innovation for firms from Luxembourg-City and, to a lesser extent, from the Suburban Area.
    Keywords: intra-regional innovation; firms' profile; location factors; local polynomial regression; Luxembourg metropolitan region
    JEL: C14 O31 O38 R11 R12
    Date: 2011–07
  7. By: Stel, F. (Universiteit van Tilburg)
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Matei, Ani; Matei, Lucica
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and describe the relation between knowledge and development in the new knowledge-based economy and to deduct the socio-economic basics of the public marketing strategies in this context. The particularity of this approach is due to the features of knowledge, seen as production factor, mixed public good or global public good, as well as their developments in the context of relationships between university and industry, the new role of public sector research or the new theory of endogenous growth. The economic and social logic of this paper includes marketing among the tools to promote knowledgebased technology progress, imposing even juxtaposition between private or public marketing strategies. The knowledge market develops in specific directions that are compatible and integrated in the development strategies of contemporary economies. Given this context, the quantitative analysis models are inspired by more general or even classical economic models that integrate technical progress, human capital or knowledge status. The main topics discussed in this paper relate to: knowledge and arguments for knowledge marketing development, knowledge and knowledge market as objects of public marketing in contemporary economy, development models that incorporate the impact of knowledge marketing strategies and relevant empirical analysis in the context of the Romanian economy development. The growth methods are based on relevant bibliographic analysis, quantitative models and statistical evaluations, systemic analyses and summaries.
    Keywords: global public goods; knowledge market; knowledge
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Andrea Fosfuri; Marco S. Giarratana; Esther Roca
    Abstract: An important reason why individuals join groups or communities is to satisfy their needs for identity. Firms might exploit this societal tendency to gain a competitive advantage. Using the strategic approach adopted by Kiehl’s, a U.S. cosmetic producer and retailer, as a source of inspiration and illustration, this paper develops a novel theoretical framework to investigate how firms interact with communities to access privileged customers’ information, from which they can build a product differentiation advantage. We argue that by adhering and supporting a well-defined set of values, Kiehl’s both achieves community membership and strengthens the sense of identity that its target communities provide to their members. These investments prompt reciprocal community member behaviors, which the company channels into its customer knowledge development process. Finally, this article describes how firm–community interactions can protect the differentiation advantage by turning products into symbols of the communities to which its customers belong.
    Keywords: Product differentiation, Customer knowledge development, Communities, Case study
    Date: 2010–09
  10. By: Sharma, Chandan
    Abstract: This paper examines dynamic as well as static effects of imported intermediary inputs and inhouse R&D on productivity growth using firm-level panel data for Indian technology-intensive manufacturing industries for the period 2000-2009. For this purpose, the present study adopts two empirical frameworks: production function and growth accounting method. Although we do have some comprehensible evidence to conclude that imported inputs have positive and significant impact on the productivity of firms, but the overall findings are rather mixed. Specifically, the results from the production function framework suggest that impact of imported intermediary goods on output is reasonably sizable. Surprisingly, however, the role of R&D activities under this framework is found to be insignificant across industries in various estimation specifications. On the other hand, the analysis based on the growth accounting model some yields positive results, which suggest that TFP of firms are closely linked with import and R&D activities. Firms that engage in these activities have 8% to 12% higher TFP than other firms across the industries. However, labor productivity is found to be insulated from these activities. --
    Keywords: imported intermediary,R&D,Firms' productivity
    JEL: D24 F10 O30
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Pinho, José Carlos; Sá, Elisabete
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the main factors that may influence economic success of new ventures. Particular emphasis will be given to personal attributes and business relationships (social and institutional). The present study relies on a survey questionnaire which was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of firms which were set up in the last 4-5 years. Results have shown that, concerning public and institutional business relationships, three main factors evidenced a difference of means along different categories of entrepreneurial performance. These are: the support from central government, the support from sector associations and support from a financial institution. With regard to social and business networks, particular emphasis goes to entrepreneur's family support. Concerning previous working experiences, the entrepreneur's previous knowledge about potential customers and entrepreneur's previous experience assumed particular relevance along different categories of entrepreneurial performance. Finally, with regard to entrepreneur's personal characteristics particular emphasis goes to entrepreneur's personal qualities, such as, his/her way of being, thinking and acting; entrepreneur's intuition that he/she is in the presence of an innovative and unique business and entrepreneur's need for self -achievement.
    Keywords: personal characteristics; previous working experience in the field; social and business networks; Public and institutional support
    Date: 2011
  12. By: Alves, Helena; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner; Raposo, Mario
    Abstract: With the objective of classifying university stakeholders by order of importance, this research project follows the core concepts and principles of Stakeholder Theory. The Stakeholder Salience model represented the foundation of an empirical study involving members of staff at eleven Portuguese state universities. Following the identification of twenty-one university stakeholders by means of exploratory research, we set out a questionnaire that was sent off to all staff at these universities. We had obtained 684 valid responses. The Stakeholder Salience model was deployed even though significant limitations to this approach were encountered. Thus, we put forward a new model designed to ascertain the importance of organisational stakeholders based exclusively on their respective influence. By the end, we were able to conclude that government and academics bear more influence than the market at the universities studied.
    Keywords: Stakeholder Theory; University Stakeholders; Universities; Importance of Stakeholders; Stakeholder Salience; Stakeholders
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Claire Charbit
    Abstract: The ability of sub national governments to “better spend”, by identifying relevant paths for territorial competitiveness and effective delivery of public services, is largely enshrined in their institutional background. Rather than isolated actors, sub national authorities and central governments are “mutually dependent”. In this context, and for a majority of OECD member and non-member countries, the key underlying question is not whether to “decentralise or not” or even opt for a specific decentralisation model, but to look at ways to improve capacity and coordination among public stakeholders at different levels of government to increase efficiency, equity and sustainability of public spending. This question of “multi level governance” is therefore accurate, whatever the constitutional framework of countries, federal or unitary. This paper provides: first, a methodology to diagnose multi level governance challenges; and, second, examples of tools used by OECD countries to bridge co-ordination and capacity “gaps”. This approach has been inspired by OECD regional development policy work, as regional development policy relies both on the diversity of territorial situations and the coherence of regional strategies at the national level. In practice, it has already been tested in a variety of public policies such as public investment, water, and innovation, which all contributed to enrich it with concrete sectoral evidence and experience.
    Keywords: decentralisation, sub-national government, regional development, multi-level governance, intergovernmental relationships, local and state governments
    JEL: H1 H5 H6 H7 R1
    Date: 2011–07–19
  14. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI)); Lang, Åsa (Dalarna University); Macuchova, Zuzana (Dalarna University); Rudholm, Niklas (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI))
    Abstract: To identify the determinants of firm growth within the Swedish retail – and wholesale trade industries during the period 1998- 2004, we analyze a sample of 400 limited companies using quantile regression techniques. Our results indicate that firm growth mainly can be explained by time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose’s (1959) suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on, are important determinants of firm growth rates.
    Keywords: firm dynamics; firm level heterogeneity; high-growth firms; resource-based view; quantile regression
    JEL: L11 L25 L26 L81
    Date: 2011–06–01
  15. By: Arnab Bhattacharjee; Jean Bonnet; Nicolas Le Pape; Régis Renault
    JEL: C15 D12 I11
  16. By: WAKASUGI Ryuhei
    Abstract: This publication is in Japanese. Neither an English translation of the publication nor an English abstract is available.
    Date: 2011–01
  17. By: Ferreira, Marisa R.; Proença, João F.; Proença, Teresa
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the different types of volunteers' motivations that work in hospitals. We present the literature review about different types of motivations and we collect data from hospital volunteers through a questionnaire. Four different motivations categories are identified: development and learning, altruism, career recognition and belonging and protection. The main motivations expressed are, first, development and learning, followed by altruism. Belonging and protection, followed by career recognition are the least mentioned motivations. Career recognition is negatively correlated with age and belonging/ protection is negatively correlated with education. That is, younger volunteers present more career recognition motives and less educated volunteers show more protection and belonging purpose. This paper brings together hospital volunteers and motivations. The paper is useful to policy makers aiming to develop targeted approaches to attract and retain volunteers.
    Keywords: Hospitals; Volunteers; Motivations
    Date: 2011

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