nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2011‒04‒16
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Comparing knowledge bases: on the organisation and geography of knowledge flows in the regional innovation system of Scania, southern Sweden By Martin, Roman; Moodysson , Jerker
  2. Organizational paths of commercializing patented inventions: The effects of transaction costs, firm capabilities, and collaborative ties By Jung , Taehyun; Walsh , John P.
  3. Innovation, Technology and Knowledge By Karlsson, Charlie; Johansson, Börje; Norman, Therese
  4. Entrepreneurship and Role Models By Niels Bosma; Jolanda Hessels; Veronique Schutjens; Mirjam van Praag; Ingrid Verheul
  5. Business Intelligence Approach In A Business Performance Context By Muntean, Mihaela; Cabau, Liviu Gabriel
  6. Producers Cooperative Oil Mill: A Case Study in Strategic Planning for a Cooperative By Kenkel, Philip L.; Holcomb, Rodney B.
  7. Local Food Procurement and Promotion Strategies of Food Cooperatives By Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.
  8. Acquisitions, Entry and Innovation in Network Industries By Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars; Tåg, Joacim
  9. Enhancing the competitiveness of the Arab SMEs By Elasrag, hussein
  10. Price Signals as Indicators of Profitability at Various Stages of Production in Oklahoma Beef By Williams, Brian R.; Devuyst, Eric A.
  11. Innovation and Corporate Dynamics: A Theoretical Framework By Massimo, Riccaboni; Jakub, Growiec; Fabio, Pammolli
  12. The impact of interregional and intraregional transportation costs on industrial location and efficient transport policies By Paul Chiambaretto; André De Palma; Stef Proost
  13. R&D and productivity in high-tech manufacturing: a comparison between Italy and Spain By Sterlacchini, Alessandro; Venturini, Francesco
  14. La competitividad...¿a qué se refiere? By Luis Francisco Ramírez Díaz
  15. Gazelles, Industry Growth and Structural Change By Bos Jaap W.B.; Stam Erik

  1. By: Martin, Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University); Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper deals with knowledge flows and collaboration between firms in the regional innovation system of southern Sweden. It focuses on industries which draw on different types of knowledge bases. The aim is to analyse how the functional and spatial organisation of knowledge interdependencies among firms and other actors vary between different types of industries which are part of the same regional innovation system. We argue that knowledge sourcing and exchange in geographical proximity is especially important for industries that rely on a synthetic or symbolic knowledge base, since the interpretation of the knowledge they deal with tend to differ between places. This is less the case for industries drawing on an analytical knowledge base, which rely more on scientific knowledge that is codified, abstract and universal, and therefore less sensitive to geographical distance. Thus, geographic clustering of firms in analytical industries builds on other rationale than the need of proximity for knowledge sourcing and exchange. To analyse these assumptions empirically, we draw on data from three case studies of firm clusters in the region of southern Sweden: (1) the life science cluster represents an analytical (science) based industry, (2) the food cluster includes mainly synthetic (engineering) based industries, and (3) the moving media cluster is considered as symbolic (artistic) based. Knowledge sourcing and knowledge exchange in each of the cases are explored and compared using social network analysis in association with a dataset gathered through interviews with firm representatives.
    Keywords: knowledge bases; life science; food cluster; moving media; Sweden
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2011–04–11
  2. By: Jung , Taehyun (CIRCLE, Lund University); Walsh , John P. (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This study examines the factors affecting modes of commercializing patented inventions using a novel dataset based on a survey of U.S. inventors. We find that technological uncertainty and possessing complementary assets raise the propensity for internal commercialization. We find that R&D collaboration with firms in a horizontal relationship is likely to increase the propensity to license the invention. In addition, the paper shows that macro-level environment conditions that affect exchange conditions, such as technology familiarity, influence the effects of capabilities on governance choice.
    Keywords: transaction cost economics; knowledge-based view; collaboration ties; commercialization; innovation; patent
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2011–04–11
  3. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School); Johansson, Börje (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Norman, Therese (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper outlines a set of fundamental changes in the global economy that have altered the nature of the innovation process, brought about global challenges, and stimulated cross border phenomena and network formation responses. These changes has brought about an increase of the demand for knowledge as well as changed the conditions for knowledge production and innovation. Against the background of a changing global economy, the purpose of the paper is to make an overview over the role and drivers of innovation, technology and knowledge. The role of absorptive capacity and knowledge flows between economic agents from different spatial units for economic growth is further emphasized. Furthermore, it is recognized in the paper that national innovative productivity depends upon the national innovation systems. Multinationals play an increasingly central role for the transfer of knowledge between different parts of the world. This paper thoroughly examines the way multinationals contribute to innovation, technology and knowledge dispersion. The distribution of knowledge investments is uneven across the globe and the occurrence of the “European paradox” highlights where Europe has failed in this context.
    Keywords: Innovation; technology; knowledge; globalisation; multinationals; European paradox
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2011–04–07
  4. By: Niels Bosma (Utrecht University); Jolanda Hessels (EIM Business School and Policy Research, Zoetermeer, and Erasmus School of Economics, Rotterdam); Veronique Schutjens (Utrecht University); Mirjam van Praag (University of Amsterdam); Ingrid Verheul (Rotterdam School of Economics (EUR))
    Abstract: In the media role models are increasingly being acknowledged as an influential factor in explaining the reasons for the choice of occupation and career. Various conceptual studies have proposed links between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. However, empirical research aimed at establishing the importance of role models for (nascent) entrepreneurs is scarce. Knowledge of the presence of entrepreneurial role models, their specific functions and characteristics is therefore limited. Our explorative empirical study is a first step towards filling this gap. Our study is based on the outcomes of a questionnaire completed by a representative sample of 292 entrepreneurs in three major Dutch cities - entrepreneurs who have recently started up a business in the retail, hotel and restaurant sectors, business services and other services. We provide indications of the presence and importance of entrepreneurial role models, the function of these role models, the similarity between the entrepreneur and the role model, and the strength of their relationship.
    Keywords: role models; entrepreneurs; human capital; new firm start-ups
    JEL: L26 M13 J24
    Date: 2011–04–01
  5. By: Muntean, Mihaela; Cabau, Liviu Gabriel
    Abstract: Subordinated to performance management, Business Intelligence approaches help firms to optimize business performance. Key performance indicators will be added to the multidimensional model grounding the performance perspectives. With respect to the Business Intelligence value chain, a theoretical approach was introduced and a practice example, based on Microsoft SQL Server specific services, for the customer perspective was implemented.
    Keywords: business intelligence; performance management; key performance indicators
    JEL: M00 L86
    Date: 2011–03–25
  6. By: Kenkel, Philip L.; Holcomb, Rodney B.
    Abstract: This study examines the strategic issues and decisions of Producers Cooperative Oil Mill, a regional oilseed processing cooperative located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The process of strategic planning and strategy implementation in agribusiness has been the topic of numerous research studies and case studies. While cooperative firms have been the subject of case studies focusing on strategic issues, the unique aspects of strategic decisions in a cooperative firm have not been highlighted. The formulation and implementation of strategy in cooperative organizations is impacted by their business structure. This case study provides unique examples of how strategy formulation and implementation is impacted by the unique structure and values of a cooperative firm. The article is formatted such that it can be used in educational programs as three inter-related mini-case studies. Questions for students are included.
    Keywords: cooperative, strategic planning, oilseed processing, Agribusiness, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2011–01–14
  7. By: Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.
    Abstract: This study examines the role that food consumer cooperatives play in the local food networks. Data are collected from three case studies with leading food cooperatives and a national survey of the general managers of food cooperatives. We identify the emerging business practices in local sourcing as a differentiation and member recruitment strategy for food cooperatives. Our analysis identifies several clusters of strategies used for local food procurement, based on the extent to which the co-op is involved in procurement activities upstream (at the farm), mid-stream (at the distribution center) or downstream (at the food cooperative). The results also show that when compared to other grocers, food co-ops have clear advantages in working with local producers and oftentimes play a key role in the producersâ business viability.
    Keywords: food consumer cooperatives, local foods, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing, Q13,
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Norbäck, Pehr-Johan (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Persson, Lars (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Tåg, Joacim (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Why do so many high-priced acquisitions of entrepreneurial firms take place in network industries? We develop a theory of commercialization (entry or sale) in network industries showing that high equilibrium acquisition prices are driven by the incumbents' desire to prevent rivals from acquiring innovative entrepreneurial firms. This preemptive motive becomes more important when there is an increase in network effects. A consequence is higher innovation incentives under an acquisition relative to entry. A policy enforcing strict compatibility leads to more entry, but can be counterproductive by reducing bidding competition, thereby also reducing acquisition prices and innovation incentives.
    Keywords: Acquisitions; Commercialization; Compatibility; Entry; Network effects; Innovation; R&D; Regulation
    JEL: L10 L15 L26 L50 L86 O31
    Date: 2011–04–06
  9. By: Elasrag, hussein
    Abstract: Statistics show that SMEs represent 90% of total companies in the vast majority of economies worldwide and provide 40-80% of total job opportunities in addition to contributing largely to GDPs of many countries. For example, SMEs constitute more than 99%1 of all non-agricultural private enterprises in Egypt and account for nearly three-quarters of new employment generation. for Kuwait, this sector constitutes approximately 90% of the private workforce, including labor and imported an estimated 45% of the labor force, employment and national rates of less than 1%, in Lebanon, more than 95% of the total enterprises, contribute about 90% of the jobs. In the UAE , small and medium enterprises accounted about 94.3% of the economic projects in the country, and employs about 62% of the workforce and contributes around 75% of the GDP of the state. In addition, they account for 96% of the GDP in Yemen in 2005, and about 77%, 59%, 25% in Algeria, Palestine and Saudi Arabia, respectively, during the same year.It is often argued that the Governments should promote SMEs because of their greater economic benefits compared to the large firms in terms of job creation, efficiency and growth.Following are the major driving force to strengthen SMEs in the Arab countries: (1) SMEs are the important vehicle in terms of employments and poverty alleviation. SME employs a large share of the labour force in many Arab countries. (2) SMEs make significant contributions to the national economy of the country; and Can be a tool to accelerate the growth of exports. (3) SMEs foster an entrepreneurial culture and make the economy more resilient to the global fluctuations. The aim of this research is to study enhancing the competitiveness of Arab small and medium enterprises.
    Keywords: competitiveness ;Arab small and medium enterprises
    JEL: D2 E19 E6
    Date: 2011–04–01
  10. By: Williams, Brian R.; Devuyst, Eric A.
    Abstract: Cow-calf producers face an annual decision on when to sell their calves. They can sell them at any point between weaning and slaughter, with the objective of finding the profit maximizing selling point. This paper investigates the use of price signals to determine profit maximizing selling points/retention strategies. Three retention strategies, one for fall calving and two for spring calving, are considered. Producers can sell their calves at weaning, after preconditioning, after grass pasture, after wheat pasture, or after the feedlot depending on the retention strategy. These price signals indicate the optimal selling point based on an observable price ratio at weaning. This paper also considers factors such as the level of preconditioning premiums and the length of the preconditioning period required to impact the profit maximizing selling point.
    Keywords: Beef, Producer Profitability, Price Signals, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Q13, Q10,
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Massimo, Riccaboni; Jakub, Growiec; Fabio, Pammolli
    Abstract: We provide a detailed analysis of a generalized proportional growth model (GPGM) of innovation and corporate dynamics that encompasses the Gibrat’s Law of Proportionate Effect and the Simon growth process as particular instances. The predictions of the model are derived in terms of (i) firm size distribution, (ii) the distribution of firm growth rates, and (iii-iv) the relationships between firm size and the mean and variance of firm growth rates. We test the model against data from the worldwide pharmaceutical industry and find its predictions to be in good agreement with empirical evidence on all four dimensions.
    Keywords: Business firm size; firm growth distribution; Gibrat’s Law; Pareto distribution; lognormal distribution; size-variance relationship.
    JEL: L25 L65 L11 C49
    Date: 2011–03–26
  12. By: Paul Chiambaretto (crg - Centre de recherche en Gestion - Ecole Polytechnique); André De Palma (ENS Cachan - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan - École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I); Stef Proost (Center for Economic Studies - CES - KU Leuven - CES - KU Leuven)
    Abstract: Almost all models of the (New) Economic Geography have focused on interregional transportation costs to understand industrial location, considering regions as dots without intraregional transportation costs. We introduce a distinction between interregional and intraregional transportation costs. This allows assessing more precisely the effects of different types of transport policies. Focusing on two regions (a core and a periphery), we show that improving the quality of the interregional infrastructure, or of the intraregional infrastructure in the core region, leads to an increased concentration of activity in the core region. However, if we reduce intraregional transportation costs in the periphery, some firms transfer from the core to the periphery. From an efficiency point of view, we observe that, in absence of regulation, the concentration of firms is too high in the center. We show what set of policies improves the equilibrium.
    Keywords: Economic geography ; Industrial location ; Transportation costs; Intraregional ; Interregional ; Concentration ; Transport Policies
    Date: 2011–04–05
  13. By: Sterlacchini, Alessandro; Venturini, Francesco
    Abstract: Using data for twelve manufacturing industries over the period 1980-2006, we perform for Italy and Spain a dynamic panel estimation of the long-run elasticity of TFP with respect to R&D capital. The results show that in Spain high-tech industries have experienced a similar or slightly higher R&D elasticity than their Italian counterparts. This is mainly attributable to what occurred from the mid 1990s onwards when, thanks to increasing R&D efforts, the Spanish industries have been able to catch up with the respect to the Italian ones. The policy implications of the above findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Manufacturing industries; Italy and Spain; Productivity growth; R&D capital
    JEL: O30 O40 L60
    Date: 2011–04–04
  14. By: Luis Francisco Ramírez Díaz
    Abstract: Este trabajo, hace un análisis a cerca de la definición de competitividad, invita a la refleción en torno a este tema y propicia una crítica que se basa en la facilidad con que se aborda, sin dimensionar adecuadamente sus alcances. Se trata de establecer una diferencia conceptual entre competitividad y competencia, viendo este último aspecto desde la perspectiva del mercadeo. El trabajo finalmente concluye con la cosideración de la empresa como parte de un sector, escenario que propicia las condiciones para la medición de la competitividad.
    Date: 2011–04–05
  15. By: Bos Jaap W.B.; Stam Erik (METEOR)
    Abstract: This paper examines to what extent gazelles are the drivers of the growth of industries and structural change. To this purpose we analyze gazelles over a 12 year period (annually from 1997 until 2008) in the Netherlands, and relate them to the dynamics in employment per industry. We use a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) model to explore the relations between the presence of gazelles and industry (employment) growth (with 43 two digit industries). An increase in the presence of gazelles in an industry appears to have a positive effect on the subsequent growth of the industry. We do not find evidence foran inverse causal relation: there are no long run positive effects of increases in industry growth on the presence of gazelles. There is also no relation between the over-representation of gazelles and subsequent industry growth.
    Keywords: industrial organization ;
    Date: 2011

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